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Indonesian Womens Movements:Making Democracy Gender Responsive

Women Research Institute2013

Indonesian Womens Movements:Making Democracy Gender Responsive

Indonesian Womens Movements:Making Democracy Gender Responsive

ISBN: 978-602-9230-03-1

Copyright 2013 by Women Research Institute (WRI)


Ayu AnastasiaEdriana NoerdinFrisca AnindhitaRahayuningtyasSita Aripurnami

Design Cover & LayoutSekar Pireno KS

Photo CoverPrivate documentation

First Edition, 2013

Published by Women Research InstituteJl. Kalibata Utara II No. 78, Jakarta 12740 - INDONESIATel. (62-21) 7918.7149; 798.7345 Fax. (62-21) 798.7345Email: Website:

PrefaceGlossaryIntroduction : Indonesian Womens Movements: Making Democracy

Gender ResponsiveChapter I : Women Movements in Indonesia: from Class Struggle

to Participation and RepresentationSita Aripurnami

Chapter II : Women Organizations Amidst Political OpennessEdriana Noerdin

Chapter III : Transformation of Movements and the Strengtheningof Women LeadershipSita Aripurnami

Chapter IV : Building Economic and Political Strengths of GrassrootsWomens Organizations in North SumateraAyu Anastasia

Chapter V : Womens Movements and the Discursive Reconstructionof Minangkabau Tradition and Islamic Values in PadangEdriana Noerdin and Rahayuningtyas

Chapter VI : Organizational Restructuring and Network Developmentto Strengthen Policy Advocacy in JakartaAyu Anastasia, Frisca Anindhita and Rahayuningtyas

Chapter VII : Womens Movements and Organizations in Lombok,West Nusa TenggaraSita Aripurnami and Frisca Anindhita












vi Indonesian Womens Movements: Making Democracy Gender Responsive



This book is based on Women Research Institutes study on FeministLeadership in the Post Authoritarian Regime in Indonesia: Its Impacton Social Movements and Womens Welfare (2012). The goal of the re-search was to capture the landscape of womens leadership in Indonesiaafter the downfall of Soeharto in 1998. There were not many studies andanalysis on the condition of Indonesian women in the post 1998 period.Studies on the role of feminist leadership in making democracy genderresponsive during post 1998 social transformation period were practicallynon-existent.

Since a good number of WRIs womens organization respondents inthis research were established during the Soehartos era, the account ofIndonesian womens efforts to make democracy gender responsive in thepost 1998 period occasionally roved back into the authoritarian period ofthe New Order. Glimpses into the hardships in the darker past alwaysgive us extra optimism to overcome seemingly insurmountable hurdles,such as patriarchy and male dominated interpretation of religious texts,which stubbornly stand on the way of the realization of gender responsivedemocracy in Indonesia.

viii Indonesian Womens Movements: Making Democracy Gender Responsive

WRI would like to say thank you to Dr. Rocky Gerung who was adiscussant during the launching of the research findings that was held inMay 2013 in Jakarta. He made a pungent point criticizing the theme ofthe launching, which read Womens Movements are Part of DemocracyMovements in Indonesia. Apparently for him womens movements shouldnot just be a part of democracy movements. Womens movements shouldbe the judge whether what we have in the post 1998 Indonesia is a demo-cracy or something else that we should feel embarrassed. Hence, this booktakes the stand that womens movements in Indonesia are not just part ofdemocracy movements in Indonesia. The achievements of womens move-ments in Indonesia to make the post 1998 social transformation genderresponsiveness determine the democratic character of the current politicalsystem.

Our sincere thanks also go to women activist respondents, whosename we cannot mention one by one, who had jumped eagerly to joinWRIs invitation to reflect on their politically and socially enlivening jour-ney in promoting womens rights in Indonesia in the past decade or two.Thank you to HIVOS, which had provided the financial support to makethis research possible. Actually we would like to thank HIVOS primarilybecause of its commitment to support womens movements in Indonesia,not just through empowerment and advocacy programs but also throughresearch-based reflection. Tunggal Pawestri and Theresia Sri EndrasIswarini from HIVOS spent numerous hours of their precious time tochallenge our findings and analysis and provide invaluable inputs into thetedious research report writing processes. Indeed, priceless time put toworthy cause.

