INFINITIVE – TOO/ENOUGH - `-ING’ FORM. Can you bear not knowing what a bare infinitive is?

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  • INFINITIVE TOO/ENOUGH - `-ING FORM

  • Can you bear not knowing what a bare infinitive is?

  • Two kinds of infinitive

    Bare infinitive

    To-infinitive

  • Two kinds of infinitive

    Bare infinitive e.g. stay, go

    To-infinitive e.g. to stay, to go

  • Use the bare infinitiveAfter modal verbs, e.g.

    After the verbs `let and `make

  • Use the bare infinitiveAfter modal verbs, e.g. can, must etc.

    After the verbs `let and `makeLet Bill go home earlyMake them sit down

  • He said, `I will not go!

    He refused ___________________

  • He said, `I will not go!

    He refused to go

  • Jack will see you. Hell be glad about thatMake this one sentence:Jack will be glad ______________

  • Jack will see you. Hell be glad about thatMake this one sentence:Jack will be glad to see you

  • He can operate the computer.Rewrite the sentenceHe knows ___________________

  • He can operate the computer.Rewrite the sentenceHe knows how to operate the computer

  • Its very cold so we cant go outsideIts too cold____________

  • Its very cold so we cant go outsideIts too cold to go outside

  • Toms clever. He can solve this problemMake this into one sentence:

    Tom is clever enough ______________

  • Toms clever. He can solve this problemMake this into one sentence:Tom is clever enough to solve this problem

  • This box is very heavy. Tom cannot lift itThis box is too heavy _________________

  • This box is very heavy. Tom cannot lift itThis box is too heavy for Tom to lift

  • Tom is not very strong. He cannot move the box.Use `enough to make one sentence

    Tom is not strong ____________________

  • Tom is not very strong. He cannot move the box.Use `enough to make one sentence

    Tom is not strong enough to move the box

  • There is a lot of space. Everyone can come in.There is enough space _________________________

  • There is a lot of space. Everyone can come in.There is enough space for everyone to come in

  • We can use the `-ing formAs a noun (either subject or object)Speaking English is easyI suggested speaking EnglishHe began collecting stampsAfter prepositionsThis book is about fishingIm tired of doing the same thing every dayIm looking forward to meeting him (The `to is a preposition, not part of an infinitive)After preposition + noun (Remember for ERS!!)This story is about a man finding buried treasure

  • Uses of `ing-formAfter the verb `go when we talk about activitiesLets go runningThey used to go pig sticking at the weekendsAfter special phrases like: its no use, be busy, its (not) worth etc.Its no use shouting to him. Hes too far away to hear.

  • Some verbs can be used with EITHER the `-ing form OR with the to -infinitivestartHe started to make a strange noiseHe started making a strange noisebegincontinuelike lovepreferhate

  • With some verbs, the meaning with the infinitive is different from the meaning with the infinitive.

    I forgot to take my medicine

    I forgot taking my medicine

  • Some can only be used with the `ing-formavoidadmitconfessdenyregretsuggest (Careful! Everyone in HK gets this wrong!)enjoydislikemindWould you mind answering a few questions?

  • Some verbs and expressions are only used with the to-infinitive

    decideI decided to take the later trainexpectwantwould likewould prefer

  • Finally, with verbs of seeing, hearing and feeling, there is a difference between the meaning with object + bare infinitive and object plus `ing-form

    I saw him crossing the street

    I saw him cross the street

  • Finally, with verbs of seeing, hearing and feeling, there is a difference between the meaning with object + bare infinitive and object plus `ing-form

    I saw him crossing the street (crossing is an action in progress)I saw him cross the street (crossing is a completed action)