Integration of Renewable Energy Technologies With Desalination
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ENERGY-WATER NEXUS (AS STILLWELL, SECTION EDITOR)Integration of Renewable Energy TechnologiesWith DesalinationAnge Abena Mbarga & Lianfa Song & W. Ross Williams &Ken RainwaterPublished online: 9 January 2014# Springer International Publishing AG 2014Abstract Remote communities in many countries are in needof dependable and affordable fresh water that must be derivedfrom local brackish water or seawater. Thermal and membranedesalination technologies are available, with significant elec-trical or thermal energy requirements. Renewable energy fromwind, solar, geothermal, or other sources may be necessarywhen access to grid electricity is limited. This literature reviewsummarizes the research reported in the last three years (mid-2010 to mid-2013) by teams of experts in water treatment,renewable energy generation, variable-power system controls,system optimization, and economic analyses.Keywords Desalination . Renewable energy .Wind energy .Solarenergy .Photovoltaic .Reverseosmosis .Electrodialysis .Membrane . Hybrid energy . Distillation .Multi-effectdistillation . Economic analysis . Seawater . Brackishwater .Off-grid . Optimization . Control . Intermittency . GeothermalenergyAbbreviationsAD Adsorption desalinationBWRO Brackish water reverse osmosisCDP Combined desalination and powerCSP Concentrating solar powerDPG Diesel power generation or diesel power generatorED ElectrodialysisEDR Electrodialysis reversalESS Energy storage systemETC Evacuated tube thermal collectorFC Fixed capacityFPSC Flat-plate solar collectorGC Gradual capacityHOMER Hybrid Optimization Model for ElectricRenewablesMD Membrane distillationMDC Microbial desalination cellMED Multi-effect distillationMEE-FF Multi-effect evaporation forward-feedMSF Multi-stage flashNF NanofiltrationPRO Pressure-retarded osmosisPTC Parabolic trough collectorRE Renewable energyRO Reverse osmosisSEC Specific energy consumptionSGP Salinity gradient powerSWRO Seawater reverse osmosisTDS Total dissolved solidsUF UltrafiltrationWEC Wave energy converterWT Wind turbineIntroductionMany communities around the world have limited or no localaccess to fresh drinking water sources, leading to dependenceon BW or SW for potable water supplies. Thermal, such asMSF and MED, and membrane, such as RO and ED, desali-nation processes can effectively lower the TDS concentrationsA. A. Mbarga : L. Song :K. Rainwater (*)Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Texas TechUniversity, Box 41023, Lubbock, TX 79423, USAe-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgA. A. Mbargae-mail: email@example.comL. Songe-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgW. Ross WilliamsAltresco Companies, 10940 Parker Road, Parker, CO 80134, USAe-mail: email@example.comCurr Sustainable Renewable Energy Rep (2014) 1:1118DOI 10.1007/s40518-013-0002-1to acceptable levels, but with significant energy requirements.Remote locations in developing countries or small islandsmay lack access to dependable electrical grid power. LocalRE from WTs, PV, CSP, and other sources provides potentialalternatives that can either reduce electrical demand from thegrid or allow standalone operation. Most RE sources can beintermittent, so the application of RE to produce a targetvolume of reliable drinking water must address variations inboth the water demands and RE supply. During 20102013,many researchers published their findings related to concep-tual descriptions and designs of potential technology combi-nations, observations of laboratory, pilot, and full-scale appli-cations, as well as simulations of projected operational andeconomic conditions. This review provides brief summariesof the major reported findings as well as citations for theinterested reader to gather additional details.Three significant concepts emerge from the recent literatureon combinations of RE and desalination, as noted in multiplereferences.& Power experts can use smart grid concepts to improveRE and desalination combinations through control sys-tems that adjust for variable RE supply or by consideringdesalination systems as controllable loads.& Energy storage systems (ESSs), such as batteries or ther-mal storage, and planned treated water storage volumescan mitigate the intermittency of wind and solar powersources for continuous water production in standaloneapplications.& Hybrid energy combinations of solar, wind, geothermal,and fossil fuel generators can be evaluated for both costefficiency and freshwater demand satisfaction.Al-Qaraghuli and Kazmerski  assembled an excellentand succinct overview of the capabilities of conventionalthermal and membrane desalination processes and their inte-gration with renewable energy. Their article included compar-ison of technical aspects, such as process description andenergy consumption, and economic aspects, such as estimatedcost of water, for various combinations of desalination withRE. In the brief summaries that follow, we have attempted togroup the articles based on certain common themes, althoughthere were often multiple overlapping topics shared acrosstheir objectives and findings.Reverse Osmosis Desalination Systems With VariousRenewable