independence movements & decolonization ch. 33-ish

Download Independence Movements & Decolonization Ch. 33-ish

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  • Independence Movements & DecolonizationCh. 33-ish

  • Patterns: World War I Anti-Colonial Movements BeginWWI weakened European colonizers Shattered perceptions of greatnessFailed promises of self-determination

    While WWI strengthened coloniesExpanded administrative & industrial opportunitiesSolidified public support

  • Patterns: World War II Nationalism AcceleratesWWII sapped resources & will of Europe to maintain colonies

    U.S. & USSR condemned colonialism

  • Patterns: IndependenceMass support based on promises of better life

    Masses rarely benefitted from independence

  • IndiaGrowing NationalismEarlier colonization = earlier nationalism

    INC with modest goals & support initially

    Increasingly resented hardships

    Amritsar Massacre

    1 of 2

  • Growing NationalismGandhi broadened nationalist movement

    Civil disobedience

    Inclusive

    Opposing Views

    Muslim League

    2 of 2

  • Winning IndependenceWWII yields negotiations

    PartitionSecular (Hindu-dominated) IndiaMuslim PakistanEthnic violence

    1 of 2

  • Winning IndependenceIndiaDemocratic

    Growing middle-class

    Problems of social classes & diversity remain

    PakistanEndemic economic & political instabilityEast Pakistan secedes Bangladesh2 of 2

  • Ghana (Tropical Africa) Growing Nationalism

    WWI caused shortages & exploitation in Africa sparking nationalist groupsLed by western-educated elites

    WWII deepened resentment & hardships while adding industry

  • Winning IndependenceWWII civil disobedience & gradual transfer of power to nationalistsNkrumah

    Nkrumahs GhanaAmbitious govt development schemes

    Problems yield authoritarianism

  • Algeria (Settler Africa)Growing NationalismEuropean superiority shattered

    Economic desperation & tension w/ white settlers violent independence

  • Winning IndependenceBritish Kenya

    French AlgeriaGuerilla war

    1 million French cling, then flee

  • VietnamGrowing NationalismHarsh French colonization

    WWI sparks movements:

    VNQDDDestroyed by French repression

    CommunistsHo Chi Minh

  • Winning IndependenceWWII free communist North Vietnam

    French re-colonization & Cold War tensions spark warNorth Vietnam, Viet Minh, Viet Congvs.South Vietnam, Ngo Dinh Diem, U.S.

    Communist unificationRecent Chinese-style development

  • South AfricaLong settler history & ethnic divisions led to tight govt control by whites

    Afrikaner Nationalists used white supremacy to pass apartheidSystem of racial segregation

    Homelands1 of 2

  • South AfricaRich, repressive S. Af vs. black nationalism

    African National Congress & Mandela

    1980s: internal & international pressure

    1994: Apartheid endsPresident Mandela2 of 2

  • Latin AmericaNeo-Colonialism

  • Mexican Revolution1876-1910: Diazs repressive dictatorshipExport based growth tension1910-1920: Civil War & RevolutionTurmoil as Villa & Zapata push for peasant-based reforms: land reformObregon & Constitution of 1917Secular, social justice

    1920- : PRIOne-party ruleRedistribution of land

  • Interwar YearsLiberal democracy & free-trade questioned

    Nationalism from economic dependenceStudents, Depression necessitate change

    Authoritarianism echoes European Fascism

    Heavy U.S. involvement

  • Cold War Communism1950s & 1960s:Governments swing toward communismCold War brings foreign involvementGuatemala & United FruitCubaU.S. influence & Batista Communism & Castro

    Castros communist Cuba:Failed economy; Successful social programs

    Che Guevara

  • Cold War U.S.1960s & 1970s:Conservatives & U.S. counter communism w/ military ruleStability w/o economic or political progress

    1980s-today:Democracy spreads but communist sympathies remain