intelligence carolyn r. fallahi, ph. d. 1. intelligence why do we want to measure intelligence? what...
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Intelligence Carolyn R. Fallahi, Ph. D. 1 Slide 2 Intelligence Why do we want to measure intelligence? What are some of the reasons we measure intelligence? If you had to construct an IQ test, what kinds of questions would it contain? What kinds of abilities do you think youd want to test? 2 Slide 3 Alfred Binet Binet started out as a lawyer in 1878. Then he started attending the Sorbonne in France & began studying psychology. He published over 200 books, articles, and reviews in experimental, developmental, social, and differential psychology. Binet later collaborated with Theodore Simon in 1920. 3 Slide 4 Theodore Simon Simon was a colleague of Alfred Binet in Paris. Coauthor of the first test to roughly test intelligence. He felt that the test could estimate intelligence in children from ages 3 to 12. 4 Slide 5 Jean Piaget 1896-1980. Simon asked him to help standardized intelligence tests with Parisian children in 1920. Definition of intelligence: Intelligence is an adaptationto say that intelligence is a particular instance of biological adaptation is thus to suppose that it is essentially an organization and that its function is to structure the universe just as the organism structures its immediate environment. 1963. 5 Slide 6 Vygotsky: ZPD Cognitive growth occurs within the zone where the child receives help to be able to understand or do something independently. 6 Slide 7 David Wechsler Wechslers definition of intelligence: the global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment. Vocabulary. 7 Slide 8 David Wechsler Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment. 1944 8 Slide 9 Accomplishments Developed 2 intelligence tests: WAIS & WISC. Greatly improved the normative process. 9 Slide 10 Is there a consensus? No. 10 Slide 11 What is intelligence? The ability to think abstractly Plan Gather information Understand complex ideas Solve problems Reason Adapt effectively to the environment Overcome obstacles Learn from experience Adapt to a novel situation 11 Slide 12 What intelligence is not Intelligence does not include every skill or ability a person could have. For example Celine Dion Michael Phelps. 12 Slide 13 Other terms associated with learning issues Ability: the power to perform something Aptitude: the potential for performance after training Achievement: how well learned subject Intelligence: the ability to learn; but there is considerable overlap with achievement what one has learned 13 Slide 14 Intelligence Testing 1. One Score Tests Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale IV Ages 2 through adult. Modern version scores no longer reflect mental age. Youre now compared to others representative sample used to obtain the distribution. Links to Cattell-Horns theory. Greater differentiation of abilities. 14 Slide 15 Wechsler Intelligence Scales 4-6.5 years Wechsler Preschool and primary scale of Intelligence III. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IV (16 and older). Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children IV (2 16). Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-IV). 15 Slide 16 Some important points Current IQ tests: Measure nonverbal intelligence as well. Patient receives points according to age level completed. 16 Slide 17 WAIS tests Intelligence is comprised of specific interrelated abilities. We sum up the individuals scores on each of these abilities = overall IQ. Overall IQ = Full scale IQ. 17 Slide 18 The Normal Curve 18 Slide 19 The normal curve Describe Show IQ scores for the WAIS-IV. 130 and above very superior 120-129 Superior 110-119 High average 90-109 Average 80-89 Low Average 70-79 Borderline 69 and below Extremely low 19 Slide 20 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Evaluate intelligence with respect to normed samples by age. IQ = (mental age / chronological age) x 100 What does this mean? If a 10 year old can answer questions of the same difficulty level as most 13 year olds, then IQ = (13/10) x 100 = 130. 20 Slide 21 Discuss issues with extreme scores Diagnosis of GT Diagnosis of MR Borderline (67-83), mild (50-66), moderate (33-49), severe (16-32), profound (