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  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 1 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    Integrating Structural and Hydrologic Design in Permeable Pavement

    David R. SmithTechnical DirectorInterlocking Concrete Pavement Institute

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 2 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    Pervious, Porous & Permeable Pavements

    PerviousPervious PermeablePermeablePerviousPerviousconcreteconcrete

    Permeable Permeable interlocking concreteinterlocking concrete

    bl f ti

    PorousPorous

    capable of accepting, finding a way through

    PorousPorousasphaltasphalt capable of passing something

    (i.e. air/water)

    full of pores, capable of being penetrated

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 3 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    Concrete pavers:

    ICP

    Concrete pavers:ASTM C 9368,000 psi

    PICPPICP Impervious pavement

    3

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 4 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    No. 8No. 8 Typical bedding, base & subbase stone sizessubbase stone sizes

    No. 57No. 57 No. 2No. 2

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 5 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    PICP for Hydrologic and Structural Design

    Structural Analysis HydrologicalAnalysis

    Structural Analysis HydrologicalAnalysis

    Pavement Structure:Type and thickness of

    pavement layers

    Drainage Design:Drainage features and characteristic

    Pavement Structure:Type and thickness of

    pavement layers

    Drainage Design:Drainage features and characteristicp y

    C id h i

    p y

    C id h iIs the

    drainage adequate?

    Consider changing Drainage characteristics

    NoConsider changing

    Yes

    Is the drainage

    adequate?

    Consider changing Drainage characteristics

    NoConsider changing

    Yes

    Thickness of pavement granular layers

    Thickness of pavement granular layers

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 6 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    Structural Design - AASHTO

    1993 ME PDG 2004

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 7 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    Structural Design AASHTO 1993 ti pp

    07.8)log(32.2

    )1(109440.0

    5.1log

    20.0)1log(36.9

    19.5

    0 +

    ++

    +++= Ri

    ti

    R M

    SN

    ppp

    SNSZLogW

    )1( +SN

    W = design traffic load in equivalent single axle loads (ESALs)

    Z t d d l d i tZR = standard normal deviateS0 = standard deviationSN = structural number of the pavement

    = a * d= ai * diai = structural layer coefficientdi = layer thickness

    pi= initial serviceabilitypi initial serviceabilitypt= terminal serviceabilityMR = subgrade resilient modulus (CBR, R-value)

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 8 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    Truck Volumes and AxleWeights Affect Performance (i.e. rutting)

    Traffic loads characterized by Equivalent Single Axle Loadsq g

    18,000 lb (80 kN) ESALs

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 9 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    Truck Factor = ESAL per TruckLEF: Load Equivalency Factor = axle load( )4

    5 Axle Truck

    LEF: Load Equivalency Factor = axle load80 kN( )

    5 Axle Truck

    2 x 80kN (18 kips) 2 x 70 kN (15.8 kips) 50 kN (11 kips)

    LEF = = 1 (x2) LEF = = 0.15504

    80( )804

    80( ) LEF = = 0.6 (x2)704

    80( )

    TF (one pass) = 2.00 + 1.2 + 0.15 = 3.35 ESALs

    ( )

    (

    80( )80( ) ( )80( )

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 10 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    AASHTO Typical ESALs by Road ClassAASHTO Typical ESALs by Road Class

    Road Class Design ESALsArterial or Major StreetsArterial or Major StreetsUrban 7,500,000Rural 3,600,000Major CollectorsUrban 2,800,000Rural 1,450,000Minor CollectorsUrban 1,250,000Urban 1,250,000Rural 550,000Commercial/Multi-Family LocalsUrban 425,000R l 275 000Rural 275,000

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 11 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    Porous AsphaltPorous Asphalt Pavements for Stormwater Management, NAPA 2008

    Traffic LoadingTraffic LoadingMinimum Compacted Minimum Compacted Thickness, in. (mm)Thickness, in. (mm)

    p f g ,

    Parking Little or no trucks 2.5 (65)

    Residential street Some trucks

    4.0 (100)

    Heavy Trucks 6 (150)

    S t d PA l ffi i t 0 40 /i

    No Base/subbaseThi k G id li

    Suggested PA layer coefficient = 0.40 /in.

