Introduction to user-centered design

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Beyond Usability: User-Centered Design Strategies - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Christina Wodtke :: christina@carboniq.com Carbon IQ User Experience Group http://www.carboniq.com tel: 415 824 7090. Introduction to user-centered design. What is it?. Its more than usability testing. NO!. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>Beyond Usability:User-Centered Design Strategies</p><p>- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</p><p>Christina Wodtke :: christina@carboniq.comCarbon IQ User Experience Group http://www.carboniq.comtel: 415 824 7090</p></li><li><p>Introduction to user-centered designWhat is it?</p><p>NO!Its more than usability testing</p></li><li><p>Introduction to user-centered designWhat is it?</p><p>Method to get user reactions and feedback Performed throughout the entire product development cycle Used to ensure a usable productIterative </p></li><li><p>Introduction to user-centered design</p></li><li><p>Introduction: How does it work?Learn who the customer is.Create a rough prototype to test with the people who will use it.Revise based on what you learned.Build a prototype that is close to the finished thing.Test again.Make fixes based on what you learned.Ship the product. Include a feedback device so you can make the next version even better.</p></li><li><p>Introduction: Who does it? </p><p>User Research CompanyInternal User Research Specialist</p></li><li><p>Introduction: Who does it? </p><p>User Research CompanyInternal User Research SpecialistOutside Consultant</p></li><li><p>Introduction: Who does it? </p><p>User Research CompanyInternal User Research SpecialistOutside ConsultantYou</p></li><li><p>Introduction: Why do it?</p><p>Know if the product meets user needs before you build itEnable you to develop easy-to-use productsSatisfy customersDecrease expenditures on technical support and trainingAdvertise ease-of-use successesImprove brand perceptionUltimately increase market share</p></li><li><p>Introduction: Fighting for it.You will have to fight. Prepare your arguments in advance.</p><p>EXCUSEARGUMENTWe have great designers.Designers are not users.We dont have the budget.Use discount methods.We dont have time.Use discount methods.Its never been done before; so theres nothing to test.Test prototypes.Users dont know what they want.Observe, dont ask.Everybody is our market.; thats too many people to testUser-centered techniques help define target market.Weve done market research.Market research is not the same.</p></li><li><p>Who are the users of the system?</p><p>Start by collecting pre-existing information </p><p>Hunt down previous data (marketing demographics, surveys, past usability tests)Hold stakeholder interviewsConduct customer service interviews</p><p>Next: techniques for user-centered design</p></li><li><p>Personas</p></li><li><p>Persona development/user profilingPersonas are:</p><p>Archetypal usersConglomerates based on user dataBuilt collaboratively by teamNot the same as talking to actual usersUseful for keeping users front-of-mindHolds down nifty factor in favor of user requirements</p></li><li><p>Persona development/user profilingHow to create: Summarize findings, distribute to stakeholders.Hold a work session with stakeholders &amp; development team to brainstorm personas.Prioritize and cull lesser personas to develop primary and supporting personas. </p></li><li><p>Example personas</p></li><li><p>Talk to the end user: QuestionnairesWhat is it?</p><p>Method of getting information about usersQuantitative, rather than qualitativeGood for gathering large amounts of factsLess reliable when dealing with opinions</p><p>People lie, and with very little reason</p></li><li><p>Talk to the end user: QuestionnairesTwo types: FactualGender: male or femaleAge:__OpinionFrom a scale from 1 to 5 where 1 is easy and 5 is difficult, how hard was it to use this system?Would you buy this product?</p></li><li><p>Finding the end userRecruiting Develop a portrait of the user (a la the persona)Develop a screener based on thisRecruit typical end usersProfessional recruiterDo it yourselfOffer a consideration: cash or a giftWatch for ringersProfessional testersInarticulate users</p></li><li><p>Not the end userEmployeesDesignersProgrammersMarket researchersYou</p></li><li><p>Talk to the end user: Contextual Inquiry</p><p>Onsite observation.</p></li><li><p>Talk to the end user: Contextual InquiryWhat is it?</p><p>Observe users in the environment they use your productWatch them use the productUnderstand their behavior by encouraging them to think out loudRemember to compare what they say and what they do.