intro to buddhism topic: mahâyâna buddhism “great vehicle”

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  • Slide 1
  • Intro to Buddhism TOPIC: Mahyna Buddhism Great Vehicle
  • Slide 2
  • BuddhaDharmaSangha Sangha: Monasticism still supported, yet the bodhisattva ideal supports laity more Buddha: More metaphysical and cosmological conceptualization
  • Slide 3
  • Mahayana Buddha Conception CONTINUITIES WITH ALL SCHOOLS * Existence of Other Buddhas Dipankara and Maitreya * Bodhisattvas (jtakas) * Buddha teaching to his Audiences * Compassionate Decision to Teach
  • Slide 4
  • Future Shakyamuni makes vow before previous Buddha, Dipankara
  • Slide 5
  • Compassionate Decision to Teach the Dharma
  • Slide 6
  • Metaphysical Buddhology Buddha-verse
  • Slide 7
  • THREE BODIES OF THE BUDDHAVERSE: Dharma-kaya Sambhoga-kaya Nirmana-kaya
  • Slide 8
  • MAHAYANA COSMOS EXPRESSED IN STUPAS Gyantse, Tibet
  • Slide 9
  • Lotus Sutra Past Buddhas teach universal doctrine welling up from the earth of stupas
  • Slide 10
  • Textual drama of stupas emerging from the earth and a Buddha Prabhutaratna sitting next to Shakyamuni, fulfilling a vow of certifying the proper teaching of the Lotus Sutra.
  • Slide 11
  • Did the Buddha Lie? Burning House Parable Buddha as Rain Cloud that nourishes individuals at all levels using his skillful means (upaya)
  • Slide 12
  • Buddha as physician: Dies at spiritual charade to encourage beings to take their mortality seriously
  • Slide 13
  • Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Slide 14
  • Borobodur
  • Slide 15
  • Mahyna Scholastic Dharma: Many Developments, vast textual scholarship Elite Mahyna Philosophies: 1. Doctrine of Madhyamaka School Shunyat and Two/3-Truths 2. Yogcra School 3. Buddha Nature Theory School Mahyna Practice: Visualization Meditation
  • Slide 16
  • Opposed to the Nikaya Schools Scholastic Abhidharma analysis of reality in terms of dharma vs. Praj-paramita Shunyat and Two/3-Truths 1. Doctrines of Madhyamaka School
  • Slide 17
  • TEXTS: 1. Praj-paramita Sutra 2.Praj-paramita Heart Sutra 3.Vajrachedika Praj-paramita Sutra 4.1008 Verse Praj-paramita Sutra
  • Slide 18
  • Slide 19
  • Madhyamaka NEW MIDDLE WAY: nihilists vs. Real (of Abhidharmists) WORDS ARE SAMSARIC THE BEST WE CAN SAY, if we must speak (and we must) is that REALITY has Tathata [SUCHNESS] Silence of the Buddha as key teaching YES: Conventional Truth vs. Ultimate Truth NAGARJUNA is a brave De-Construtivist who reduced all asserted truths to ultimate falsitydepending on the web of assumptions and conventions UP vs. DOWN INSIDE vs. OUTSIDE .even vs. Buddhist formulations SUCH AS NIRVANA vs SAMSARA All Utterance is falsity; based on conceptual assumptions
  • Slide 20
  • Prajna sees Shuny quality of all reality Reality Beyond Categories Purpose of Philosophy: Demonstrate the need for complete NON-ATTACHMENT, even to our thoughts (legitimating meditation as only possible means of seeking truth beyond conceptualization) All Utterance is falsity; based on conceptual assumptions NO-THING-NESS (SHUNY) EMPTINESS : Seeing Reality clearly cannot be thing-based
  • Slide 21
  • TWO OR 3 Levels of Truth: Conventional Discourse (for self and world) Ultimate Discourse (skillful, undoing attachment) E.g HEART SUTRA [Silence] AKA
  • Slide 22
  • Nagarjuna: As students read the alphabet, So the Buddha taught his disciples The doctrines they could comprehend: To some he taught the doctrine to turn away from doing evil. To some he taught The teaching of acquiring merit. Provisional doctrines based upon duality. But to some he taught doctrines based upon non-duality Though to some who are timid this is frightening To others it is profound: Having the essence of emptiness and compassion The true method for achieving enlightenment.
  • Slide 23
  • Earliest Texts: Prajna-paramita PERFECTION OF PRAJNA / INSIGHT HEART SUTRA is ONE OF THE SHORTEST
  • Slide 24
  • Points: Deconstructive Process of Mind is goal of zero-based critique (shunyata) Language is samsaric, encoding desire, ignorance of the world; nothing stands alone, independent of other things for meaning True spiritual advance is made when we stop relying on the mediation of any symbols between us and world Philosophy demonstrates the superiority of silence; mastering reality without mediation How?????
  • Slide 25
  • Consider: Nowhere
  • Slide 26
  • Consider: Nothingness
  • Slide 27
  • Read the Heart Sutra
  • Slide 28
  • HEART SUTRA
  • Slide 29
  • Slide 30
  • Slide 31
  • GATE GATE PARA GATE PARASAMGATE BODHI SVAHA
  • Slide 32
  • NOTE: Mantra Recitation ALSO in the LOTUS SUTRA Indian theory of sacred sound as primordial, connective with reality, transformative Recitation rituals as useful/effective Mundane and Supramundane uses: key to Mahayana popularity and meditation across northern Asia
  • Slide 33
  • Mind Creates the World
  • Slide 34
  • Mahayana School II: Cittamatra (Consciousness Only) Karma and karmic fruition is all in consciousness Idealism: only thought is real; material universe is all unreal Mind/consciousness as inherently zestful, creative, loving, wise but poisoned by ignorance and desire
  • Slide 35
  • Nine Forms of Consciousness in Cittamatra Theory
  • Slide 36
  • Yogcra Other name for school, Yoga-acra, points to schools re-emphasis on yoga practices as key to purifying the mind great exponent was Asanga (350 CE)
  • Slide 37
  • Mahayana School III: Buddha-Nature School (Tathagata-garbha) If Nirvana=Samsara, then nirvana pervades samsara All beings and points in the universe are connected and buddha-suffused
  • Slide 38
  • Bodhisattva Ideal: Vow to postpone ones own final parinirvana until all other beings are established on the path To reach Buddhahood should be the goal of all beings Bodhisattvas as human or divinity
  • Slide 39
  • Manjushri
  • Slide 40
  • Celestial Bodhisattvas Avalokiteshvara (China: Kwan Yin) (Japan: Kannon) Buddha on forehead
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • 1008-arm Kwan Yin/Kannon
  • Slide 43
  • in East Asia: Mi-lo Fo [Fu-ture Buddha]
  • Slide 44
  • Maitreya, the Next Human Buddha
  • Slide 45
  • Mahayana Meditation Visualization and Mantra Recitation used to train and transform the mind Buddha nature in all things, most potently in forms of bodhisattvas
  • Slide 46
  • Avalokiteshvara Identification with Body/Speech/Mind of an Enlightened being leads to ones own spiritual transformation Mantra: Om Mani Padme Hum