Intro/history of Aquaculture Aquaculture The art and science of rearing aquatic organisms (finfish, shellfish, aquatic reptiles, amphibians, and plants)

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  • Intro/history of Aquaculture AquacultureThe art and science of rearing aquatic organisms (finfish, shellfish, aquatic reptiles, amphibians, and plants) under controlled conditions.

    History of Aquaculture First practiced by the Chinese 3,500 to 4,000 years ago Oysters were farmed in Japan about 3,000 years ago and by the Romans nearly 2,000 years ago

  • United States/North America1850s - first attempt at artificial propagation (Dr. Theodatus Garlick)- Brook trout Spring fed ponds (Cleveland, Ohio)

    1864 1866 - First public hatchery was built in New York Atlantic Salmon fry produced for enhancement efforts on the Merrimac River High profits - Intro/history of Aquaculture

  • 1870 - Formation of the American Fish Cultural Society

    Began to apply the scientific method to aquaculture production

    19th century

    Intro/history of Aquaculture

  • Commercial (foodfish) production

    Followed AFS development and used techniques and methods established through government and academic research

    Foodfish production worldwide

    Purpose of Aquaculture

  • Important culture species (3 phyla represented)

    Mollusca

    Arthropoda (crustaceans)

    Chordata

    Purpose of Aquaculture

  • Aquaculture Mollusca

    ScallopsAbalone

  • Aquaculture Important culture species

    Arthropoda (crustaceans)

    Lobster

  • Aquaculture Important culture species

    Chordata

    Channel catfishAtlantic salmon TilapiaCarp

  • Aquaculture Aquaculture (fish and shellfish)Global production has doubled in past 15 years > 220 species of finfish and shellfish are farmedUS (commercial finfish):Production estimates (1991): 543,770 tons valued at approximately $750,250,000

  • Aquaculture Catfish - Dominant species cultured in United States

    In late 1950s the methodology for catfish culture in the US was developedAt that time, it was demonstrated that a profit could be made if producers received $1.10/kg Today:

  • Aquaculture Rainbow trout

    Important species in the US, Northern Europe, Chile, etc. Freshwater

    Also raised in other regions for food and sport.Australia (Tasmania)New Zealand

  • Aquaculture Rainbow trout

    Idaho is one of the major trout producing region in US/world.Constant temperature (15oC) spring water year-round

    1980-3,400 tons/yr. 1990s > 10,000 tons/yr.

  • Aquaculture Atlantic Salmon

    Industry has rapidly expanded in last decadeHigh tech

    Net pen culture (primarily foodfish)

  • Aquaculture Other commercial species

    Ornamental species

    Florida raise > 100 species>$100 million/yr (1998)

    Value

  • Aquaculture Carp and Tilapia

    Important species in Middle East, China, Japan, etc.

    Grass Carp (in US)Aquatic vegetation control

    TilapiaOften used as protein supplement for third world regions

  • Commercial FisheriesGoal increase or sustain commercially important species (other than salmon)

    ConceptBeing re-considered Offspring increased survivalSpeciesFlounderCodHaddockRockfishPurpose of Aquaculture

  • Recreational FisheriesGoal Stocking for angling public

    Put and takeStock catchable size fish that are available immediately Chase hatchery trucksRecreation for the non purists Provides some states alternative experienceSeasons that provide proper environmental conditionsSpring trout in some states (trout stamp)Purpose of Aquaculture

  • Recreational Fisheries

    Put-Grow-and takeStock at small size (fingerlings) allow to grow to large size Close harvest of small fish (size restrictions)Ex:Stock fingerling Northern pike in MidwestCoho Salmon and SH in Great Lakes (1980s) Both approaches provide angling opportunities in waters that may not support sustainable populationsPurpose of Aquaculture

  • Augmentation

    Used in waters that can support sustainable populations but where fishing pressure results in unbalanced populationsEx:Largemouth bass Fishing lowers bass pop. even though forage base is goodPurpose of Aquaculture

  • Mitigation/supplementation

    Human activities destruction or alteration of fish habitat Ex: Loss of upstream access by anadromous fishesDecreased access to spawning habitatChange from riverine to reservoir habitatIncreased turbidity (Ag and industry runoff)Purpose of Aquaculture

  • Mitigation/supplementation

    1938 Congress passed legislation that mandated for losses of renewable aquatic resources due to reduction of upstream access for migratory salmonidsResults

    In-kind mitigation Impacted species re-stocked

    May also occur if human activities take water body out of production filling lake for constructionPurpose of Aquaculture

  • Pacific Salmon (Coho, Chinook, Chum, Pink, Sockeye)

    Primarily reared and released for mitigation purposes

    Pacific Northwest, Canada (BC), AlaskaGreat Lakes (1967) recreational fisheries

    Purpose of Aquaculture

  • Species Recovery (ESA)

    HabitatHydroHatcheriesOne action taken to enhance recoveryGenetic diversity important Ex:Sockeye Salmon 1990s to present (Redfish Lake)Lonely LarryCryopreserved semen for next seasonOffspring survival importantPurpose of Aquaculture

  • Population assessment

    Cultured fish can be marked and used to assess populations in wild Recapture of tagged/untagged fish used to estimate populationsExamples of marking methods: External tagsFin clips Branding

    Purpose of Aquaculture

  • Research

    Many Scientists are increasingly using fish as laboratory animals Fish may be good modelsFast regeneration timesEx:Japanese medakaZebrafishKIllifish,GoldfishPurpose of Aquaculture

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