Energy SourcesRO Powered by WindPeate et al.  compared the energy requirements and waterproduction from two hypothetical off-grid SWRO systems.The first, a FC system, was sized at 1000 m3/d, while thesecond, a GC system, included one 200 m3/d and two 400 m3/d racks that could be turned on as needed. The GC system isable to adapt energy consumption to available WT power.Operational parameters relative to water quality and RO de-tails were simulated with electrical demands of 15124 kWfor different water production rates. Simulations of RE gener-ation were based on 100, 225, and 300 kWWTs assisted by abattery ESS and flywheel energy recovery devices. Wind datafrom the Gran Canaria island in the Spanish archipelagoprovided the input for the energy generation simulations.Overall, the GC system produced less water than the FCsystem, with almost 7 % higher SEC in kWh/m3 of waterproduced. The GC system had less excess energy production,requiring less energy storage capacity. The authors also rec-ommended consideration of treated water storage capacity asanother buffer for system security.Direct impact of variable electrical supply from WTs onoff-grid RO systems has received some attention. Park et al.[3, 4, 5] investigated the impact of wind speed fluctuationson the performance of a BWRO system. In the first twostudies, a portable small-scale trailer-mounted 300 L/hrBWRO system and 1 kW (at 12.5 m/s) WT were placed in awind tunnel for controllable wind speed ranges and turbulencefluctuations. Park et al.  observed permeate flux and NaClconcentration with changing wind speed for 10 min experi-ments with 30 sec oscillations. The BWRO system perfor-mance was unaffected by the wind speed variations from 3.710 m/s. Next, Park et al.  investigated the impact of inter-mittency on the performance of the BWRO system or no-power intervals of 0.53 min in the wind tunnel. Observedpermeate TDS concentrations increased most for the shorter0.5 min and 1.0 min no-power intervals, indicating the poten-tial need for ESS or water storage for dilution. Finally, Parket al.  used simulations of their small-scale system toinvestigate the potential use of supercapacitors to absorb theimpacts of both wind speed fluctuations (oscillations of 15 secto 20 min) and intermittency (no-power intervals of 0.55 min). Dahioui and Loudiyi  simulated a hypotheticalwind RO system typical of Morocco and found that reducingmaximum capacity of the WT could reduce power fluctua-tions, as would the use of solenoid valves to manage pressurein the RO system.Xenarios et al.  presented design considerations forselection of a WT for an existing 4500 m3/d SWRO plant onthe island of Mykonos, Greece. The SWRO plant electricaldemand was estimated at 614 kW. Several commerciallyavailable WTs were considered, using one year of local winddata, and a 1.5 MWor 1.65 MWWTwas sufficient.Rainwater et al.  described a pilot-scale BWRO instal-lation powered by grid-assisted wind energy at Seminole,Texas. An on-site 50 kWWT provides intermittent electricityfor a deep well that taps a brackish aquifer, as well as the12 Curr Sustainable Renewable Energy Rep (2014) 1:1118BWRO system designed to produce 220 m3/d (40 gpm) ofpermeate. The system will be monitored for one year todemonstrate the value of the WTs electrical generation andthe production capacity of the deep well.RO Powered by PVBilton et al.  performed theoretical simulations for technicaland economic feasibility of PV for remote small-scale off-gridSWRO and BWRO applications. The BWRO sites includedNew Mexico, Jordan, Australia, and Tunisia. The SWROlocations were Boston, Los Angeles, Cyprus, Jordan, Haiti,and Saudi Arabia. The cost ranges of treated water were 2.172.41$/m3 and 4.967.01$/m3 for BWRO and SWRO, respec-tively. The remote PV/BWRO costs were more than 50 %lower than those with DPG, while the PV/SWRO costs weresimilar or higher than the DPG equivalent.Qiblawey et al.  described the performance of a small500 L/d BWRO system in northern Jordan powered by PVwith battery storage. The systems actual production averaged267 L/d for raw water with 1700 mg/LTDS, and SEC rangedfrom 2631 kWh/m3. Poovanaesvaran et al.  presented aconceptual discussion of BWRO with PV supplemented withbattery ESS, with a brief review of several installations aroundthe world, as well as comparison of PVand DPG.Clarke et al. [12, 13] observed the performance of a smalllab-scale BWRO systemwith a capacity of 15 L/hr of permeate,and then used those data in simulation of PV power utilization.SEC increased and permeate flux decreased as the raw watersalinity increased from 1 % to 4 %. Less permeate water wasproduced under dynamic conditions with battery ESS, as thebattery lost power faster in a dynamic system.Peterson and Gray  reported a small stand-alone PV/BWRO system at the Brisbane Botanic Gardens in Queens-land, Australia. The system had a 30,000 L/d capacity de-signed for raw groundwater at 1900 mg/L TDS. Detailedoperational data were reported for November 2008 to Febru-ary 2010. Touati et al.  presented a procedure for feasibil-ity design and operational simulation of a standalone ROsystem powered by PV, a hydrogen-producing electrolyzerpowered by excess solar energy, and a fuel cell ESS. Theyrecognized the water