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  • INTRODUCING

    ARCHITECTURAL

    THEORY

    DEBATING A DISCIPLINE

    EDITED BY KORYDON SMITH

  • Table of Contents

    Preface: To Educators: The Impetus for this Book xi

    Acknowledgments xvList of Sources xvii

    PART 1: DEBATE IN ARCHITECTURE 1

    INTRODUCTION: TO STUDENTS: WHY ARCHITECTURAL THEORY

    IS VITAL 3

    Theory in Architectural Education 3

    Defining Architectural Theory 4The Structure of This Book 6

    The Future of Architectural Theory 7

    DEBATING A DISCIPLINE: ARCHITECTURE, ARGUMENT, AND

    THE CONCEPT OF THE DIALECTIC 8

    The Aspirations of Architects 8

    The Concept of the Dialectic 9

    Dialectics: A Few Examples 9

    Dialectics in Architecture 10

    The Chapters Ahead 11

  • PART 2: DIALECTICAL READINGS IN ARCHITECTURE 13

    TECTONICS 13

    CHAPTER 1: SIMPLICITY AND COMPLEXITY 15

    Introductory Discussion 16

    Introduction 17

    Original Text: Marcel Breuer, "Where Do We Stand?" First Published in 1935 19

    Reflective Text Robert Venturi, Excerpts from Complexity and Contradiction

    in Architecture. First Published in 1966 27

    Philosophical Text: Vittorio Gregotti, "On Simplicity." First Published in 1996 32

    Writing and Discussion Questions 35

    Other Readings on Simplicity and Complexity 37

    CHAPTER 2: ORNAMENT AND AUSTERITY 38

    Introductory Discussion 39

    Introduction 40

    Original Text: Adolf Loos, "Ornament and Crime." First Published In 1908 42

    Reflective Text: Reyner Banham, "Ornament and Crime: The Decisive Contribution

    ofAdolf Loos." First Published in 1957 48

    Philosophical Text: Joseph Rykwert, "Ornament Is No Crime." First Published

    in 1975 54

    Writing and Discussion Questions 65

    Other Readings on Ornament and Austerity 67

    CHAPTER 3: HONESTY AND DECEPTION 69

    Introductory Discussion 70Introduction 71

    Original Text: John Ruskin, "The Lamp of Truth." First Published in 1849 74Reflective Text: Eugene-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, Excerpts from Discourses on

    Architecture. First Published in 1863 84

    Philosophical Text: Fil Hearn, "Truth to the Medium: Using Materials." First

    Published in 1996 95

    Writing and Discussion Questions 102Other Readings on Honesty and Deception 104

    CHAPTER k. MATERIAL AND IMMATERIAL 105

    Introductory Discussion 106Introduction 107

  • Original Text: Leon Battista Albert!, Excerpts from The Art of Building in Ten

    Books. First Published in 1486 109

    Reflective Text: Juhani Pallasmaa, Excerpts from The Eyes of the Skin. First

    Published in 1996 125

    Philosophical Text: Jonathan Hill, Excerpts from Immaterial Architecture.

    First Published in 2006 132

    Writing and Discussion Questions 138

    Other Readings on Material and Immaterial 1 AO

    USE 141

    CHAPTER 5: FUNCTION AND FORM 1 43

    Introductory Discussion 144

    Introduction 145

    Original Text: Louis Sullivan, "The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered."

    First Published in 1896 147

    Reflective Text: Bernard Tschumi, Excerpts from Architecture and Disjunction.First Published in 1983 154

    Philosophical Text: Adrian Forty, "Function." First Published in 2000 164

    Writing and Discussion Questions 177

    Other Readings on Function and Form 179

    CHAPTER 6: FUNCTION AND FORM (PART 2) 180

    Introductory Discussion 181

    Introduction 182

    Original Text: Frank L. Wright, Excerpts from An American Architecture.

    First Published in 1955 184

    Reflective Text: Peter Eisenman, "Post-Functionalism." First Published in 1976 189

    Philosophical Text: Richard Hill, "Purpose, Function, Use." First Published In 1999 194

    Writing and Discussion Questions 208

    Other Readings on Function and Form 210

    CHAPTER 7: BODY AND BUILDING 211

    Introductory Discussion 212

    Introduction 213

    Original Text: Marcus Vitruvius, Excerpts from The Ten Books on Architecture.

