intelligence n what is “intelligence”? n why/how do we measure it? n what do we do with the...

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  • IntelligenceWhat is intelligence?Why/how do we measure it?What do we do with the scores?

  • Major IssuesTheoretical vs. Psychometric baseOne, two, or many factorsNature vs. nurtureIndividual or group administrationVerbal or non-verbalCulture bias? Free? Fair?

  • Historical Perspective

  • 1869 - Sir Francis Galtonfather of intelligence testing Hereditary Genius (eugenics)Measured sensory apparatus

  • 1905 - Alfred Binet & Theodore SimonOriginal test - classification of mentally retardedability for sound judgementsage related tasks 1916 - Terman - US revision = Stanford/Binet

  • 1927 - SpearmanTwo-factor theoryg = general intellectual factors = specific factor(e = measurement error)

  • 1935 - Thurstone

    7 Group factors = primary mental abilitiesverbal comprehensionword fluencynumberspaceassociative memoryperceptual speedreasoning

  • 1939 - David Wechsleradult intelligence (first, children later)act purposefullythink rationallydeal effectively with environmentverbal and performance abilities(also full scale)

  • 1959 - GuilfordThree faces of intelligence5 Operations - what a person does5 Content - material it is done on6 Products - form in which information is stored(apply operation to content = product)150 possible combinations

  • Guilfords Model

  • 1963 - Cattellfluid abilities = reasoning (procedural)crystalized abilities = acquired knowledge and facts (declarative)

  • 1975 - GardnerMultiple Intelligenceslogical-mathematicallinguisticspatialmusicalbodily-kinestheticinterpersonalintrapersonal(naturalist, spiritual, existential)

  • 1980 - Sternbergsuccessful intelligence = the ability to adapt to, shape, and select environments to accomplish ones goals and those of ones society and culture (1999)Triarchic theorymetacomponents (metacognition)performance components (procedural)knowledge acquisition components(declarative)

  • 1960 - 90 Information Processing ApproachAleksandr Luria How information is processed, not What is processedParallel (simultaneous)Serial (successive, sequential)

  • Information processing measuresKaufman - (K-ABC)Das and Naglieri = CAS (Cognitive Assessment System) PASS systemP = planningA = attentionS = SimultaneousS = Successive

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