problem as an energy problem, leadingto this unique proposal that could reduce the required PVarea.RO Powered by RE CombinationsSpyrou and Anagnostopoulos  simulated the energy andeconomics of a SWRO system for a hypothetical Greek islandpopulation of 5,000, with PV (200 kW) and WTs (8001500 kW) assisted by pumped storage for hydropower gener-ation. Various combinations were evaluated in optimizationstudies, such as minimizing the cost of produced water, max-imizing satisfaction of the variable water demands, impact ofpopulation served, and optimal capacity of the pumped-storage reservoir. Typical projected water costs were 24$/m3.Khalifa  applied the theoretical HybridRO model tosimulate a 50 m3/d BWRO system using data for Karbala,Iraq. Electrical supply was provided with a 4 kW DPG alone,the DPG with WT (6, 30, and 55 kW), or the DPG with PV(1.920 kW). The resulting cost of produced water was $1.8/m3 for diesel only or DPGwithWTand PV, $2.2/m3 with WTand PV, $2.3/m3 with PVonly, and $2.4/m3 with WT only.Karellas et al.  analyzed a potential off-grid SWROsystem powered by an organic (R134a) Rankine cycle (ORC)turbine driven by solar PTCs. The system was aided by PVand battery ESS to provide electricity to other system compo-nents. The system was projected to produce 230 m3/d forsimulated conditions on the Greek island of Chalki (Halki)at $13/m3. Peate and Garca-Rodrguez  consideredsimple (hexamethyldisiloxane) and two-cycle cascade(hexamethyldisiloxane and isopentane) ORC turbines with asolar PTC heat source for SWRO application in Spain. Theirhypothetical system produced 2500 m3/d at combined SEC2.99 kWh/m3. Two different PTC types were also evaluated indetail.Ben Ali et al.  examined a BWRO system in Tunisiapowered by both PVand WT, with the advantage that one REsource could be available when the other was not. The controlsystem turned on the BWRO when the available RE wassufficient. Excess energy was dumped, and water storagewas used to buffer low-RE periods. Lab-scale experimentsprovided data for the BWRO, and computer simulations pre-dicted water production under projected RE supply schedulesfor PV and WTs.Hossam-Eldin et al.  simulated 150 and 300 m3/dSWRO systems powered by a hybrid WT/DPG system anda WT/PV/DPG system, respectively, at a site on the coast ofEgypt. Both energy systems included battery ESS. The small-er systems optimal cost of energy was $0.10/kWh, withassociated cost of produced water at $1.79/m3 and excessenergy at 33 %. The larger systems optimal cost of energywas $0.11/kWh, and the cost of water was $1.40 /m3, with30% excess energy. Under existing conditions, RE fromwindwas more economical than PV.Attia  proposed a parabolic dish solar collector toconvert water to steam and drive a piston device to providethe required pressure to force the raw feed water through asingle-stage BWRO or SWRO system. Theoretical analysisindicated potential production rates of 0.055 m3/m2/d and1.833 m3/m2/d for seawater and brackish water, respectively.Olwig et al.  performed technical and economic anal-yses of a CSP system to run a 24,000 m3/d SWRO facility atAshdod, Israel, and Aqaba, Jordan. At both sites, the CSP/ROsystem could produce water for $2/m3, at best (2.2 and 1.86times the cost of conventional UF-RO plants at Ashdod andAqaba, respectively). Similar analyses compared the cost ofCurr Sustainable Renewable Energy Rep (2014) 1:1118 13CSP/MED at these two sites. At the Aqaba site, the CSP/MEDwater would cost $3.4/m3 (3.6 times the UF-RO price), whilethe water cost at the Ashdod site would be $2.6/m3 (2.14 timesthe UF-RO price). At both sites, RO systems seemed to besuperior for the same water production.Kim et al.  provided a theoretical and conceptual re-view of the application of SGP to drive a PRO system togenerate energy for a SWRO process. The brine from aconventional SWRO process can be placed opposite the sea-water side of the PRO membrane to produce pressure in-creases and thus electricity. Unfortunately, appropriate mem-branes for PRO were not currently commercially available.In their theoretical investigation of RE and desalination forthe Cape Verdean island of Brava, Bognar et al.  simulat-ed conditions for three energy supply scenarios for an existingremote SWROplant producing 200600m3/d of permeate. Thescenarios considered energy supply from two 600 kW DPGsand three 275 kW WTs: (1) for energy only, (2) for constant-production SWRO, and (3) for variable-production SWRO.The variable-production plant performed best, reducing theoverall cost of electricity and the unit cost of water.Moser et al.  compared costs of alternative powersupplies for a hypothetical 100,000 m3/d desalination systemin the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Theyconsidered WT, PV, CSP, and a mix of WT/PV/CSP forSWRO, as well as CSP for MED. Battery storage and backupDPGs were combined with WTs and PV, while thermal ESSand backup boilers were associated with CSP. In general, theRE/RO systems had lower unit costs of water than the CSP/MED alternative, and the individual RE sources were lesscostly than mixed RE.Other Membrane Desalination Systems With Various RELopez-Ramirez et al.  demonstrated NF desalination in apilot plant at the Metropolitan Drinking Water TreatmentPlant, El