index 01e 7 lok devtas (folk deities) of rajasthan 8 prominent sects and saints of rajasthan 9...
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INDEX – 01E
1 Rajasthan in the different periods of history 2 Rajasthan in the medieval period - Mewar History of Rathore’s of Marwar History of Chouhans History of Kachhawas of Amer History of Bhatis of Jaisalmer History of Jat rulers of Bharatpur 3 Rajasthan in the revolt of 1857 4 Peasant movements in Rajasthan 5 Prajamandal movements 6 Unification of Rajasthan 7 Lok Devtas (Folk Deities) of Rajasthan 8 Prominent sects and saints of Rajasthan 9 Paintings of Rajasthan 10 Forts of Rajasthan 11 Major cenotaphs of Rajasthan 12 Tribes of Rajasthan 13 Handicrafts of Rajasthan 14 Festivals of Rajasthan 15 Folk dances of Rajasthan 16 Important literary works of Rajasthan 17 Folk dramas of Rajasthan 18 Major temples of Rajasthan 19 Fairs of Rajasthan 20 Feudal system in Rajasthan 21 Extra notes
1 7 23 38 48 57 60 62 67 72 78 82 95 104 112 126 130 136 142 154 159 170 175 182 185 191
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RAJASTHAN IN THE DIFFERENT PERIODS OF HISTORY
- In Rajasthan the first Human activity was observed near River Banas and its
Tributaries. I. STONE AGE: 1. Bagore:-
It is located in Bhilwara District .
It is situated on the banks of River Kothari.
The oldest evidences of Domestication of Animals found here.
Hoards of Stone Age tools are found.
It was initially excavated by ‘Virendra Nath Mishra”
It is located in Barmer district.
It is situated on the banks of River Luni.
As it was contemporary to the settlement of Bagore, evidence of animal rearing are also found here.
Also, evidences of fire pit are found. Other sites:-
3. Jayal Both located in Nagore District
5. Budha Pushkar – Ajmer district
II. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION:-
1. Kalibanga:- - It is located in Hanumangarh District. - It signifies black bangles. - It was discovered by Amlanand Ghosh in 1952 AD. - Excavation was done by B.K. Thapar & B.B. Lal (upto 5 levels) in 1961-1969
AD. - Evidences of Pre-Harrappan and Post-Harappan civilization found. - Early evidences of cultivated fields are found in which two crops namely
gram and mustard were produced. - Evidences of fire Pits are found.
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- Drains were paved with wooden floorings. - Houses were built with unbaked bricks and decorated bricks. - Paired Cemetries are found. - Evidences of Earth-quake are found. - Kalibanga was located on the banks of ancient Saraswati or Ghaggar River
and probably due to change of path by this River it was deserted. - The Government of India established a Museum in 1985-86 AD.
2. Sothi:- - It is located in Bikaner District - Amlanand Ghosh described it as origination of Harappan Civilization. It is
also known as Kalibanga-I - Two other centers – Sowaniya and Pugal.
3. Aahar:- - It is located in Udaipur district. - Since settlement of this civilization was found near River Banas, it is also
known as Banas Civilization. - Most of the sites are excavated near Aayar/Berach a tributary of River
Banas. - Also known as civilization of Mounds of Deads. - Here, 6 to 8 fire places are found from a home which shows signs of joint
family and collective feast. - A Greek seal is found with a picture of ‘Apollo’ (God of Sun). - Black and red pots are found which are called Gorey or Koth. - A Terracota figurine of a bull is found which is called ‘Bansasian Bull’. - Water vessels without handle are found, such water vessels are found in
Iranian Civilization which correlate both. - The ancient name of Aahar is Aghatpur and in local language it is known as
‘Dhoolkot’. - Its excavation was started by ‘Akshay Kirti Vyas’. Later on Ratan Chand
Aggarwal, Hansmukh Dheeraj Sankliya and Virendra Nath Mishra continued its excavation.
- Other centers of Aahar civilization are a) Gilund (Rajsamand) b) Ojhiyana (Bhilwara) c) Balathal (Udaipur)
- Copper furnances are found here, so it is also known as ‘Copper city’.
III. MAHAJANAPADA PERIOD:- - It is also called second urban revolution of India.
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- Janapadas in Rajasthan:- 1. Matsya
- Present Alwar & Jaipur - Capital – Viratnagar - Information is also available in Rigveda.
