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Integrated Soil Fertility ManagementIntegrated Soil Fertility Management[ISFM][ISFM] in Subin Sub--Saharan Africa: Saharan Africa:

principles and practiceprinciples and practiceprinciples and practiceprinciples and practice

B VanlauweB VanlauweTSBFTSBF--CIATCIAT

Fertility

Soil Biology

TSBFTSBF CIATCIATKenya, NairobiKenya, Nairobib.vanlauwe@cgiar.orgb.vanlauwe@cgiar.org

TSBF

Soil

The opportunity

Finally, fertilizer is back on the African agenda!Finally, fertilizer is back on the African agenda!

Statement in 1996 (Research Director, IITA):Statement in 1996 (Research Director, IITA): Statement in 1996 (Research Director, IITA): Statement in 1996 (Research Director, IITA): You cant include fertilizer in your work sinceYou cant include fertilizer in your work sincefarmers in Africa are not using fertilizerfarmers in Africa are not using fertilizerfarmers in Africa are not using fertilizerfarmers in Africa are not using fertilizer

The opportunity

The African Green Revolution The African Green Revolution (K Anan)(K Anan)

The Alliance for a Green Revolution in AfricaThe Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa The Alliance for a Green Revolution in AfricaThe Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa(AGRA): (AGRA): By 2015, increase fertilizer use from By 2015, increase fertilizer use from 8 to 50 kg fertilizer nutrients/ha8 to 50 kg fertilizer nutrients/ha8 to 50 kg fertilizer nutrients/ha8 to 50 kg fertilizer nutrients/ha

Soil health program of AGRA Soil health program of AGRA [50% improved[50% improvedplants 50% improved soils]plants 50% improved soils]plants, 50% improved soils]plants, 50% improved soils]

The challenge

What are best soil fertility managementWhat are best soil fertility managementpractices?practices?pp

How can these be deployed over a relativelyHow can these be deployed over a relativelyl l i l i l h i d f i ?l l i l i l h i d f i ?large scale in a relatively short period of time?large scale in a relatively short period of time?

S il ld li i d j iS il ld li i d j i

Production environment in Africa Soils are old; limited rejuvenationSoils are old; limited rejuvenation

O l b 10% f h bl l d iO l b 10% f h bl l d i

Production environment in Africa Only about 10% of the arable land in use Only about 10% of the arable land in use

O l b 10% f h bl l d iO l b 10% f h bl l d i

Production environment in Africa Only about 10% of the arable land in use Only about 10% of the arable land in use

[limited areas with large population densities][limited areas with large population densities]

L k f i f k i iL k f i f k i i

Production environment in Africa Lack of infrastructure, market organizationLack of infrastructure, market organization

L k f i f k i iL k f i f k i i

Production environment in Africa Lack of infrastructure, market organizationLack of infrastructure, market organization

Bukavu(DRCongo)

Masaka

(DRCongo)900 USD

Masaka(Uganda)421 USD

Mombasa264 USD

Internationalmarket

165 USD

L k f f bl liL k f f bl li [ Ni i b idi[ Ni i b idi

Production environment in Africa Lack of favorable policy Lack of favorable policy [e.g, Nigeria: subsidies [e.g, Nigeria: subsidies

have been on/off over the past 30 years] have been on/off over the past 30 years] D li i i i R&D f il f iliD li i i i R&D f il f ili Declining capacity in R&D for soil fertility mgtDeclining capacity in R&D for soil fertility mgt Insufficient investment in agricultural R&DInsufficient investment in agricultural R&D B i d iB i d i Brain drainBrain drain Climate change, droughtClimate change, drought Ci il ifCi il if Civil strifeCivil strifeHIV/AIDS, malnutritionHIV/AIDS, malnutrition L d i iL d i i Land tenure insecurityLand tenure insecurityHigh inflation, low salariesHigh inflation, low salaries EE Etc, etc, etcEtc, etc, etc

FAO I d f N t F d O t t C it 1961 2000

Current status of agriculture in AfricaFAO Index of Net Food Output per Capita, 1961-2000

160

140

150

120

130

100

110

80

90

80

1961

1963

1965

1967

1969

1971

1973

1975

1977

1979

1981

1983

1985

1987

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

World E SE Asia South Asia Sub-Sahara

The challenge

What are best soil fertility managementWhat are best soil fertility managementpractices?practices?

