Indigenous Soil and Water Conservation in Africa - ? SUSTAINING THE SOIL Indigenous Soil and Water

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SUSTAINING THE SOILIndigenous Soil and WaterConservation in AfricaEdited by Chris Reij, Ian Scoonesand Camilla ToulminEARTHSCANEarthscan Publications Ltd, LondonCONTENTSForeword ixAcknowledgements . xi1. Sustaining the soil: indigenous soil and water conservationin Africa 1Ian Scoones, Chris Reij and Camilla Toulmin2. Making the most of local knowledge: water harvesting in theRed Sea Hills of Northern Sudan 28Mohamed Osman El Sammani andSayed Mohamed Ahmed Dabloub3. Drought and the need to change: the expansion of waterharvesting in Central Darfur, Sudan 35Yagoub Abdalla Mohamed4. The mastery of water: SWC practices in the Atlas Mountainsof Morocco 44M Ait Hamza5. Mountains, foothills and plains: investing in SWC in Morocco ' 48Miloud Choker with H El Abbassi and A LaouinaCONTENTS6. Improved traditional planting pits in the Tahoua Department(Niger): an example of rapid adoption by farmers 56Abdou Hassan7. Rehabilitating degraded land: za'i in the Djenne Circle of Mali 62Joanne Wedum, Yaya Doumbia, Boubacar Sanogo,Gouro Dicko and Oussoumana Cisse8. A measure for every site: traditional SWC techniques on theDogon Plateau, Mali 69Armand Kassogue, Mamadou Momota, Justin Sagara andFerdinand Schutgens9. The za'i: a traditional technique for the rehabilitation of degradedland in the Yatenga, Burkina Faso 80Matthieu Ouedraogo and Vincent Kabore10. Mulching on the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso: widespreadand well adapted to farmers' means 85Maja Slingerland and Mouga Masdewel11. Firki-masakwa cultivation in Borno, north-east Nigeria 90Are Kolawole, J K Adewumi and P E Odo12. Indigenous SWC in Southern Zimbabwe: a study of techniques,historical changes and recent developments under participatoryresearch and extension 97/ Hagmann and K Murwirwa13. Environmental change and livelihood responses: shiftingagricultural practices in the lakes depression zone ofNorthern Zambia 107Patrick M Sikana and Timothy N Mwambazi14. 'Grandfather's way of doing': gender relations and the yaba-itgosystem in Upper East Region, Ghana 117David Millar with Roy Ayariga and Ben Anamoh15. How rice cultivation became an 'indigenous' farming practice inMaswa district, Tanzania 126/ M Shaka, J A Ngailo and J M Wickama16. Making the most of compost: a look at wafipa moundsin Tanzania 134A C MbeguVICONTENTS17. Cultivating the valleys: vinyungu farming in Tanzania 139Anderson J Lema18. Pit cultivation in the Matengo Highlands of Tanzania 145AEM Temu and S Bisanda19. 'Back to the grass strips': a history of soil conservation policiesin Swaziland 151M Osunade and C Reij20. The 'flexibility' of indigenous SWC techniques: a case studyof the Harerge Highlands, Ethiopia 156Kebede Asrat, Kederalah Idris and Mesfin Semegn21. Traditional ditches in Northern Shewa, the Ethiopian Highlands 163Million Alemayehu22. Creating an inventory of indigenous SWC measures in Ethiopia 170Hans-Joachim Kriiger, Berhanu Fantaw, Yohannes G Michaeland Kefeni Kajela23. Local farming in the former Transkei, South Africa 181Kevin Phillips-Howard and Chris Oche -24. Traditional SWC techniques in the Mandara Mountains,Northern Cameroon 191Francois Hiol Hiol, Dieudonne Ndoum Mbeyo andFrancois Tchala Abina25. New perspectives on local conservation techniques: a case studyfrom Malawi 202Julius H Mangisoni and G S Phiri26. The rapid evolution of small-basin irrigation on the Jos Plateau,Nigeria 213Kevin Phillips-Howard27. A SWC system under threat: a visit to Maku, Nigeria 219 M Igbokwe28. Evolution of traditional techniques of soil conservation in theBamileke region, West Cameroon 228Paul TchawavuCONTENTSBibliography 235Acronyms and abbreviations 244List of authors 245Index 248vin

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