infrared thermography guide (revision 3)
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DESCRIPTIONInfrared Thermography Guide
Infrared Thermography Guide (Revision 3)
M AT E
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Plant Maintenance Support
Infrared Thermography Guide (Revision 3)1006534
Final Report, May 2002
EPRI Project Manager P. Zayicek
EPRI 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, California 94303 USA 800.313.3774 650.855.2121 firstname.lastname@example.org www.epri.com
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CITATIONSThis report was prepared by Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center (NMAC) 1300 W.T. Harris Boulevard Charlotte, NC 28262 This report describes research sponsored by EPRI. The report is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following manner: Infrared Thermography Guide (Revision 3), EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2002. 1006534. The enclosed CD contains a PDF file of this report featuring full-color images.
Costly equipment outages can be reduced by implementing a comprehensive predictive maintenance program. Infrared thermography (IR), a fundamental component of such programs, uses nonintrusive techniques to monitor the operating condition of equipment and components. This revised report provides updated information to assist utilities in implementing an effective IR program. Background IR has proven to be an effective predictive maintenance and diagnostic tool. For example, it can be used to identify areas of condenser air in-leakage, bad terminal lugs/connections, leaking valves, and nozzle blockages in the containment spray ring header. To broaden the range of IR applications, EPRI sponsored the development of a guide to address IR diagnostic capabilities. This guide was originally published in 1990 and is being revised to incorporate user input and to update information on IR equipment and vendors. Objective To develop and maintain a guide that provides a consistent approach for using IR as a predictive maintenance tool Approach The EPRI Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center (NMAC) originally worked with Alabama Power personnel to assess the viability of IR as a predictive maintenance tool in a nuclear plant application. An initial IR survey and a subsequent follow-up survey identified the effectiveness of IR for identifying abnormal operating conditions for the surveyed components. Revisions to the guide include updated information on IR equipment, applications, training, and certification. Results This guide, which provides a compendium of information rather than definitive standards, describes IR theory, summarizes existing and potential IR applications, and offers technical information necessary for developing an effective in-house IR program. Key topics that are included in this guide are: The science of thermography Selection of infrared instruments Inspection techniques IR applications Basic elements of an in-house program Training and certification v
This revision provides updated information on commercial infrared sensing and imaging instruments, IR applications, and training and certification criteria. EPRI Perspective Infrared thermography is a valuable tool in a predictive maintenance program, as has been demonstrated by those applying the principles described in the Infrared Thermography Guide. Periodic updates of the guide keep the utility thermographer aware of recent developments in IR equipment technology, criteria for training and certification, and proven IR applications that add value to the utility IR program. The guide also serves as benchmark reference for those who contract their IR inspection services. Keywords Nuclear power Infrared thermography Fossil fuel power plants Predictive maintenance
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ABSTRACTThis guide is a valuable reference for the development of infrared thermography (IR) capabilities as part of a plant predictive maintenance program. The guide includes IR theory, a summary of IR inspection applications, and the technical information necessary to develop an effective in-house program. The body of the guide is structured for the general user of IR, and the appendices provide a more in-depth look at this technology for the advanced user. This third revision of Infrared Thermography Guide contains updated information on IR equipment technology, IR inspection applications, and training and certification criteria.
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThe Infrared Thermography Guide was produced by the Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center (NMAC). Extensive information for the original guide was provided by Alabama Power Company (the primary demonstration plant) and other electric power generating utilities, and is gratefully acknowledged. A. E. Hammett from SONOPCO is acknowledged for his efforts, enthusiasm, and support of this project. The following utilities are acknowledged for their review of the original guide and their comments: Alabama Power Co. Arkansas Power & Light Co. Duquesne Light Co. Florida Power & Light Co. Florida Power Corp. Maine Yankee Atomic Power Co. Pacific Gas & Electric Co. Toledo Edison Company
The following utility personnel are acknowledged for their review of Revision 1 of the Guide and their comments: Larry Shay Entergy Operations Scot Stewart Florida Power Corp. Joe Connolley Omaha Public Power District Russ Cabrel Washington Public Power Supply System Tom George Wisconsin Public Service Corp. Gary Thomas of Florida Power & Light Co. is acknowledged for his contribution of IR inspection application images for Revision 2 of the Guide. FLIR Systems Inc. and the Infrared Training Center are acknowledged for their contributions of IR inspection application images for Revision 3 of the Guide. In addition, NMAC and EPRI NDE Center staff reviewed Revisions 1, 2, and 3 and offered comments. NMAC was supported in its efforts to develop this guide by Herb Kaplan of Honeyhill Technical. Honeyhill Technical 65 Fawn Ridge Lane Norwalk, CT 06851 Honeyhill Technical 11550 Ballylee Terrace Boynton Beach, FL 33437
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INTRODUCTIONMany electric generating stations and utilities have integrated the non-contact, nondestructive capabilities of infrared thermography (IR) for condition monitoring and diagnostics in their predictive maintenance program. The purpose of this guide is to assist the nuclear industry in its efforts to factor IR into its predictive maintenance program. This guide provides the theory of IR, a summary of existing and potential applications, and the technical information necessary to develop an effective in-house program. Also included is a matrix that lists all of the known manufacturers of IR instruments for a broad range of applications. IR has been used in commercial applications since the early 1970s. In the early 1990s, at the time this guide was first completed, the most frequent applications centered on building energy losses, roof moisture detection, and inspections of major electric equipment. Applications have since expanded to almost all areas of plant predictive maintenance (PdM), product and process control, and nondestructive testing of materials. The wide and growing selection of thermal imagers and viewers available for these applications provides both qualitative and quantitative displays of temperature distribution patterns. The manufacturers of modern thermal imagers and viewers have kept pace as detector and microprocessor technologies have advanced. The capabilities of todays IR thermal imagers and viewers have yet to be fully explored and developed for commercial applications. In addition, computer software programs are now available to store, retrieve, analyze and compare infrared images. Much of the information presented in the original guide was developed as a result of a demonstration project at a U.S. nuclear utility. In addition to information gathered through this demonstration project, all Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center (NMAC) members