irca 1986- simpson-mazzoli act employer sanctions $ for border patrol amnesty

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IRCA 1986- Simpson-Mazzoli ActEmployer sanctions$ for Border PatrolAmnesty Hardening the Border 3Old Days

Sign of the past: Groups of illegal entrants used to run across freeways in San Ysidro. Stricter enforcement changed that.4Operation Gatekeeper

5Operation Gatekeeper

No man's land: East of the San Ysidro Port of Entry, U.S. Border Patrol agents drive between primary and secondary border fences, both in the United States. The area between is used only for patrolling. Apprehensions fell from about 1,500 a day in 1995 to 300 a day in 2001 after this double fence, which runs for 14 miles between San Diego County and Tijuana, was built as part of Operation Gatekeeper in the mid-'90s.6


Source: David Dixon and Julia Gelatt, "Immigration and Enforcement Spending Since IRCA," Background paper prepared for the Independent Task Force on Immigration and America's Future, September 2005. 8



11What are the consequences of increased enforcement?12




16Douglas, Arizona, and Agua Prieta, Mexico

The 5-mile-long border fence dividing Douglas, Arizona, and Agua Prieta, Mexico, is made of sheet metal and steel bars. Floodlights and surveillance cameras line the U.S. side. Rather than stopping illegal entry, the militarized border resulted in the deaths of at least 370 people in 2003.172003-04 Apprehensions

18 Desert




Hauser Canyon, in California, about 15 miles north of the U.S.-Mexico BorderCaution! Do not expose your life to the elements. There is no potable water. It's not worth it!





Berlin Wall:239 deaths in crossing attempts, over 28 years

U.S.-Mexico Border:5,046 documented deaths



29Waiting for Coyotes

Waiting around: A stray dog noses for scraps at a staging camp for would-be illegal entrants south of Sasabe, Sonora. About a dozen people had been waiting half the day to be picked up and smuggled into the nation for about $1,500 each. They didn't know exactly where they were going, or when.30






Beyond The Border Buildup: Towards A New Approach To Mexico-US Migration by Douglas S. Massey for the Immigration Policy Center 36I-9 Employer Sanctions




Immigration Spreads Beyond Traditional Magnet States19.7 m35.1 mSource: William H. FreySource: William H.Frey

Fast Growing "New Immigrant" Destinations 1990-2005States with at least 5% Immigrants

Source: William H. FreyImmigrant Concentrations in States

15% or more10-14%5-9%Less than 5%

19902005Source: William H. FreyAt Least 5% HispanicStatesCounties199016538200528907Source: William H. Frey


46"Border Security Now"

The House voted 283-138 on Thursday to construct more than 700 miles of two-layered fencing along the porous Southwest border, but most Democrats denounced the plan as blatant political posturing in advance of the Nov. 7 congressional elections.

The largest section of fencing in the House bill would reach 361 miles from Calexico, Calif., to Douglas, Ariz. A 22-mile section would be built near a port entry in Tecate, Calif., in east San Diego County. Three sections would be in Texasa 51-mile stretch from Del Rio to Eagle Pass; 176 miles from Laredo to Brownsville and 88 miles stretching from El Paso westward to Columbus, N.M.

The bill also urges the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to study the feasibility of erecting similar barriers along the country's northern border with Canada.

It also requires the DHS to achieve operational control over both borders through a "virtual fence" that includes cameras, ground sensors, unmanned aerial vehicles and integrated surveillance technology. Five industry teams are competing for a multibillion-dollar contract to assemble the virtual fence, and the DHS expects to announce a winner by Sept. 30.

Republican leaders said the proposed barriers would have support in the Senate, which already has endorsed 370 miles of fencing and authorized $1.8 billion to fund it.47


49A Quick Review of the Theory or Science of Migration

Policy Implications?