How can these be deployed over a relativelyHow can these be deployed over a relativelylarge scale in a relatively short period of time?large scale in a relatively short period of time?large scale in a relatively short period of time?large scale in a relatively short period of time?

Necessary components of ISFM1. Fertilizers are indispensable

Necessary components of ISFM1. Fertilizers are indispensable

Necessary components of ISFM2. Organic resources are limited but necessary

Crop Oilpalm Imperata ManureCrop Oilpalm Imperata Manureresidues leaves

Availability? Acceptability? Quality?Availability? Acceptability? Quality?

Necessary components of ISFM3. Improved germplasm enhances nutrient uptake

Necessary components of ISFM4. Fields are heterogeneous

Necessary components of ISFM4. Fields are heterogeneous

Necessary components of ISFM

Ring management Clustered farms Shifting plots

4. Fields are heterogeneous

g g(Prudencio et al, 93) (Titonnell et al, 05)

g p(AfricaNuances, 07)

HouseHouseFields; lighter colors refer to less fertile plots

Definition of ISFM

The application of soil fertility management practices and the knowledge to adapt these topractices, and the knowledge to adapt these tolocal conditions, which maximize fertilizer and

organic resource use efficiency and croporganic resource use efficiency and crop productivity. These practices necessarily

include appropriate fertilizer and organic inputinclude appropriate fertilizer and organic inputmanagement in combination with the utilization of improved germplasmutilization of improved germplasm

Definition of ISFMA i ffi i

5000

Agronomic efficiency = [Increase in yield]/[Fertilizer nutrients applied]

4000

4500

5000

a)

3000

3500

4000

eld

(kg/

h

2000

2500

Cro

p yi

e

Constant fertilizer application rate

1000

1500

C application rate

0 10 20 30 40

AE (kg grain/kg fertilizer)

A i ffi i

Definition of ISFMAgronomic efficiency = [Increase in yield]/[Fertilizer nutrients applied]

5000

400045005000

ha)

250030003500

eld

(kg/

h

100015002000

Cro

p yi

e

0500

1000C

0 50 100 150 200

Fertilizer nutrients applied (kg/ha)

A i ffi i

Definition of ISFMAgronomic efficiency = [Increase in yield]/[Fertilizer nutrients applied]

5000

400045005000

ha)

250030003500

eld

(kg/

h

100015002000

Cro

p yi

e

0500

1000C

0 50 100 150 200

Fertilizer nutrients applied (kg/ha)

Definition of ISFMA i ffi iAgronomic efficiency = [Increase in yield]/[Fertilizer nutrients applied]

35

40

izer

)

20

25

30

/kg

fert

ili

10

15

20

kg g

rain

/

0

5

10

AE

(k

0 50 100 150 200

Fertilizer nutrients applied (kg/ha)

Definition of ISFMA i ffi iAgronomic efficiency = [Increase in yield]/[Fertilizer nutrients applied]

V l E tr r in * [$ ]Value Extra grain * [$grain]--------- = ----------------------------C t F rtiliz r * [$ ]Cost Fertilizer * [$fertilizer]

dgeCurrent practice

cien

cy

crease in

knowled

geic

effi

c Increa

A

rono

m

Responsive soils

AC

Ag

Currentti

Germplasm& f tili

Germplasm& f tili

Germplasm& f tili

Responsive soilsPoor, less-responsive soilsB

eld/ Average of 8 kg nutrients/ha

Relatively poor AE due topractice & fertilizer+ Organicresource mgt

+ L l

& fertilizer+ Organicresource mgt

& fertilizerYie Relatively poor AE due to

poor fertilizer management Lack of use of improved+ Local

adaptation

Full ISFMMove towards ISFM

Lack of use of improved germplasm

S il d d f ili i SSA!

Step 1: Fertilizer and germplasmSoils do respond to fertilizer in SSA!

40

45Maize-based systems in sub-Saharan AfricaN applied < 100 kg/ha

30

35

40

dded

)

N applied < 100 kg/haChivenge et al, 2010

Fertilizer alone

25

30

n/kg

N a

d

15

20

(kg

grai

5

10AE

n=268 n= 69 n= 90 n=1090

All Sand Loam Clay

n 268 n 69 n 90 n 109

Step 1: Fertilizer and germplasmcrop yieldcrop yieldC i ld crop yield

utilization efficiency

IIorganic matter production

III

crop yield