    First Published ca. 25 B.C.E. 215

    Reflective Text: Le Corbusler, Excerpts from Le Modulor. First Published in 1948 219

  • Philosophical Text: Lance Hosey, "Hidden Lines: Gender, Race, and the Body."

    First Published in 2001 224

    Writing and Discussion Questions 237

    Other Readings on Body and Building 239

    CHAPTER 8: PROPORTION AND ORGANIZATION 240

    Introductory Discussion 241

    Introduction 242

    Original Text: Andrea Palladio, Excerpts from The Four Books on Architecture.

    First Published in 1570 244

    Reflective Text: Le Corbusier, "The Plan of the Modern House." First Published

    in 1930 249

    Philosophical Text: Colin Rowe, "The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa." First

    Published in 1947 256

    Writing and Discussion Questions 268

    Other Readings on Proportion and Organization 270

    SITE 271

    CHAPTER 9: CONTEXT AND BUILDING 273

    Introductory Discussion 274Introduction 275

    Original Text: Le Corbusier, Excerpts from The Radiant City. First Published in1935 278

    Reflective Text: lane Jacobs, Excerpts from The Death and Life ofGreatAmerican Cities. First Published in 1961 287

    Philosophical Text: Tom Schumacher, "Contextualism: Urban Ideals and

    Deformations." First Published in 1971 298

    Writing and Discussion Questions 306

    Other Readings on Context and Building 308

    CHAPTER 10: CONTEXT AND BUILDING (PART 2) 309

    Introductory Discussion 310Introduction 311

    Original Text: Marcus Vitruvius, Excerpts from The Ten Books on Architecture.

    First Published ca. 25 B.C.E. 313

    Reflective Text: Robert Venturi, Denise Scott Brown, and Steven Izenour,

    Excerpts from Learning from Las Vegas. First Published in 1972 319

  • Philosophical Text: Adrian Forty, "Context." First Published In 2000 323

    Writing and Discussion Questions 328

    Other Readings on Context and Building 330

    CHAPTER 11: NATURAL AND CONSTRUCTED 331

    Introductory Discussion 332

    Introduction 333

    Original Text: Marc-Antolne Laugier, Excerpts from An Essay on Architecture.

    First Published 1753 335

    Reflective Text: Vittorio Gregotti, "Territory and Architecture." First Published in

    1985 341

    Philosophical Text: Carol Burns, "On Site: Architectural Preoccupations." First

    Published in 1991 345

    Writing and Discussion Questions 357

    Other Readings on Natural and Constructed 359

    CHAPTER 12: NATURAL AND CONSTRUCTED (PART 2) 360

    Introductory Discussion 361

    Introduction 362

    Original Text: Christian Norburg-Shulz, Excerpts from Genius Loci: Towards a

    Phenomenology ofArchitecture. First Published 1979 364

    Reflective Text: E. Relph, Excerpts from Place and Placelessness. First Publishedin 1976 373

    Philosophical Text: Kathryn Moore, "Genius Loci: Hidden Truth or Hidden Agenda?"First Published in 2003 387

    Writing and Discussion Questions 393

    Other Readings on Natural and Constructed 397

    APPENDICES (FOR STUDENTS)

    APPENDIX 1: GUIDE TO READING COMPREHENSION 398

    Right Time 398

    Right Place 399

    Right Way 399

    Tips for Reading this Book 400

    Useful Resources 400

  • APPENDIX 2: GUIDE TO DESCRIPTIVE, ANALYTICAL, AND

    DISPUTATIONAL WRITING 401

    Descriptive Writing 401

    Criticism and Analytical Writing 402

    Persuasion and Disputation 403

    Conclusion 404

    Useful Resources 404

    APPENDIX 3: GUIDE TO CITATION STYLES 405

    Why Citations are Necessary 405

    Citation Styles: The Main Three 406

    Dealing with the Tedium, Efficiently 408

    Useful Resources 408

    APPENDIX 4: GUIDE TO LIBRARY-BASED RESEARCH 409

    A Cyclic Process 409

    Finding Sources 409

    Index