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  • Intelligence Carolyn R. Fallahi, Ph. D.
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  • Intelligence Why do we want to measure intelligence? What are some of the reasons we measure intelligence? If you had to construct an IQ test, what kinds of questions would it contain? What kinds of abilities do you think youd want to test?
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  • Alfred Binet
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  • Theodore Simon
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  • Jean Piaget
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  • What is Intelligence? Binet & Simon Binet and Simon were commissioned by the French government to ID kids who would benefit from receiving remedial education. Assessment: attention, perception, memory, numerical reasoning, verbal comprehension.
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  • Vygotsky: Zone of Proximal Development
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  • David Wechsler Wechslers definition of intelligence: the global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment. Vocabulary scores the subtest that correlates best with overall IQ tests scores.
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  • David Wechsler Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment. 1944
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  • The Wechsler Tests Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV). Greatly improved the normative process. Wechsler viewed intelligence as an effect rather than a cause; for example, non- intellective factors, such as personality, contribute to the development of each persons intelligence.
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  • Intelligence Some important topics. Mental Age versus Chronological Age. The issue of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) IQ = (mental age / chronological age) x 100 If a 10 year old can answer questions of the same difficulty level as most 13 year olds, then IQ = (13/10) x100 = 130. Now using normative standards.
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  • Intelligence Testing 1. One Score Tests Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale IV Ages 2 through adult. Modern version scores no longer reflect mental age. Youre now compared to others representative sample used to obtain the distribution. Links to Cattell-Horns theory. Greater differentiation of abilities.
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  • Wechsler Tests 4-6.5 years Wechsler Preschool and primary scale of Intelligence IV. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IV (16 and older). Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-IV).
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  • Wechsler Tests WAIS-IV Updated in 2008. Why? Flynn Effect WAIS-IV: 11 subtests, 3 supplementary scales. Full scale IQ (FSIQ) or g. GAI = General Ability Index = 6 subtests that comprise Verbal Comprehension Index & Perceptual Reasoning Scale.
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  • Intelligence Testing Important Issue: Standardization Standardization: What does this mean? Lots of people take the test to make sure its reliable and valid. Cultural Bias of tests many have argued that tests were written for white middle class children and they were standardized in that population. Now Stanford Binet & WAIS tests have been standardized via diverse populations but still.
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  • The Normal Curve
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  • The normal curve Describe Show IQ scores for the WAIS-IV. 130 and above very superior 120-129 Superior 110-119 High average 90-109 Average 80-89 Low Average 70-79 Borderline 69 and below Extremely low
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  • WAIS-IV test now measures: Verbal comprehension Index Perceptual Organization Index Working Memory Index Processing Speed
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  • Verbal comprehension Index Verbally acquired knowledge and verbal reasoning Stored knowledge Oral expression General verbal skills Requires understanding of words, similarities, knowledge of social situations, etc.
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  • Perceptual Organization Index Visual perception Organization and reasoning Visual-motor coordination Nonverbal reasoning Fluid reasoning Comfort with new and unexpected situations Ability to understand a problem
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  • Working Memory Index Measures the ability to temporarily retain information in memory and manipulate Attention, concentration, mental control, reasoning Arithmetic skills, reading ability, verbal fluency Problem-solving Higher-order thinking
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  • Processing speed Visual perception and organization Processing visual information quickly Attention and sustained effort Motor coordination Persistence and planning
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  • Interpretation Full-scale IQ 4 indices Individual subtests Pattern analysis Strengths and weaknesses
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  • Extreme scores Diagnosis of GT Diagnosis of MR Do we do a good job with extreme scores? Difference between intelligence (ability to learn) and mastery tests like Wood-cock Johnson (what you have learned).
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  • Factor Analytic Approach Factor analysis a statistical procedure for identifying clusters of tests or test items (called factors) that are highly correlated with each other and unrelated to other items. Some thinkers believed that IQ score might reflect some particular ability, rather than overarching intelligence. Ask people to perform lots of different mental tasks. Each factor is a specific mental ability.
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  • Cultural Bias Issues Verbal ability is a problem requires specific knowledge of the meaning of words. What if you come from a home where English isnt spoken?
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  • Vygotsky Vygotskys approach to intelligence testing: test, train, retest Brown & Ferrara (1985) Not all average IQ kids are alike regarding the speed of learning or ability to transfer to something new. Low IQ kids some are slow learners with low transfer, some are slow learners with high transfer, some are fast learners with high transfer.
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  • Vygotsky This pattern holds for high IQ children too. Thus two kids with IQs of 100 may not be mentally the same! So we should consider this when developing individualized learning plans for kids.
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  • Robert J. Sternberg
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  • Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Successful people = identify & capitalize on their strengths, and identify and correct or compensate for their weaknesses in order to adapt to, shape, & select environments.
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  • Sternbergs theory Intelligence = forming competencies, and competencies as forms of developing expertise. Intelligence is modifiable rather than fixed.
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  • Raymond B. Cattell
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  • John L. Horn
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  • Cattell-Horn Theory Fluid abilities (Gf) drive the individuals ability to think and act quickly, solve novel problems, and encode short-term memories. They have been described as the source of intelligence that an individual uses when he/she doesnt already know what to do.
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  • Cattell-Horn Theory Crystalized abilities (Gc) stems from learning and acculturation and is reflected in tests of knowledge, general information, use of language (vocabulary) and a wide variety of acquired skills.
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  • Crystallized Intelligence Personality factors, motivation and educational and cultural opportunity are central to its development, and is only indirectly dependent on the physiological influences that mainly affect fluid abilities.
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  • Horn & Cattell Fluid Intelligence = ability to perceive relationships, ability to adapt, ability to learn new material. Independent of culture and formal training. Vulnerable to brain damage and aging. Crystallized intelligence = completely dependent on culture and formal training or learning. Increases with age.
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  • Howard Gardner (Harvard) I want my children to understand the world, but not just because the world is fascinating and the human mind is curious. I want them to understand it so that they will be positioned to make it a better place. Gardner, 1999
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  • Gardner Theory of Multiple Intelligences Surveyed atypical populations, e.g. prodigies, idiot savants, autistic children, LD children. Found jagged cognitive profile. These profiles inconsistent with a unitary view of intelligence. Question: does training in 1 area influence skills in other areas. For example, math training affect musical ability?
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  • Gardner - MI Gardner (1993) defines intelligence as the ability to solve problems or to create products that are valued within one or more cultural settings. Within this definition of intelligence, a variety of skills valued in different cultures and a history setting become objects of study.
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  • Gardner MI currently 8 intelligences identified Linguistic intelligence ("word smart) Logical-mathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart") Spatial intelligence ("picture smart") Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart") Musical Intelligence (music smart) Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart") Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart) Naturalistic Intelligence (nature smart)
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