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  • Inclusion in the Director’s Chair: Analysis of Director Gender &

    Race/Ethnicity Across 1,300 Top Films from 2007 to 2019

    Dr. Stacy L. Smith, Marc Choueiti, Kevin Yao, Hannah Clark & Dr. Katherine Pieper

    January 2020

  • INCLUSION IN THE DIRECTOR’S CHAIR? ANALYSIS OF DIRECTOR GENDER & RACE/ETHNICITY

    ACROSS 1,300 TOP FILMS FROM 2007 TO 2019 USC ANNENBERG INCLUSION INITIATIVE

    @Inclusionists

    FEMALES ARE OUTNUMBERED IN THE DIRECTOR’S CHAIR

    2.7

    8

    3.6 2.8

    3.7 4.1

    1.9 1.9

    7.5

    4.2

    7.3

    PREVALENCE OF FEMALE DIRECTORS ACROSS 1,300 FILMS in percentages

    © 2020 DR. STACY L. SMITH

    4.5 Total Number

    of Directors 1,448

    Percentage of Female Directors

    Across 13 Years 4.8%

    10.6

    54.2 55.8

    Male-Directed Films

    (average)

    Female-Directed Films

    (average)

    NO DIFFERENCE IN METACRITIC SCORES BY FILM DIRECTOR GENDER Median and average Metacritic score across 1,300 films from 2007 to 2019

    FEMALE- DIRECTED

    FILMS55

    MALE- DIRECTED

    FILMS54 VS.

    (midpoint)

    (midpoint)

    RATIO OF MALE TO FEMALE DIRECTORS ACROSS 13 YEARS

    20 TO 1

    ‘15‘07 ‘08 ‘09 ‘10 ‘12 ‘13 ‘14 ‘16 ‘18‘11 ‘17 ‘19

    *Box Office data was pulled on 1/1/20, using projections for the 99th and 100th film in the sample. Fluctuations in rank and included films will occur after study release.

  • 2007 AND 2019

    Gina Prince-Bythewood*

    Lilly Wachowski

    Susanna White

    FEMALE DIRECTORS ACROSS 1,300 TOP-GROSSING FILMS

    Angelina Jolie

    Anna Foerster

    Ava DuVernay*

    Betty Thomas

    Brenda Chapman

    Catherine Hardwicke

    Diane English

    Elizabeth Allen Rosenbaum

    Elizabeth Banks

    Jennifer Flackett

    Jennifer Lee

    Jessie Nelson

    Julie Anne Robinson

    Julie Taymor

    Kathryn Bigelow

    Kimberly Peirce

    Kirsten Sheridan

    Lana Wachowski

    THERE ARE

    INDIVIDUAL FEMALE

    DIRECTORS BETWEEN

    57 Loveleen Tandan*

    Nancy Meyers

    Niki Caro

    Nora Ephron

    Phyllida Lloyd

    Sam Taylor-Johnson

    Sanaa Hamri*

    Shari Springer Berman

    Sharon Maguire

    Thea Sharrock

    Patricia Riggen*

    Jodie Foster

    Sarah Smith

    Jennifer Yuh Nelson*

    Patty Jenkins

    Trish Sie

    Anne Fletcher

    Hallie Meyers-Shyer

    Greta Gerwig

    Stacy Title

    Stella Meghie*

    Lucia Aniello

    *An asterisk denotes an underrepresented

    female director.

    Abby Kohn

    Kay Cannon

    Susanna Fogel

    © 2020 DR. STACY L. SMITH

    Anna Boden

    Gail Mancuso

    Jill Culton

    Kasi Lemmons*

    Lorene Scafaria

    Marielle Heller

    Olivia Wilde

    Roxann Dawson*

    Tina Gordon*

    Melina Matsoukas*

    3 11 38 8 13

    123152 211

    15

    22

    1,44870 OUT OF

    4

    DIRECTORS

    192

    Li on

    sg at

    e

    Pa ra

    m ou

    nt

    So ny

    P ic

    tu re

    s

    ST X

    En t.

    20 th

    C en

    t. F

    ox

    U ni

    ve rs

    al

    W al

    t D is

    ne y

    W ar

    ne r B

    ro s.

    220 164 240

    FEMALE DIRECTORS BY DISTRIBUTOR Number of female directors across 1,300 films by distributor

    O th

    er

    5

    124Total # of Directors

    Mimi Leder

  • UNDERREPRESENTED DIRECTORS BY DISTRIBUTOR

    TOTAL NUMBER

    OF DIRECTORS

    NUMBER OF UR

    DIRECTORS

    20TH CENTURY FOX

    PARAMOUNT PICTURES

    SONY PICTURES

    UNIVERSAL PICTURES

    WALT DISNEY STUDIOS

    WARNER BROS. PICTURES

    LIONSGATE

    STX ENTERTAINMENT

    OTHER

    TOTAL

    192

    152

    211

    220

    164

    240

    123

    22

    124

    1,448

    29

    14

    34

    39

    10

    25

    26

    0

    19

    196

    © 2020 DR. STACY L. SMITH

    OVERALL

    12.5

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    13.5% 11.6

    13.5

    10.1 8.3 9.1

    16.8

    12.2 12.2 13.3

    18.3 21.4

    16.8

    UNDERREPRESENTED DIRECTORS BY YEAR Number of underrepresented directors across 1,300 films

