introduction of fired heaters

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Introduction of Process Fired Heater2010.02.23 Jun-Young Hwang / Plant Team II

What is the Process Fired Heater?1. Classification between Fired Pressure Vessel and Unfired Pressure VesselThe static equipments for Oil, Gas & Petrochemical Plant is made up of Heater(Furnace), Boiler, Column, Reactor, Heat Exchanger and Pressure vessel. The fired pressure vessel contact the burning fuel directly and made up of Heater(Furnace) and Boiler. The other pressure vessel does not contact the burning feul directly were called unfired pressure vessel such as Column, Reactor Heat Exchanger and Pressure vessel. The following figure is showing the classification of plant equipments. Fired Pressure Vessels Static EquipmentHeater, Boiler & Oven

Unfired Pressure VesselsColumn, Reactor & P/V

Oil, Gas & Petrochemical Plant Equipment

TurbineSteam & Gas

Rotating Equipment

CompressorsAir, Gas & Refrigerant

Pumps Water & Oil1

What is the Process Fired Heater?2. Process Fired Heater is..Process Fired Heater is one of the fired pressure vessels supplying heat to the plant. The difference between boiler and fired heater is that the heating object is water or not. If the heating object is water, we call it is boiler and the others are fired heater. The purpose of the heater is to raise the energy level and then change the phase of substances.

2.1 License Process Fired HeaterIn order to build the process of Ammonia & Urea Plant, LDPE/HDPE Plant and Ethylene Plant, the enginering companies such as Haldor Topse, Davy Process Technology, Jacobs Process & Technology have their own license design the fired heater package based on the condition for required performance. The heater manufacturing company such as JNK Heaters Co., Ltd, Heurtey Petrochem and Born Canada make detail engineering, procurement, fabrication, and installation at job site. We call this heater package as License process Fired Heater Package. Steam Hydrocarbon Reformer Cracking Furnace(Pyrolysis Heaters)

2.2 General Process Fired HeaterThe refinery plant require fired heaters without license process. We call this as general fired heater. This genral fired heaters are engineered and manufactured by several companies such as Linde(Germany), JNK Heaters, Born Canda, Heurtey petrochem and ABB Heat Transfer. Crude Charge Heater for CDU* Vacuum Charge Heater for VDU* Steam Super Heater Hot Oil Heater2

Classification of Process Fired Heater and Major PlayersPetro-Chemical Plant License Process Fired Heater Process Fired Heater Refinery Plant General Process Fired Heater Vacuum Charge Heater for VDU Steam Super Heater Hot Oil Heater Steam Hydrocarbon Reformer Cracking Furnace (Pyrolysis Heaters) Crude Charge Heater for CDU


Haldor Topsoe(Denmark) ABB Heat Transfer(USA) Technip KTI(Italy) Linde(Germany) Jacobs(UK) KBR(UK) Davy Process Technology

Technip KTI(Italy) Linde(Germany) ABB Heat Transfer(USA) Born Canada(Canada) JNK Heaters(Korea) MHI(Japan) Heurtey & Petrochem(USA)

KIC(Korea) Sungchang(Korea) EG Humantec(Korea)


Process Fired Heater Components

Radiant Unit

Convection Unit




Refractory Lining

Radiant Coil

Details of General Process Fired Heater 1. Crude Charge HeaterThe typical refinery contains one or more Crude Heaters which serve as "fractionator feed heaters" or Charge Heaters for the Crude (or Atmospheric) Distillation Column. The desalted crude oil is first preheated in a series of heat exchangers, utilizing waste heat from other parts of the refinery. It then flows to the direct-fired Crude Heater. The oil is heated in the furnace up to temperatures of about 700 F and fairly high percentage vaporization (from lows of 30% to 35% to as high as 80% in some cases). Despite these challenging operating conditions, Crude Heaters have been successfully designed with both vertical and horizontal tubes.

2. Vacuum Charge HeaterDownstream of many Crude or Atmospheric Distillation Units is a Vacuum Distillation Unit, which gets more light hydrocarbons out of every barrel of oil by operating at a pressure slightly below atmospheric. A Vacuum Heater serves as "fractionator feed heater" or Charge Heater for the Vacuum Distillation Column. Bottoms from the Crude Tower are processed in the Vacuum Heater Although it typically operates at lower pressures and, most often, lower percent vaporization than the Crude Heater, the Vacuum Heater must heat the fluid to higher temperatures (up to about 800 F). Also, because of the low pressure, even the lower percent vaporization creates a very high fluid volume and thus it is common for large-bore tubes to be used near the furnace outlet. For these reasons, Vacuum Heater designs usually require horizontal tubes.