</p></li><li><p>Talk to the end user: Contextual InquiryTechnique: Thinking-out-loud</p><p>Also used in usability testing, participatory designUsers encouraged to voice their thoughts as they use the productTry an exercise to illustrate</p></li><li><p>Talk to the end user: Contextual InquiryRunning a contextual inquiry</p><p>Recruit a number of typical end-usersVisit the location where they would use your productAsk them to show you how currently do their tasksAsk them to accomplish those tasks with your productAnalyze your results</p></li><li><p>Analyzing what youve learned.Mental Models - diagram of the end users perception of product</p><p>Study the userMap the mental modelDevelop a conceptual model</p></li><li><p>A simple mental model</p></li><li><p>A conceptual model</p></li><li><p>Map the mental modelPencil and paperWrite down how the user thinksSketch it dont worry about being prettyAdjust by adding business restraintsDesign conceptual modelShare with development team</p></li><li><p>Analyzing what youve learnedPersona Scenarios the power of story telling</p><p>Get your personas outTell ideal user experience for one personaAdjust for business constraintsBuild for this scenario</p></li><li><p>Example Persona Scenario</p></li><li><p>Analyzing what youve learned.Task analysis</p><p>Step by step analysis of user behaviorHelps define interface/interaction needsFlushes out potential opportunities for errors</p></li><li><p>Analyzing what youve learnedTask analysis</p><p>Start with scenarioBreak it up into discreet tasksSubdivide into smaller steps</p></li><li><p>Task analysisPurchasing a purse at nordstroms.com might include the tasks: </p><p>1. locate purse 2. add purse to shopping cart3. check out </p><p>CHECK OUT BECOMESa. Select checkoutb. Sign in/sign upc. Input shipping addressd. Input billing addresse. Input paymentf. Review orderg. Finalize checkout</p></li><li><p>Task analysisAnd so on</p><p>CHECK OUT BECOMESINPUT BILLING ADDRESS BECOMESa. Select checkoutd. Input billing address (prepopulate all fields from c.)b. Sign in/sign upi. Input first name c. Input shipping addressii. Input family named. Input billing addressiii. Input street addresse. Input paymentiv. Input street addressf. Review orderv. Input state (dropdown of standard abbreviations)g. Finalize checkoutvi. Input country</p></li><li><p>Example Task analysis</p></li><li><p>Designing for the end user - and with them!Prototyping</p><p>Simple low-fi mockupOften paper or simple htmlEarly or not designedQuick, easy to revise</p></li><li><p>Designing with the userHow to: Designing and Preparing a paper prototype test Required: paper, pens, tape, scissors and 3 people Use paper and hand draw prototypeOne person acts as the computer, one as moderator, one takes notesAsk users to accomplish tasksMake small changes as needed</p><p>Paper prototyping kit available at http://www.infodesign.com.au/usability</p></li><li><p>Rapid prototypingPaper or htmlVery early stage design, or half complete designAllow time between tests to make changesNote where design gets better or worseYou should be making fewer changes as the test continuesThe report is partly the final prototype</p></li><li><p>Participatory Card SortWay to understand users mental models and languageUseful on sites with large amount of content</p></li><li><p>How to: Running a successful card sort50-75 pieces of content (not categories!)Provide as much information as possible while not overwhelmingLay all content out on a large table, shuffled thoroughlyProvide blanks for category labelsEncourage thinking-out-loudBe helpful, but do not suggest or advise. Play psychiatrist.Collate results and look for patterns.</p></li><li><p>Usability testingat last </p></li><li><p>ConclusionUser-centered design worksIt makes good business senseIts affordableIts satisfying</p></li><li><p>More readingContextual DesignDont Make Me ThinkDesigning Web UsabilityInmates are Running the AsylumSoftware For Use</p><p>All can be found at http://www.eleganthack.com/reading/(and more!)</p></li><li><p>More readingUsable Web http://www.usableweb.comUsability Toolbox http://www.best.com/~jthom/usability/Ask Tog http://www.asktog.com/Useit.com Jakob! http://www.useit.com</p></li><li><p>User-centered design is a way to get user feedback during all stages of the product development cycle, to ensure a usable product. Definitions:Design This encompasses more than just graphic design-Im speaking of the decisions on what is in the feature set, how the structure of the site is designed (a.k.a. Information architecture), and the design of the interface itself as well as the final execution of the identity through graphic design.User feedback Im not talking about asking the users to actually design for you. Im talking about careful observation of the user and how they interact with the product to discover how well they use the product (efficiency) and how they perceive the experience of using it (satisfaction)Product Anything a company makes that someone will have to use. Websites are probably the ones you folks are most interested in, but user centered design benefits software as well. Or can be applied even to physical products, such as appliances or electronic toys such as PDAs or cell phones.Development cycle The project of creating or redesign your product, from inception to launch/shipment.</p><p>User-centered design is a way to get user feedback during all stages of the product development cycle, to ensure a usable product. Definitions:Design This encompasses more than just graphic design-Im speaking of the decisions on what is in the feature set, how the structure of the site is designed (a.k.a. Information architecture), and the design of the interface itself as well as the final execution of the identity through graphic design.User feedback Im not talking about asking the users to actually design for you. Im talking about careful observation of the user and how they interact with the product to discover how well they use the product (efficiency) and how they perceive the experience of using it (satisfaction)Product Anything a company makes that someone will have to use. Websites are probably the ones you folks are most interested in, but user centered design benefits software as well. Or can be applied even to physical products, such as appliances or electronic toys such as PDAs or cell phones.Development cycle The project of creating or redesign your product, from inception to launch/shipment.