intelligence - edl ?· • intended to measure what you have learned ... reliability of a test...
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Psychologists define intelligence testing as a method for assessing an individuals mental aptitudes and comparing them with others using numerical scores.
Cousin of Charles Darwin.
Assessed reaction time, sensory acuity, muscular power, and body proportion of more than 10,000
visitors of the 1884 London Exposition.
He was unable to show correlations but he did give us
some statistical techniques that are still in use and the phrase nature
Why he did it: Wanted to measure natural
ability and encourage those of high ability to mate with one
France instated compulsory education for all children around the turn of the twentieth century and many seemed unable to do
the work. Rather than rely on the subjective reports of teachers,
the French government commissioned Binet to devise
an objective assessment of intelligence.
Why he did it: To identify students who
needed special help in coping with the school curriculum.
All children follow the same intellectual development but some develop more rapidly Dull (younger) vs. Bright (older) children
Mental Age is the chronological age typical of a given level of performance
The average 9 year old has a mental age of 9. Below-average mental age would be a 9-year-old who
persons at the level typical of 7-year-olds.
Led to the development of reasoning & problem solving questions that might predict school achievement.
He hoped it would improve childrens education but feared it would be used to label children and limit their opportunities.
For low-scoring children, he recommended mental orthopedics (exercises) that would help develop their attention span and self-discipline.
Coming to America
The idea of IQ testing became popular in America for three reasons: A huge increase in immigration New laws requiring universal education Military assessing new recruits for WWI
It created an inexpensive and objective way to separate those who could benefit from education or military leadership training and those who needed assistance.
Downside of IQ Testing
Despite its utility, IQ testing had a big downside. Tests ended up reinforcing prevailing prejudices about race and gender.
They ignored the fact that environmental disadvantages limit the full development of peoples intellectual abilities.
In the US, Lewis Terman(Stanford University) adapted Binets test for American school children and named the test the Stanford-Binet Test.
He added items, established new age norms, and extended the upper end of the tests range from teenagers to superior adults.
Binet did not believe his intelligence test measured inborn intelligence, but Terman believed his tests revealed the intelligence with which a person was born.
Why he did it:Terman believed in eugenicsEugenics: a social movement aimed at improving the human species through selective breedingpromoted higher reproduction rates of people with superior traits, and aimed to reduce reproduction rates of people with inferior traits. Resulted in legislation in many states that led to the forced sterilization of more tan 64,000 people (typically the disabled, poor, uneducated, and minority populations)
In particular, Californias program was so robust that the Nazis turned to California for advice in perfecting their own efforts. Hitler proudly admitted to following the laws of several American states that allowed for the prevention of reproduction of the unfit (Black 2003).
German psychologist, William Stern, createdthe Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
This original formula worked well for children but not adults
Modern tests dont compute IQ even though the expression has stuck They represent the test-takers performance relative to
the average performance of others the same age Average = 100 2/3 score between 85-115
Misuse and Abuse
Intelligence testing has been used to encourage only smart and fit people to reproduce. Terman envisioned that the use of intelligence tests would ultimately result in curtailing the reproduction of feeble-mindedness and in the elimination of an enormous amount of crime, pauperism, and industrial inefficiency.
Intelligence tests were also given to waves of immigrants and, obviously, since they did not speak the language or understand the culture and customs, they had low scores and were thought to be unintelligent. This led to the 1924 immigration law reducing the number of Southern and Eastern European immigrants that could enter the United States.
Achievement Tests Intended to measure what you have learned Examples: AP, final exams
Aptitude Tests Intended to predict a persons future performance Aptitude = the capacity to learn Examples: SAT
Wechsler developed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)and later the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), an intelligence test for school-aged children. The most widely used individual intelligence today.
WAIS measures overall intelligence and 11 other aspects related to intelligence that are designed to assess clinical
and educational problems.
Standardizing a test involves defining uniform testing procedures and administering the test to a representative sample of future test takers in order to establish a basis
for meaningful comparison.
The AP Psychology Exam is designed to assess your performance in a college-level introduction to psychology course; thus, it should be standardized using a population of freshman or sophomore college students taking introduction to
psychology in college. The same test should be given to the college students and the AP students and the scores can then be meaningfully compared.
The Flynn effect shows that intelligence test performance has been improving since the 1930s. The cause has been a mystery, but people think it may be due partly to better nutrition, more
education, more stimulating environments, less childhood diseases, and/or smaller families.
FlynnEffect(New Zealand researcher James Flynn who first calculated the phenomenon)
1. SplitHalfReliability: Dividingthetestintotwoequalhalvesandassessinghowconsistentthescoresare.
2. TestRetestReliability: Usingthesametestontwooccasionstomeasureconsistency.
1. ContentValidity: Referstotheextentatestmeasuresaparticularbehavior,criterion,ortrait.
2. PredictiveValidity: Referstothefunctionofatestinpredictingaparticularbehavior,criterion,ortrait.