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    Indigenous Soil and WaterConservation in Africa

    Edited by Chris Reij, Ian Scoonesand Camilla Toulmin

    EARTHSCANEarthscan Publications Ltd, London


    Foreword ix

    Acknowledgements . xi

    1. Sustaining the soil: indigenous soil and water conservationin Africa 1Ian Scoones, Chris Reij and Camilla Toulmin

    2. Making the most of local knowledge: water harvesting in theRed Sea Hills of Northern Sudan 28Mohamed Osman El Sammani andSayed Mohamed Ahmed Dabloub

    3. Drought and the need to change: the expansion of waterharvesting in Central Darfur, Sudan 35Yagoub Abdalla Mohamed

    4. The mastery of water: SWC practices in the Atlas Mountainsof Morocco 44M Ait Hamza

    5. Mountains, foothills and plains: investing in SWC in Morocco ' 48Miloud Choker with H El Abbassi and A Laouina


    6. Improved traditional planting pits in the Tahoua Department(Niger): an example of rapid adoption by farmers 56Abdou Hassan

    7. Rehabilitating degraded land: za'i in the Djenne Circle of Mali 62Joanne Wedum, Yaya Doumbia, Boubacar Sanogo,Gouro Dicko and Oussoumana Cisse

    8. A measure for every site: traditional SWC techniques on theDogon Plateau, Mali 69Armand Kassogue, Mamadou Momota, Justin Sagara andFerdinand Schutgens

    9. The za'i: a traditional technique for the rehabilitation of degradedland in the Yatenga, Burkina Faso 80Matthieu Ouedraogo and Vincent Kabore

    10. Mulching on the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso: widespreadand well adapted to farmers' means 85Maja Slingerland and Mouga Masdewel

    11. Firki-masakwa cultivation in Borno, north-east Nigeria 90Are Kolawole, J K Adewumi and P E Odo

    12. Indigenous SWC in Southern Zimbabwe: a study of techniques,historical changes and recent developments under participatoryresearch and extension 97/ Hagmann and K Murwirwa

    13. Environmental change and livelihood responses: shiftingagricultural practices in the lakes depression zone ofNorthern Zambia 107Patrick M Sikana and Timothy N Mwambazi

    14. 'Grandfather's way of doing': gender relations and the yaba-itgosystem in Upper East Region, Ghana 117David Millar with Roy Ayariga and Ben Anamoh

    15. How rice cultivation became an 'indigenous' farming practice inMaswa district, Tanzania 126/ M Shaka, J A Ngailo and J M Wickama

    16. Making the most of compost: a look at wafipa moundsin Tanzania 134A C Mbegu



    17. Cultivating the valleys: vinyungu farming in Tanzania 139Anderson J Lema

    18. Pit cultivation in the Matengo Highlands of Tanzania 145AEM Temu and S Bisanda

    19. 'Back to the grass strips': a history of soil conservation policiesin Swaziland 151M Osunade and C Reij

    20. The 'flexibility' of indigenous SWC techniques: a case studyof the Harerge Highlands, Ethiopia 156Kebede Asrat, Kederalah Idris and Mesfin Semegn

    21. Traditional ditches in Northern Shewa, the Ethiopian Highlands 163Million Alemayehu

    22. Creating an inventory of indigenous SWC measures in Ethiopia 170Hans-Joachim Kriiger, Berhanu Fantaw, Yohannes G Michaeland Kefeni Kajela

    23. Local farming in the former Transkei, South Africa 181Kevin Phillips-Howard and Chris Oche -

    24. Traditional SWC techniques in the Mandara Mountains,Northern Cameroon 191Francois Hiol Hiol, Dieudonne Ndoum Mbeyo andFrancois Tchala Abina

    25. New perspectives on local conservation techniques: a case studyfrom Malawi 202Julius H Mangisoni and G S Phiri

    26. The rapid evolution of small-basin irrigation on the Jos Plateau,Nigeria 213Kevin Phillips-Howard

    27. A SWC system under threat: a visit to Maku, Nigeria 219 M Igbokwe

    28. Evolution of traditional techniques of soil conservation in theBamileke region, West Cameroon 228Paul Tchawa



    Bibliography 235

    Acronyms and abbreviations 244

    List of authors 245

    Index 248