Details of General Process Fired Heater 3. Hot Oil HeaterHot oil is used, like steam, as a circulating heat transfer medium that can then be utilized in a variety of small, locally-placed heat exchangers. Like column reboilers, the typical Hot Oil Heater (sometimes called a Heat Medium Heater) represents a very mild service. Most modern heat transfer fluids such as Dowtherm, Therminol, etc. have been specifically designed to allow use of carbon steel tubes in the Hot Oil Heater. Further, these fluids can tolerate fairly high heat fluxes without breaking down chemically. For these reasons, the typical Hot Oil Heater is a Vertical Cylindrical design.

4. Steam Super HeaterSteam superheaters are used for the generation of high temperature steam requred as a heat source for the reactions occurring in stylene monomer production processes.


Details of License Process Fired Heater Package 1. Steam Hydrocarbon ReformerThese are typically large furnaces, designed either to produce large volumes of hydrogen for use in other refinery processes such as hydrotreating or hydrocracking, or to supply syngas (a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and residual methane and steam) for downstream conversion to products such as ammonia or methanol. The feedstock, typically natural gas but sometimes light liquids such as naphtha, is preheated and then combined with steam. It then flows through furnace tubes packed with catalyst, over which the following desired chemical reaction takes place. Steam-Hydrocarbon or Steam-Methane Reformers are extremely complex from both process and mechanical points of view. Process outlet temperatures can be as high as 1650 F. Regardless of the manufacturer, the furnace tubes are invariably vertically disposed and almost without exception double-fired (i.e. heated from both sides). Many different burner configurations are available, each with a claim to some unique advantages. The most common are top-fired (burners mounted on the roof or "arch" of the radiant section), sidewall-fired (with special burners yielding very compact flames), and terrace-wall fired (with two or more levels of burners firing vertically upwards on either side of a row of tubes).


Details of License Process Fired Heater Package

2. Cracking Furnace(Pyrolysis Heaters)Cracking furnaces are utilized to produce olefins such as ethylene and propylene from light hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane, and naphtha. The olefins are then processed downstream to create other products, including many plastics and synthetic fibers. Even more complex than SteamHydrocarbon Reformers, typical Cracking Furnaces operate with extremely high outlet temperatures. The tubes are not filled with catalyst; the desired reactions are initiated merely by the high temperatures involved. At the same time, undesirable side reactions can occur, so the "residence time" of the fluid within the heater must be minimized. This results in a staggering variety of unique, proprietary designs utilizing the most advance metallurgy and complex coil configurations.


General Process Fired Heater Package Contract MapGeneral Process Fired Heater Package Contract Map General Process Fired Heater Package Contract Map





Process Fired Heater Unit Turnkey Order


Technip KTI(Italy), ABB Heat Transfer(USA), Born Canada(Canada), JNK Heaters(Korea), Linde(Germany)

Heater Component, equipments and Installation Order


Manufacturing and Installation Companies


License Process Fired Heater Package Contract MapLicense Process Fired Heater Package Contract Map License Process Fired Heater Package Contract Map




Haldor Topsoe(Denmark), Technip KTI(Italy), Linde(Germany), Jacobs(UK) and etc.Detail Engg , Package

Process Fired Heater Unit Order


Technip KTI(Italy), ABB Heat Transfer(USA), Born Canada(Canada), JNK Heaters(Korea), Linde(Germay) Heater Component, equipments and Installation Order

Technip KTI(Italy), Linde(Germany), ABB Heat Transer(USA), JNK Heaters (Korea)

Heater Component, equipments and Installation Order


Manufacturing and Installation Companies


APPENDIX 1. The Flow diagram of typical refinery

Fired Heater


APPENDIX 2. Common process units found in a refineryDesalter unit washes out salt from the crude oil before it enters the atmospheric distillation unit. Atmospheric distillation unit distills crude oil into fractions. See Continuous distillation. Vacuum distillation unit further d


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