Montas, Puerto Real, Cadiz, Spain. The 50 m3/dtreatment systemwas powered by two 3 kWWTs, one 4.2 kWPV field, and a battery ESS, while producing 1.1 L/hr ofpermeate at average SEC of 0.60 kWh/m3 during a 64-daydemonstration.Porrazzo et al.  observed the behavior of a standalone150 L/d MD system in Italy powered by solar heat collectors.A neural-network multi-input/single-output (MISO) modelwas developed to project the systems behavior under varioussolar irradiation conditions. No water cost data were included.Peate et al.  tested an off-grid EDR system for brackishwater desalination powered by PV in Pozo Izquierdo, Spain.The system was powered by two modular PV fields and de-signed to produce 96 m3/d. While the feed-water conductivityranged from 3500 to 5300S/cm, the product water varied from114 to 2413 S/cm for solar irradiation from 600 to 800 W/m2.Kim and Logan  reviewed the state of the art for MDCsthat combine exoelectrogenic bacteria with ED to facilitateseawater desalination. The bacteria congregate at the anode,oxidizing organics and transferring electrons to the anode,thus creating an electrical potential gradient for transportthrough the ion-exchange membranes. The process is notcurrently feasible for drinking-water plants.Thermal Desalination Systems With Various RenewableEnergy SourcesZhao andWang  observed the performance of convergent/divergent, orifice, and spray nozzle designs in a lab demon-stration of CDP production with a solar pond as the heatsource. The convergent/divergent and spray nozzles per-formed adequately in simultaneous production of energy andpotable water. The fresh product water fraction relative to thesaline raw water ranged from 412 % for input temperaturesof 4090 C. Ge et al.  theoretically modeled a CDPsystem with a convergent/divergent two-phase nozzle discintegrated into a simple-reaction turbine attached to a genera-tor with a solar pond heat source.Baharudin et al. [33, 34] considered a PV assembly withbattery ESS to power a small lab-scale system for seawaterdistillation for remote areas such as Kuala Perlis, Malaysia.The experimental results indicated that fresh water was pro-duced, but the water quality analytical method was unclear.The authors performed an economic analysis of the PV distil-lation system using the HOMER program, but the waterproduction capacity was not specified.Liu et al.  analyzed the thermal and economic perfor-mance of a low-temperature parallel-flow MED system forseawater at a hypothetical site in Dalian, China, powered bysolar ETCs. The hypothetical system also included a thermalstorage tank. The simulations indicated fresh water productionat 33 L/d/m2 of ETC area, with amortized fresh water cost ofapproximately $4.80/m3.Koroneos and Roumbas  contended that geothermalheat sources could be best coupled with MED systems forseawater desalination. They considered the conditions at theGreek island of Nisyros, and performed mathematical simu-lation and economic analysis for a hypothetical 500 m3/dayplant. Projected treated water costs were less than $1.4/m3,and environmental impacts were evaluated over the systemslife cycle.Ayhan and Al-Madani  proposed combining hybridwind and solar RE to power natural vacuum desalination ofseawater in Bahrain. Solar thermal collectors would provideheat to evaporate seawater under low-pressure conditions, anda WT could power pumps and fans for system operation. Theestimated cost of fresh water from a 0.13 m3/d system was$0.70/m3. Gude et al.  reported a preliminary field test of a14 Curr Sustainable Renewable Energy Rep (2014) 1:1118two-stage low-temperature/low-pressure distillation processfor seawater desalination powered by a FPSC. Experimentaland economic results projected that a 500 L/d system couldgenerate fresh water at $7/m3. Gude et al. [39, 40] alsoprovided theoretical and economic analyses of a smallerlow-temperature desalination that employed FPSCs coupledwith thermal energy storage or geothermal energy to allowcontinuous operation. Their hypothetical system wasprojected to produce up to 100 L/d for solar collector areasup to 18 m2, with 6 m3 of thermal energy storage volume at a$14/m3 cost of fresh water.AD achieves low-temperature thermal distillation usingsilica gel reactor pairs to facilitate water vapor separation foreventual condensation. Ng et al.  reported theoreticalsimulation and lab experiments for AD of seawater in Singa-pore. AD had higher capital cost coupled with potentiallylower electricity cost if RE-provided heat through solar orgeothermal sources was more expensive than RO withoutRE. As was observed in their lab experiments, these costscould be interpreted more positively if the cooling capacity ofthe AD cycle was also valued. Missimer et al.  proposedcombining AD with STCs and geothermal energy in alternat-ing 12-hr cycles to maximize desalination capacity in SaudiArabia.Evaluation of RE and Desalination AlternativesKavvadias and Khamis  reviewed the International AtomicEnergy Agencys Desalination Economic Evaluation Program,released as DEEP 3.2, in 2009. This economic model can beused to compare the economics of different membrane orthermal desalination plants powered by nuclear, fossil fuel,and RE. The authors used default model parameters to