- Capital – Mathura - Spread over regions of Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur and Karoli.
- Capital – Indraprasth - Norther Alwar
Note- Alwar North South East West Kuru Matsya Sursen
4. Rajanya Janapada
- Some parts of Bharatpur 5. Shivi Janapada
- Present Chittorgarh and Udaipur districts. - Capital – Madhymika (Present name is Nagri). - The first excavated site of Rajasthan is Nagri which was excavated in 1904
AD by D.R Bhandarkar. 6. Malav Janapada
- Present Jaipur and Tonk. - Capital – Nagar (Tonk). Also known as Khera Civilization. - Maximum coins found are of Malav Janapada.
7. Shalvya (Shalva) Janapada
- Territory spread over modern Alwar district 8. Yodhera Janapada
- Present Ganganagar and Hanumangarh distict - From Girnar/Junagadh inscription of Rudradaman ( a shaka ruler)
information is obtained that the power of Kushanas was checked by Yodheyas.
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9. Arjunayan Janapada
- It is located in present Alwar and Bharatpur districts. *Note:- During Mahajanapada peiod the area around Bikaner and Jodhpur was known as Jangal region. Later on the rulers of Bikaner acquired the title of ‘Jangaldhar Badshah’.
IV. MAURYAN PERIOD:-
The most important center during Mauryan period was Bairath (Viratnagar).
In 1837 AD ‘Captain Burt’ found the Bhabru rock edict of Ashoka from Bijak hills in which Ashoka expressed his faith towards Buddhism. A Buddhist Stupa and a spherical Buddhist temple excavated from here.
Huen-tsang (a Chinese Traveler) also verified Buddhist monastaries here. His autobiography is Si-Yu-ki-.
Later on Huna ruler Mihirkul destroyed those Buddhist monastaries.
Bhabru rock edict of Ashoka is now available at Museum of Kolkatta.
Sawai Ram Singh who was ruler of Jaipur excavated here and found a golden box in which probably there were remainings of Lord Buddha. At that time the commandant of Bairath was Kitaji Khangarot.
According to a book named ‘Kumarpal Prabandh’ written by Jai Singh Suri the founder of Chittor Fort was Chitrang Maurya who constructed a pond at Chittor.
According to Mansarovar inscription (Chittor) of 713 AD King Man Maurya ruled here. In this inscription names of four rulers are found – 1. Maheswar 2. Bhim 3. Bhoj 4. Man
This inscription by mistake fell into sea when Col. James Todd was carrying it to London.
In 734 AD Bappa Rawal Captured Chittor From king Man Maurya.
In 738 AD from the inscription of Kansava Shivalaya (Kota) we obtain information about Maurya King Dhawal. After that we do not find any evidences of Mauryans in Rajasthan.
*Note:- From Bairath maximum rock inscriptions are excavated. The script on these inscriptions is known as (shell) script. In 1936 AD Dayaram Sahani excavated here.
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V. POST MAURYAN PERIOD:-
Greek Ruler ‘Minander’ had occupied Madhyamika in 150 AD. It is mentioned in Patanjali’s Mahabhasya.
A 5 meter high Sunga period idol of Yaksha is found from ‘Noh’ (Bharatpur). It is called as idol of Jakh Baba.
Seals of Kushan period are obtained from Rang Mahal (Hanumangarh) also and idol of teacher-disciple is found from here. Rang Mahal was excavated by Dr. Hannarid (Swedish).
VI. GUPTA PERIOD:-
According to Prayag eulogy of Samudragupta his supremacy was established over all republics of Rajasthan.
Chandragupta II defeated Shaka Ruler Rudra Singh III and occupied other remaining parts of Rajasthan.
In Bayana (Bharatpur) maximum coins of Gupta period are found which are of reign of Kumargupta.
An inscription of Gupta rulers is found from Barwa (Baran) which mention about Maukhari rulers.
Huna ruler ‘Mihirkul’ constructed a Shiva Tempe in Badoli (Chittor).
Shiva Temple of Charchauma (Kota) is also an example of Gupta period architecture.
VII. POST GUPTA PERIOD:-
Rajasthan during the Tripartite Struggle. - Capital of Gurjar Prathihars was Bhinmal. - Huen-tsang tra