Jakarta, September 2013Women Research Institute



APWLD : Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law andDevelopment

ASPABAE : Asia South Pacific Association for Basic and AdultEducation

ASPPUK : Asosiasi Pendamping Perempuan Usaha Kecil(Association of Women Small Enterprises)

BLT : Bantuan Langsung Tunai (Direct Cash Transfer)BNPB : Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (National

Agency for Disaster Mitigation )BPD : Badan Perwakilan Desa (Village Representative

Agency)BTI : Barisan Tani Indonesia (Indonesian Farmers Troops)caleg : Calon Legislatif (legislative candidates)CEDAW : Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of

Discrimination against WomenCREA : Creating Resources for Empowerment in ActionCU : Credit UnionCUCO : Credit Union Coordinator OrganizationCWGI : CEDAW Working Group IndonesiaDAWN : DisAbled Women in Action

x Indonesian Womens Movements: Making Democracy Gender Responsive

DPRD : Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah (Regional PeoplesRepresentative Council)

Elsapa : Lembaga Studi Advokasi Perempuan dan Anak(Women and Children Advocacy Studies)

FGD : Focus Group DiscussionFormak : Forum Masyarakat Kramat (Kramat Community

Forum)Gerwani : Gerakan Wanita Indonesia (Indonesian Women

Movement)Gerwis : Gerakan Wanita Indonesia Sedar (Indonesian Aware

Womens Movement)GPL : Gerakan Perempuan Lampung (Lampung Women

Movement)GWS : Gerakan Wanita Sosialis (Socialist Women Movement)HDI : Human Development IndexHIV : Human Immunodeficiency VirusHPI : Human Poverty IndexIDR : Indonesian RupiahIOM : International Organization on Migrant WorkersISJ : Institut Sosial Jakarta (Jakarta Social Institute)IWRAW : International Women Rights Action WatchJarPUK : Jaringan Perempuan Usaha Kecil (Womens Small

Enterprises Network)JASS : Just AssociateJKB : Jaringan Kerja Budaya (Cultural Work Network)JKP3 : Jaringan Kerja Perempuan Pro Prolegnas (Womens

Network for Pro-Women Legislation)JPrP : Jaringan Perempuan Pesisir (Network of Women in

the Coastal Areas)KBH : Kantor Bantuan Hukum (Legal Aid Office)KoAK : Komite Anti Korupsi (Anti Corruption Committee)Komnas Perempuan : Komisi Nasional Anti Kekerasan terhadap Perempuan

(National Commission on Violence Against Women)Kowani : Kongres Wanita Indonesia (Indonesian Women



KPI : Koalisi Perempuan Indonesia untuk Demokrasi danKeadilan (Indonesian Womens Coalition forDemocracy and Justice)

KPS : Kesatuan Perempuan Sukaraja (Unity of SukarajaWomen)

LBH : Lembaga Bantuan Hukum (Legal Aid Institute)LBH APIK : Lembaga Bantuan Hukum Asosiasi Perempuan

Indonesia untuk Keadilan (The Indonesian WomenAssociation for Justice-Legal Aid Institute)

LBT : Lesbians, Bisexuals and Trans-genderLGBT : Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and TransgenderLGBTIQ : Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and

QueerLKM : Lembaga Keuangan Mikro (Micro Finance Institute)LP2M : Lembaga Pengkajian dan Pemberdayaan Masyarakat

(Center for the Studies and Empowerment for thePeople)

MDGs : Millennium Development GoalsMMR : Maternal Mortality RateMoU : Memorandum of UnderstandingMusrembang : Musyawarah Perencanaan Pembangunan (Multi

Stakeholder Consultation Forum for DevelopmentPlanning)

NGO : Non Government OrganisationNTB : Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara)NU : Nahdatul Ulama (Traditional Muslim organisation)NUM : Nahdhlatul Ulama MuslimatOWA : Organisasi Wanita dan Anak (Union of Women and

Children Organizations)PCI : Project Center InternationalPekka : Perempuan Kepala Keluarga (Women Head of the

Family)Perwari : Persatuan Wanita Republik Indonesia (The Women

Association of the Republic of Indonesia)Pesada : Perkumpulan Sada Ahmo (Sada Ahmo Association)PIR : Perkebunan Inti Rakyat (Peoples Nucleus Estate)

xii Indonesian Womens Movements: Making Democracy Gender Responsive

PKBI : Perkumpulan Keluarga Berencana Indonesia(Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association)

PKI : Partai Komunis Indonesia (Indonesian CommunistParty)

PKK : Pembinaan Kesejahteraan Keluarga (Family WelfareEducation)

PKT RSCM : Pusat Krisis Terpadu untuk Perempuan dan Anak RSCM(Integrated Crisis Centre for Women and Children atthe RSCM)

PNI : Partai Nasional Indonesia (Indonesian National Party)PNPM : Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat

(National Program for Community Empowerment)PPK : Perkumpulan Panca Karsa (Panca Karsa Association)PPSW : Pusat Pemberdayaan Sumber Daya Wanita (Center for

Womens Resources Development)PSW : Pusat Studi Wanita (Women Research Centre)PUK : Perempuan Usaha Kecil (Women Small Enterprises)Puteri NUM : Puteri Nahdlatul Ulama MuslimatRaperda : Rancangan Peraturan Daerah (Regional Regulation Draft)raskin : beras miskin (rice for the poor )Rp : Indonesian rupiahRPK : Ruang Pelayanan Khusu


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