performgeneric comparisons of hypothetical plants and energy sources,and they found that the DEEP code was robust and providedreasonable results. The current DEEP version is DEEP 4.0(2011, http://www.iaea.org/NuclearPower/Desalination/).It is challenging to rank the best couplings of RE anddesalination systems, and most authors argue for case-by-case assessments. Baharudin et al.  devised a multi-criteria analysis that considered (1) technical and operationalaspects, (2) environmental and land-use impacts, (3) econom-ic cost evaluation, (4) site location characteristics, and (5)energy consumption to compare various RE/desalination sys-tem combinations. Kondili et al.  used the same fivecriteria to evaluate combinations of RE and desalination forthe Greek islands of Agios Efstratios, Anafi, and Kimolos.They evaluated PV-powered RO, WT-powered RO, and geo-thermal desalination. WT/RO was favored for AgiosEfstratios, PV/RO for Anafi, and geothermal for Kimolos.Kaldellis et al.  used the HOMER software system(Lilienthal et al. ) to design and simulate an SWROsystem powered by a combination of WTs, PV, and biogas-fueled internal combustion generator for cogeneration of elec-tricity, heat, and water for the Greek island of Agathonsi. Theaverage water demandwas 35m3/d, and other energy and heatdemands were estimated from observed data. The selectedsystem included three 100 kW WTs, 200 kW of PV panels,a 60 kW biogas generator, and 32 batteries for ESS, all ofwhich easily supplied the SWRO plant.Energy Load Management With RE and DesalinationYoshihara et al.  analyzed the interaction between a hy-pothetical SWRO system and the existing power system atHateruma-jima, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. The power sys-tem included two 150 kW DPGs and one 300 kW DPG, eight190 kW flywheel ESSs, and a 275 kW WT. The challengeswere to integrate intermittent wind energy and its attendantpower into this electrical grid, and also to consider storage oftreated water as part of the temporal simulations. The 20 kW-maximum SWRO plant served as a buffering device for windenergy fluctuations, electricity demand fluctuation, and DPGstarting time.Ylmaz and Sylemez  designed and simulated aMEE-FF seawater desalination system in Turkey. RE was providedby a FPSC and a small WT. The simulated plant couldproduce 1000 L reliably over an average 9 hr/d, which wascomparable in performance to a previous pilot-study MEDplant in Muscat, Oman.Malek et al.  compared the performance of an EDmembrane under both constant and variable voltage to deter-mine the capacity of pulsed voltage to disrupt concentrationpolarization at the membrane boundary and improve EDperformance for brackish (5 g/L NaCl) water treatment. Thepulsed regime had a wider safe voltage operating window, andreduced the required desalination time and decreased pHrequired at the higher-voltage regime.Abad et al.  performed small-scale experiments tocompare the performance of a solar still with pulsating heatpipes and solar thermal collector to that of a basic passive solarstill system. Results indicated 75 % improvement in maxi-mum treated water yield over the basic solar still configuration(875 mL/m2/hr vs. 500 mL/m2/hr), at an 8 % increase in watercost ($0.00745/L/m2 vs. $0.00690/L/m2).Optimization Modeling for Design and Operation of REand Desalination SystemsKoutroulis and Kolokotsa  assembled an optimizationmethodology to size SWRO systems powered by PV and/orWTs, both in combination with a battery ESS. Genetic algo-rithms were used to minimize the total system costs, includingCurr Sustainable Renewable Energy Rep (2014) 1:1118 15treated water storage volume, for a 20-year period for both a15-resident community and a single residential household at asite in Crete. In both cases, the combination of wind and PVprovided the lowest overall costs.In Cyprus, Poullikkas  also used genetic algorithms tooptimize cost of RO-treated water, with 25100 % of theelectricity provided by PV and the balance by the grid, fortreatment capacities of 20,00080,000 m3/d. Based on theassumed existing conditions, grid-powered RO had the lowestwater cost per unit volume.Barrufet and Mareth  used the HOMER software tosimulate standalone BWRO powered by combinations of PV,WTs, DPG, and battery storage for freshwater production in theoil fields of West Texas. They considered a hypothetical 23 m3/d system treating feed water at 10,000 mg/L TDS for interestrates of 46 % and project lifetimes of 520 years. The rangesof optimal power provided by the PV panels, WTs, and DPGwere 02, 24, 6.412.8, and 67 kW, respectively. If singlepower sources were used, the optimal power source was 8 kWbyDPG, followed by 15 kWbyWTs, and 25 kWby PVpanels.Cherif and Belhadj  simulated a hypothetical hybridBWRO system powered by a 10 kW WT and 400 m2 of PVpanels in the southern Djerba Tunisian island. The raw waterTDS was 5400 mg/L, and the BWRO system performancewas simulated with the ROSA software package. Estimatedpermeate production ranged from 57 to 111 m3/d, but no costof water was provided.Chaaben et al.  simulated a small BWRO systempowered by PV with battery storage as a multi-input/multi-output (MIMO) process. Their model was intended for pro-cess control to optimize operating conditions