</p><p>User-centered design is a way to get user feedback during all stages of the product development cycle, to ensure a usable product. Definitions:Design This encompasses more than just graphic design-Im speaking of the decisions on what is in the feature set, how the structure of the site is designed (a.k.a. Information architecture), and the design of the interface itself as well as the final execution of the identity through graphic design.User feedback Im not talking about asking the users to actually design for you. Im talking about careful observation of the user and how they interact with the product to discover how well they use the product (efficiency) and how they perceive the experience of using it (satisfaction)Product Anything a company makes that someone will have to use. Websites are probably the ones you folks are most interested in, but user centered design benefits software as well. Or can be applied even to physical products, such as appliances or electronic toys such as PDAs or cell phones.Development cycle The project of creating or redesign your product, from inception to launch/shipment.</p><p>The simple answer is the potential end-users of the product are observed using the product at regular intervals throughout the development cycle. </p><p>Your goal will be to find a good way to get initial information and the users behavior before you begin to design, to test your initial design concepts, and then to test again as the design begins to be finalized. How often this is done and when depends on the project: its schedule, requirements and budget. </p><p>In this talk I will be giving you tools to assist you in determining when and conducting the user research you need.</p><p>A potential methodology:</p><p>1. Study the problem. Watch potential end-users using the competitors solution.</p><p>2. Sketch out a couple of different solutions.</p><p>3. Test a rough prototype of your solutions with the people who will use the product to see if you have a good solution.</p><p>4. Revise the solution based on what you learned.</p><p>5. Build a prototype that is close to the finished thing.</p><p>6. Test with the people who will use it.</p><p>7. Make fixes based on what you learned.</p><p>8. Ship the product. Include a feedback device so you can make the next version even better.</p><p>In a perfect world, a company hires a professional user researcher to conduct the work. </p><p>In many companies an outside consultant is brought in, usually at the end of a project to do usability testing, and sometimes at the beginning to do research. </p><p>In most companies it belongs to whoever actually cares about begin user-centered. They may do guerrilla usability, or test with their uncle Bob. </p><p>You may be the one to do it.</p><p>In a perfect world, a company hires a professional user researcher to conduct the work. </p><p>In many companies an outside consultant is brought in, usually at the end of a project to do usability testing, and sometimes at the beginning to do research. </p><p>In most companies it belongs to whoever actually cares about begin user-centered. They may do guerrilla usability, or test with their uncle Bob. </p><p>You may be the one to do it.</p><p>In a perfect world, a company hires a professional user researcher to conduct the work. </p><p>In many companies an outside consultant is brought in, usually at the end of a project to do usability testing, and sometimes at the beginning to do research. </p><p>In most companies it belongs to whoever actually cares about begin user-centered. They may do guerrilla usability, or test with their uncle Bob. </p><p>You may be the one to do it.</p><p>Why do it?</p><p>Without user-centered design practices, a company discovers if the market likes their product only when the product is shipped. </p><p>This is an expensive way to find out if the market likes your product. If it is a physical product-- such as a software program or a cellphone-- you spend a lot of money on packaging and production to ship something lousy. </p><p>People often think websites are an exception because they are so easy to change. However as my mama used to say you only get one chance to make a first impression. This is true of websites where switching cost is close to zero. Designing a website poorly can have grave consequences on your customers satisfaction and consequently your brand perception.</p><p>You dont want people to remember your site as the one that was a nightmare to use, or was completely worthless.</p><p>You want to be the Saturn of cars, the Amazon.com of websites, the Jamba Juice of fast food: easy, pleasant, simple and satisfying.</p><p>Not everyone will want to do user-centered design. Many will fight against it. Some of the arguments include: its too expensive, it will take too long, its never been done before so we cant test anything, and weve already done market research. </p><p>These can all be answered. User-centered design was developed to help those designing a product understand the users. It is a flexible enough methodology that it can be used on any project.</p><p>I recommend Sim DHertefelts article 13 common objections against user requirements analysis, and why you should not believe them to help you fight this...</p></li></ul>

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