    ‘15‘07 ‘08 ‘09 ‘10 ‘12 ‘13 ‘14 ‘16 ‘18‘11 ‘17 ‘19

    Number of underrepresented directors across 1,300 films

    DISTRIBUTION COMPANY

    15%

    9%

    16%

    18%

    6%

    10%

    21%

    0

    15%

    13.5%

    PERCENTAGE OF UR

    DIRECTORS

  • Race/ethnicity of 57 individual female directors across 1,300 films

    HOLLYWOOD’S IMAGE OF A FEMALE DIRECTOR IS A WHITE WOMAN

    46 WOMEN ARE WHITE

    © 2020 DR. STACY L. SMITH

    54.2

    Films by White Directors

    (average)

    Films by UR Directors

    (average)

    METACRITIC SCORES FOR UNDERREPRESENTED DIRECTORS Median and average Metacritic score across 1,300 films from 2007 to 2019

    THE MIDPOINT SCORE IS THE SAME FOR FILMS BY

    WHITE AND UNDERREPRESENTED

    DIRECTORS

    54

    U.S. POPULATION

    TOTAL #

    TOTAL %

    20%

    183

    12.6%

    30%

    57

    3.9%

    30%

    1,195

    82.5%

  • Percentage of female directors by media platform PIPELINE PROBLEMS: CAREER PROGRESS STALLS FOR FEMALES

    29.7 DROP

    FROM NARRATIVE INDEPENDENT FILMS

    TO TOP-GROSSING FILMS

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    Netflix Directors 2019

    Narrative Independent Films

    Episodic TV Directors 2018-19

    Top-Grossing Films 2007-2019

    34.5% 31%

    20%

    4.8%

    © 2020 DR. STACY L. SMITH

    PERCENTAGE POINT

    RATIO OF WHITE MEN TO UNDERREPRESENTED WOMEN DIRECTORS ACROSS 13 YEARS

    92 TO 1

    2

    1

    43

    1

    2

    SONY

    FOXUNIVERSAL

    DISNEY

    WB PARAMOUNT

    UNDERREPRESENTED WOMEN DIRECTORS BY DISTRIBUTOR Number of underrepresented women directors per distributor from 2007-2019

    13 years: 2007-2019. 1,300 movies. 13 under-represented womendirectors. ONLY

    Zero underrepresented women directors worked on top films from Lionsgate, STX, or other distributors.

  • © 2020 DR. STACY L. SMITH

    METACRITIC SCORES BY GENDER AND UNDERREPRESENTED STATUS Average metacritic score by gender and race/ethnicity of directors, 2007-2019

    UR FEMALE

    DIRECTORS EARN THE HIGHEST AVERAGE

    & MIDPOINT SCORES OF

    ANY GROUP.

    YET, THEY WORK THE

    LEAST.

    2015

    2016

    2017

    2018

    2019

    TOTAL

    11%

    18%

    17%

    11%

    17%

    15%

    0

    8%

    8%

    13%

    6%

    7%

    9%

    5%

    0

    8%

    17%

    8%

    18%

    5%

    15%

    0

    16%

    11%

    LI O

    N SG

    A TE

    PA R

    A M

    O U

    N T

    SO N

    Y PI

    C TU

    R ES

    ST X

    E N

    T.

    20 TH

    C . F

    O X

    U N

    IV ER

    SA L

    W A

    LT D

    IS N

    EY

    W A

    R N

    ER B

    R O

    S.

    12%

    9%

    13%

    11%

    26%

    14%

    0

    14%

    22%

    11%

    25%

    17%

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    4%

    4%

    0

    6%

    6%

    4%

    FEMALE DIRECTORS BY DISTRIBUTOR SLATE & YEAR Percentage of female directors per distributor slate, 2015-2019

    YE A

    R

    54.3 54.354.2 62.5

    1,051 films

    by White Males

    179 films

    by UR

    Males

    56 films

    by White

    Females

    13 films

    by UR

    Females

  • 5.1%

    OF BEST DIRECTOR NOMINEES

    FROM 2008-2020 WERE FEMALE.

    94.9% WERE MALE.

    THE GENDER GAP IN AWARDS Percentage of Female Directors by Award Type, 2008-2020

    Golden Globes

    Academy Awards

    DGA Awards

    Critics’ Choice

    4.9 3.24.5 7.1

    Female

    Male

    Angelina Jolie

    Ava Duvernay

    Greta Gerwig

    Greta Gerwig

    Kathryn Bigelow

    Kathryn Bigelow

    UNBROKEN

    SELMA

    LADY BIRD

    LITTLE WOMEN

    THE HURT LOCKER

    ZERO DARK THIRTY

    DIRECTOR NAME

    FILM TITLE

    G O

    LD EN

    G LO

    B ES

    D G

    A A

    W A

    R D

    S

    A C

    A D

    EM Y

    A W

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    D S

    C R

    IT IC

    S ’

    C H

    O IC

    E

    FEMALE DIRECTORS RECEIVING AWARD NOMINATIONS Female directors and films nominated for Best Directing awards from 2008-2020

    TOP PERFORMER IN 2019: UNIVERSAL PICTURES Universal distributed the most films by women directors in 2019.

    95.195.5 96.8 92.9

    © 2020 DR. STACY L. SMITH

    A black check mark indicates a nomina