insolation and temperature

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Insolation and Temperature. Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) can be described as waves. Note the generation of a magnetic field at right angles to an electrical field and both are perpendicular to the direction of EMR propagation http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/electromagnetic/index.html. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Insolation and Temperature

  • Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) can be described as waves.Note the generation of a magnetic field at right angles to an electrical field and both are perpendicular to the direction of EMR propagationhttp://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/electromagnetic/index.html

  • The wavelength () of EMR is directly related to the amount of NRG in the radiation.Short () (e.g. gamma rays) have a higher NRG contentLong () (e.g. thermal or microwave (Radio) have a lower NRG content

    As the velocity of the propagation of EMR (the speed of light) is believed to be a constant (c) The number of waves to pass a single point in a given period (the frequency, v) is much higher for shorter radiation

  • Atmospheric WindowsSome EMR passes through the atmosphere with no interference (an atmospheric windowSome EMR is absorbed (or blocked) by components in the atmosphereThe most significant absorbers of EMR in the atmosphere are O2 , N2, O3, CO2, H2O

  • Gamma radiation, X-rays, and UV radiation absorbed in the upper atmosphereWater vapor and Carbon Dioxide absorb portions of the EM spectrum in the thermal portions of the spectrum

  • Atmospheric scattering: (skylight or haze)Rayleigh scatter (molecular scatter) primary factor in upper atmosphere (why the sky is blue)Mie scatter (non-molecular scattering, water/ice/salt/smoke) primarly in lower atmosphere

  • When the sun is at very low angles, virtually all the shorter EMR is scattered, allowing only the longer, lower NRG waves (reds) to pass through.

  • Of the incoming EMR, a significant portion is simply reflected back into space Albedo

  • Clouds and Ice have an Albedo approaching 100%

  • Global albedo is not constant but the overall average is 35%

  • The atmosphere is heated primarily from below from the surface.

  • Adiabatic cooling and the inverse Adiabatic warming

  • Note the influence of clouds which interrupts the latitudinal patterns

  • 45 degrees N halfway between equator and pole

  • 57.5 degrees North (same latitude as Moscow and Hudsons Bay semi-tropical gardens on the coast of Scotland

  • Normal Atmospheric Conditions

  • Temperature Inversion warmer air slides over the cool air at the surface trapping the surface air beneath a very stable upper air mass

  • ***************************************

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