and reduce watercost for small standalone systems in Tunisia.Bourouni et al.  and MBarek et al.  developed anoptimal design model based on genetic algorithms to comparealternative combinations of small RO systems with WT, PV,and battery power for sites in Tunisia. The optimization min-imized the total net present cost of the system, includingcapital, operation, maintenance, and replacement costs. Themodel was demonstrated for the conditions of the village ofKsar Ghilne, with 300 residents and water demand of 15 m3/d. The optimal solution of 11 kW PV/RO with 200 Ah batterystorage at $2.62/m3 of produced water differed from theexisting 10 kW PV/RO with 600 Ah battery storage at$3.56/m3. The optimal solution result also comparedwell withthe numerical result of the HOMER software.Mousa et al.  developed a numerical optimization modelfor design of hybrid WT and PV RE to drive BWRO in AbuDhabi. Capital and operating costs were considered for a hy-pothetical community of 100 people for a 20-year project life.For estimated SEC of 2.5, 5, and 7.5 kWh/m3, the respectivecosts for produced water were 0.50, 0.85, and 1.21$/m3.Palacin et al.  employed a hybrid predictive controlalgorithm to optimize the operation of a standalone RO plantpowered by wind and solar RE, supplemented by a dieselgenerator. Their hypothetical simulations included sizing oftreated water storage tanks and membrane maintenance toprevent fouling, while trying to meet variable water demand.ConclusionsResearchers around the world continue to look for ways toprovide fresh drinking water in remote locations that must relyon brackish water or seawater supplies. The reviewed articlesdemonstrate concern for a wide spectrum of treatment capac-ities, from individual residences to communities of severalthousand people, most often in standalone off-grid locations.Experiments and simulations demonstrated that the variabilityand intermittency of wind and solar RE as power sources fordesalination can be addressed through ESSs, proper sizing oftreatment capacity and water storage, and hybrid combina-tions with fossil fuel generators or grid access. Optimal com-binations of energy supply and treatment systems are likely tovary from region to region with variations in local raw waterqualities, RE sources, and access and cost of grid energy. Inlight of the variety and novelty of these RE and desalinationcombinations, more effort should be devoted to clarifyingtheir cost structure so that decision-makers (either individualsor municipalities) can confidently select the best technologiesfor implementation. We hope that this summary of the state ofthe art for RE-powered desalination will provide incentivesfor the advanced water treatment and RE equipment manu-facturers to recognize the market potential for appropriatelysized systems for these remote applications.Compliance with Ethics GuidelinesConflict of Interest Ange Abena Mbarga, Lianfa Song, W. Ross Wil-liams, and Ken Rainwater declare no conflicts of interest.Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent This article doesnot contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by anyof the authors.ReferencesPapers of particular interest, published recently, have beenhighligted as: Of importance Of major importance1. Al-Qaraghuli A, Kazmerski LL. Comparison of Technical andEconomic Performance of the main Desalination Processes withand without Renewable Energy Coupling. Proceedings of theAmerican Solar Energy Society World Renewable Energy Forum.2012;18. This paper provides a clear overall view of varioussystems in terms of requirements, such as energy consumption,and performance, such as cost of treated water.16 Curr Sustainable Renewable Energy Rep (2014) 1:11182. Peate B, Castellano F, Bello A, Garca-Rodrguez L. Assessmentof a stand-alone gradual capacity reverse osmosis desalination plantto adapt to wind power availability: a case study. Energy.2011;36(7):437284. This paper clearly explains the challenges ofsynchronizing desalination with wind availability..3. Park GL, Schfer AI, Richards BS. Renewable energy poweredmembrane technology: the effect of wind speed fluctuations on theperformance of a wind-powered membrane system for brackishwater desalination. J Membr Sci. 2011;370(12):3444. This paperprovides great detail about the impact of intermittence on thedesalination process..4. Park GL, Richards BS, Schfer AI. The effect of intermittentoperation on a wind-powered membrane system for brackish waterdesalination. Water Sci Technol. 2012;65(5):86774.5. Park GL, Schfer AI, Richards BS. Renewable energy-poweredmembrane technology: supercapacitors for buffering resource fluc-tuations in a wind-powered membrane system for brackish waterdesalination. Renew Energy. 2013;50:12635. This paper makes avery good case for the use of supercapacitors to mitigateintermittence..6. Dahioui Y, Loudiyi K.Wind Powered Desalination. Proceedings of2013 International Renewable and Sustainable Energy Conference,IRSEC 2013. 2013:25762.7. Xenarios G, Papadopoulos P, Tzen E. Wind desalination for theIsland of Mykonos in Greece: a case study. Desalin Water Treat.2013;51(46):121928.8. Rainwater K, Nash P, Song L, Schroeder J. The Seminole project:renewable energy for municipal water desalination. J ContempWater Res Educ. 2013;151:5060.9. Bilton AM, Wiesman R, Arif AFM, Zubair SM, Dubowsky S. Onthe feasibility of community-scale photovoltaic-powered reverseosmosis desalination systems for remote locations. RenewEnergy. 