    Thickness Guidelines

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 12 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    Pervious ConcreteHydrologic Design of Pervious Concrete, Leming, PCA & NRMCA

    Traffic Traffic LoadLoad

    Design Design Axle Axle Load, Load, lblb

    RepetiRepeti--tionstions

    Pervious Pervious Concrete Concrete Thickness, in. Thickness, in. (mm)(mm)

    18,000 lb (80 kN) 18,000 lb (80 kN) Equivalent Single Equivalent Single Axle Loads over 20 Axle Loads over 20

    (7 200 d )(7 200 d )lbs lbs (kN(kN))

    (mm)(mm) years (7,200 days)years (7,200 days)

    Low 4,000 (18)

    Unlimited 4 (100) Unlimited( )

    Moderate 12,000 (53)

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 13 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    PICP Typical max. lifetime loads: 600,000 18,000 lb ESALs or TI = 8.5 Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavements, ICPI 2006g

    ** Strengthen soil subgrade with crushed stone to full frost depth

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 14 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    Permeable Design Pro Software

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 15 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    Moving ahead All use empirical structural design methods PICP accounts for truck traffic loads and soil

    strengths provides base/subbase thicknessesstrengths, provides base/subbase thicknesses AASHTO method reasonable for PICP Open-graded subbase/base more research p g /

    needed Load-deformation relationships

    i ld d f 200 S O d lField data for 2004 AASHTO modelStructural contribution of pavement layers (elastic modulus/layer coefficients)

    Caltrans theoretical modeling full scale tests(?)MnRoad full-scale PC & PA tests

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 16 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    2 yrs residential street Oregon

    7 -8 yrs container storage New York New construction Minnesota

    16

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 17 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    Completely clogged surfaces require restorative vacuum cleaning

    17

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 18 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    d Inspect & vacuum Inspect & vacuum sweep 2x annuallysweep 2x annuallysweep 2x annuallysweep 2x annuallywith standard with standard

    equipmentequipmenttt-- no waterno water

    Sweeping only equipmentSweeping only equipmentnot effective in removing not effective in removing

    di tdi tsediment sediment

    Check infiltration in Check infiltration in small areas with watersmall areas with watersmall areas with water small areas with water --Use ASTM C1701 asUse ASTM C1701 asneededneeded 18

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 19 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    Sweeper EffectivenessLeast effective

    Regenerative air vacuum sweeper - use 1-2 times/year

    TTrue vacuum sweeper very powerful restores highlyclogged (neglected) surfaces19

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 20 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    Sediment collects in top - 1 in. (13-25 mm)

    True vacuum sweeperpcleans out clogged stone & restores

    surface infiltration refill with clean stone20

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 21 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    Exposed capUS Army Ft. Stewart, Georgia 21

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 22 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    Covered cap

    Exposed capExposed cap

    22

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 23 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    Winter Maintenance Snow melts faster lower risk of iceSnow melts faster lower risk of ice Surface does not heave when frozen Use normal plows - dirty snow piles clog surface Deicing salts okay Deicing salts okay Sand will clog system use

    jointing material for traction

    23

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 24 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    PICP Inspection ChecklistVacuum surface 1 to 2 times annually, adjust per sediment

    loadingloading Replenish aggregate in joints As needed

    Inspect vegetation around PICP perimeter for cover & soil stability Annually, repair/replant as needed

    Repair all deformationsexceeding 1/2 in. (13 mm) Annually, repair as needed

    Repair pavers offset by more than 1/4 in. (6 mm) above/below adjacent units Annually, repair as needed

    Replace broken units impairingReplace broken units impairingsurface structural integrity Annually

    Check drain outfalls for free flow of water & outflow fromflow of water & outflow from observation well Annually, after a major storm

    24

  • 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 25 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

    PICP MaintenancePICP MaintenancePICP MaintenancePICP MaintenanceWorkshopWorkshop

    Friday, June 4Naval PostgraduateSchoolSchoolMonterey, CA

    www bae ncsu edu/www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater/training.htm

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