2011;36(12):324656.10. QiblaweyH, Banat F, Al-Nasser Q. Performance of reverse osmosispilot plant powered by Photovoltaic in Jordan. Renew Energy.2011;36(12):345260.11. Poovanaesvaran P, Alghoul MA, Sopian K, Amin N, Fadhel MI,YahyaM.Design aspects of small-scale photovoltaic brackishwaterreverse osmosis (PV-BWRO) system. Desalin Water Treat.2011;27(13):21023.12. Clarke D, Al-Abdeli Y, Kothapalli G. Modelling Small-ScaleStand-Alone (PV) Energy Systems with Reverse OsmosisIntegration. 19th International Congress on Modelling and,Simulation. 2011;17.13. Clarke D, Al-Abdeli YM, Kothapalli G. The effects of includingintricacies in the modelling of a small-scale solar-PV reverse osmo-sis desalination system. Desalination. 2013;311:12736. This de-tailed analysis describes application of a battery storage system todeal with intermittence arising from the integration of renewablesand an RO system..14. Peterson EL, Gray SR. Effectiveness of desalination powered by atracking solar array to treat saline bore water. Desalination.2012;293:94103.15. Touati S, Belkaid A, Benabid R, Halbaoui K, Chelali M. Pre-feasibility design and simulation of hybrid PV/fuel cell energysystem for application to desalination plants loads. Procedia Eng.2012;33:36676.16. Spyrou ID, Anagnostopoulos JS. Design study of a stand-alonedesalination system powered by renewable energy sources and apumped storage unit. Desalination. 2010;257(13):13749.17. Khalifa AJN. Evaluation of different hybrid power scenarios toReverse Osmosis (RO) desalination units in isolated areas in Iraq.Energy Sustain Dev. 2011;15(1):4954.18. Karellas S, Terzis K, Manolakos D. Investigation of an autonomoushybrid solar thermal ORC-PV RO desalination system. The Chalkiisland case. Renew Energy. 2011;36(2):58390.19. Peate B, Garca-Rodrguez L. Seawater reverse osmosis desalina-tion driven by a solar organic rankine cycle: design and technologyassessment for medium capacity range. Desalination. 2012;284:8691.20. Ben Ali I, TurkiM, Belhadj J, RoboamX, EnergyManagement of aReverse Osmosis Desalination Process Powered by RenewableEnergy Sources. 16th IEEE Mediterranean ElectrotechnicalConference (MELECON), 2012. 2012:8005.21. Hossam-Eldin A, El-Nashar AM, Ismaiel A. Investigation intoeconomical desalination using optimized hybrid renewable energysystem. Electr Power Energy Syst. 2012;43(1):1391400.22. Attia A. Thermal analysis for system uses solar energy as a pressuresource for reverse osmosis (RO) water desalination. Sol Energy.2012;86(9):248693.23. Olwig R, Hirsch T, Sattler C, Glade H, Schmeken L, Will S, et al.Techno-economic analysis of combined concentrating solar powerand desalination plant configurations in Israel and Jordan. DesalinWater Treat. 2012;41(13):925.24. Kim J, Lee J, Kim JH. Overview of pressure-retarded osmosis(PRO) process and hybrid application to sea water reverse osmosisprocess. Desalin Water Treat. 2012;43(13):193200.25. Bognar K, Pohl R, Behrendt F. Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO)as deferrable load in microgrids. Desalin Water Treat. 2013;51(46):11909. This makes the case for efficient use of power (reducingdump loads, and storage capacity needed) with clear economicanalyses and detailed results..26. Moser M, Trieb F, Fichter T, Kern J. Renewable desalination: amethodology for cost comparison. DesalinWater Treat. 2013;51(46):117189.27. Lpez-Ramrez JA, Acevedo A, Castaeda RJ, Garca-VaqueroMarn N. Sustainable improvement of drinking water quality bynanofiltration powered by renewable energy. Water Sci TechnolWater Supply. 2013;13(2):30918.28. Porrazzo R, Cipollina A, GalluzzoM, Micale G. A neural network-based optimizing control system for a seawater-desalination solar-powered membrane distillation unit. Comput Chem Eng. 2013;54:7996.29. Peate B, Crez F, Domnguez FJ. Design and testing of an isolatedcommercial EDR plant driven by solar photovoltaic energy. DesalinWater Treat. 2013;51(46):125464.30. Kim Y, Logan BE. Microbial desalination cells for energy produc-tion and desalination. Desalination. 2013;308:12230.31. Zhao Y, Wang H. Experimental study on the influence of the nozzleon combined desalination and power generation system. Asia PacPower Energy Eng Conf. 2010;2010:14.32. Ge X, Liu R, Jiao Z, Zhao Y. The Study on Combined Desalinationand Power Generation System using Solar Pond. 2011 InternationalConference on Materials for Renewable Energy & Environment.2011; 1:11923.33. Baharudin NH, Mansur TMNT, Ali RB, Yatim Y, Wahab AAA.Optimization Design and Economic Analysis of Solar PowerSystem with Sea Water Desalination for Remote Areas. 2011 I.E.Colloquium on Humanities, Science and Engineering Research.2011:3359.34. Baharudin NH, Mansur TMNT, Ali RB, Wahab AAA, RahmanNA, Ariff EARE, Ali A. Mini-Grid Power system OptimizationDesign and Economic Analysis of Solar Powered Sea WaterDesalination Plant for Rural Communities and Emergency ReliefConditions. 2012 I.E. International Power Engineering andOptimization Conference. 2012:4659.35. Liu X, ChenW, Shen S, GuM, Cao G. The research on thermal andeconomic performance of solar desalination system with evacuatedtube collectors. 2013;51(19-21):372837.36. Koroneos C, Roumbas G. Geothermal waters heat integration forthe desalination of sea water. Desalin Water Treat. 2012;37(13):6976.Curr Sustainable Renewable Energy Rep (2014) 1:1118 1737. Ayhan T, Madani HA. Feasibility study of renewable energypowered seawater desalination technology using natural vacuumtechnique. Renew Energy. 2010;35(2):50614.38. Gude VG, Nirmalakhandan N, Deng S, Maganti A. Feasibilitystudy of a new two-stage low temperature desalination process.Energy Convers Manag. 2012;56:1928.39. Gude VG, Nirmalakhandan N, Deng S, Maganti A. Low tempera-ture desalination using solar collectors augmented by thermal ener-gy storage. Appl Energy. 2012;91(1):46674.40. Gude VG, Nirmalakhandan N, Deng S. Sustainable low tempera-ture desalination: a case for renewable energy. J Renew Sust Energ.2011;3:125.41. Ng KC, Thu K, Kim Y, Chakraborty A, Amy G. Adsorptiondesalination: an emerging low-cost thermal desalination method.Desalination. 2013;308:16179. This paper is remarkable becauseit posits adsorption desalination as a technology that may rivalreverse osmosis in the future..42. Missimer TM, KimYD, Rachman R, Ng KC. Sustainable renewableenergy seawater desalination using combined-cycle solar and geo-thermal heat sources. Desalin Water Treat. 2013;51(46):116170.43. Kavvadias KC, Khamis I. The IAEA DEEP desalination economicmodel: a critical review. Desalination. 2010;257(13):1507.44. Kondili E, Kaldellis JK, Paidousi M. Amulticriteria analysis for theoptimal desalination-RES system. Spec Focus Small Greek Islands.2012;51(46):120518. Different desalination systems coupledwith renewable energy technologies can be very difficult to com-pare. This paper provides a framework for those comparisons..45. Kaldellis JK, Gkikaki A, Kaldelli EI, Kapsali M. Investigating theenergy autonomy of very small non-interconnected islands. A casestudy: Agathonisi, Greece. Energy Sustain Dev. 2012;16(4):47685.46. Lilienthal P, Lambert P, and Lambert T. Getting Started Guide forHOMER Legacy (Version 2.68). National Renewable EnergyLaboratory. 2011:128.47. Yoshihara T, Yokoyama A, Imanaka M, Onda Y, Baba J, Kuniba Y,et al. A new method for securing regulating capacity for load fre-quency control using seawater desalination plant in Small IslandPower System. Int Conf Power Syst Technol. 2010;2010:16.48. Ylmaz IH, SylemezMS.Design and computer simulation onmulti-effect evaporation seawater desalination system using hybrid renew-able energy sources in Turkey. Desalination. 2012;291:2340.49. Malek P, Ortiz JM, Richards BS, Schfer AI. Electrodialitic remov-al of NaCl from water: impacts of using pulsed electric potential onion transport and water dissociation phenomena. J Membr Sci.2013;435:99109.50. Abad HKS, Ghiasi M, Mamouri SJ, Shafii MB. A novel integratedsolar desalination system with a pulsating heat pipe. Desalination.2013;311:20610.51. Koutroulis E, Kolokotsa D. Design optimization of desalinationsystems power-supplied by PV and W/G energy sources.Desalination. 2010;258(13):17181.52. Poullikkas A. An Optimization model for the production of desali-nated water using photovoltaic systems. Desalination. 2010;258(13):1005.53. Barrufet MA, Mareth BC. Evaluation of renewable energy as asource of power for desalination of remote-oilfield brines. SPE ProjFacil Constr. 2010;5(2):97103.54. Cherif H, Belhadj J. Large-scale time evaluation for energy estima-tion of stand-alone hybrid photovoltaic-wind system feeding areverse osmosis desalination unit. Energy. 2011;36(10):605867.55. Chaaben AB, Andoulsi R, Sellami A, Mhiri R. MIMO modelingapproach for a small photovoltaic reverse osmosis desalinationsystem. J Appl Fluid Mech. 2011;4(1):3541.56. Bourouni K, M'Barek TB, Taee AA. Design and optimization ofdesalination reverse osmosis plants driven by renewable energiesusing genetic algorithms. Renew Energy. 2011;36(3):93650.57. MBarek TB, Bourouni K, Ben Mohamed KB. Optimization cou-pling RO desalination unit to renewable energy by genetic algo-rithms. 2012;51(7-9):141628.58. Mousa K, Diabat A, Fath H. Optimal design of a hybrid solar-windpower to drive a small-size reverse osmosis desalination plant.Desalin Water Treat. 2012;51(1618):341727.59. Palacin L, de Prada C, Tadeo F, Salazar J. Operation of medium-size reverse osmosis plants with optimal energy consumption.Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Dynamicsand Control of Process Systems (DYCOPS 2010). 2010.18 Curr Sustainable Renewable Energy Rep (2014) 1:1118Integration of Renewable Energy Technologies With DesalinationAbstractIntroductionReverse Osmosis Desalination Systems With Various Renewable Energy SourcesRO Powered by WindRO Powered by PVRO Powered by RE CombinationsOther Membrane Desalination Systems With Various REThermal Desalination Systems With Various Renewable Energy SourcesEvaluation of RE and Desalination AlternativesEnergy Load Management With RE and DesalinationOptimization Modeling for Design and Operation of RE and Desalination SystemsConclusionsReferencesPapers of particular interest, published recently, have been highligted as: Of importance Of major importance
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