Improve Your IELTS - Writing Skills

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Sam McCarter Norman Whitby

page 4

Introductio n


TOp ic

Tas k 1Describing trends Relal ed verbs a nd nouns Und e rs tandin g data

Ta s k 2Understanding questions ExpreSSing soitllions Linking phrases Using trigger wordsUsing ifltlIl!yltltis/lht'st' Planning essays Developing ideasUsing whirh to organize in formalion Expressi ng result and PUIl)OS~Avoiding ovc rgcncra ii7.t1tion Developing reaS()IlS

Unit 1 page 6

Change andconsequences

Unit 2pagt" 11

Th e importan ceof the past

Comparing informalion Adverbs in co mparisons Comparing and contrasting

Unit 3 page 22 Unit 4page 30

Machines. cycles,and processes

The passi veSequencing Genera l and specific slatemelliS Compa ring information Describi ng proport ions


Unit 5page 38


Describi ng changes Describi ng loca lionsConcluding StatementS Concession ( 1)

Developing and justifying

opinionsWriting in troducliom

Unit 6page 46


Expressing ndvanlagcs and disadvanlage:, Advantage and di sa dv.1nlagc vocabulary ncession (2)

Unit 7page 54

Arts and sciences

Adverbs 0 evaluate Using In gtntral, he jou,,,]OIlOj (or, t..n. l gol( w.1fY. .1 or P-"'""'l .... .... . .... furtl!r Ot\'t\~l\tn \ 1I''';tt' I1b,11f( tltt" jO/hlU'ill!l fl'pic'}'ll/l

)~O Il1l9 PC(lPit' (Ire IIII IC /; IlIO n! (l IL 'o r e oj (I li a coll cern ed fl UOIl( is. m es lik e! ' lit' 1.' III 'i roJl Illc:11I. pOl'er r.\'. {/Ilti (II/ ; /I/ (I{ II'cffa rt! Ih rll l pre violls 9c /U: r ntiolls. Wha t is rOI/"

OU'1/ Opill ic lH ?G , l 'c' 1'r?ITSlJllJ Jtll" .\"'lIr ,111511'(1" .lu d mdlllk 11/1.\' reltTaJU l'\-amp/t'5 {null 1'011 r ,1\l '1/

kllf' Wftd.q. 11/

t'Yl'l'ril'l/l'fI I'rllt"

Ilr If. IS' :!50






Unit aimsTIIS 1

T 2ExDtBSSing advantages and diSadvantages Ad>..ntage end dl..dVllnrngb vocabulary

COl1cludlng st> !em.nlS CuncIlSSlon ill

eont.SIlon i2)


Task 1 Co ncluding sta tementsHan k Ih l' id eas in Lhc li s! bel ow 1- 10 J co rdill ~ 10 h o w impOrt il lll Ihe y itrc in d evel oping u nders tanding b Clw l'e n di frcrclll cu ll urcs (I :: mos l im p o rta nt: 10:: leasl impo rl am ). Th ink or eSilmple s loj uslify yo ur idc.1S. organized s!udcm exchilngeo;1 ,1Ilj! lI a~e



simila r climate and landscapejOin I

cultural events

trill1spon bnks lourism shared scientific and Icchn olog; oll know-how poSlOve media unages similarities in lUestyle and culture


Whl h or th e ideas in I can be carried OU1 by Indl vidllnls1 Wh ich ( :Ill be carried OUI by governments? Wh ich arC.' dlrncult 10 c h J lI g~ Sla lel1lC nlS a-c were used 10 o nclud e descripti o n s o f d ,l IJ. Put Ihe \'\ fords in inlllcs In Ih e co rreCI o rder.,l


It is clellr thai majorirylpt.opldo\'l:nvlldmIll9"'f/r/tt/lI'crtloflfal'('urllll scho(.\1 visll5 between countries.


O\'("rall. JUSt ver haU the p~ople surveyed lund Ihe cllmollc In Ih(' troPICS the most difficult Lhing 10 adapt to. almmrbir/ u11JrlsmJI/trl lllUflllJ81Jlldl ilfmyillF",JTh(' three languages in q ueslion Spall1~h _ ArabiC. and hlncsc. were named as WJr,'rramJrhtlianguDgtsl mosr after Engli5h by 10thi'll'''' Itie chan 1-1 on page 17 w uld be a good IlIu slro:ul')1l 01 each concluding statement in .l? Use Ihe proportions In each scnlCIlCC to hdp you .


UN ll 6

1,."1,,,, ..



/ '"

Pu:' \- h art s ilre rnqu emly us~d 10 sum m arize dat .l, ThNcfo rl..". the} t:an Ofl{,,11 by us\."d as th e basis for concluding 'i ' al\.'lnCIlIS . MJIi.h \.',1cll o llh e rollowi ll f.t t:o nclusi ons 10 one of the- pi~ charts 1- .:1 ;'tbo ve.





To (o ncilldc. only a small minority tlf IIt.'HPIl"' felt li1.1llhc.'lan)AthlKt: ' .am":l w oul d pr{'\'(.'/H lhe devel opm ent of (u h llrJ! tll1k ...I l l ~ c\',d cnt lh.1' o pini ons arc: spill ..11111 0S1 t'quillIy bl'lWCCIl Ihe tl tr11lI t:U llllr,l l \CUItlH .. Ii w('\uld "'cern Ihallhc V,HI m.1Jnrily 411 pc.'f'pk Think 111.:11 Ilw dC'wlnpmt'OI or trade hn~s has the ~reate"l l mpalt cm Ul!C'II1i111I1n.,1 rd.lIl .. n .. JU'it under h,llf tile Pl'(lPJc ~un.c}ld ,Ul' ,iI II,, IIPlllll1l1ll1JI ( IUI1..1 \\ II!J Ih~ hl&gC'>t cultural mnut:nce m Ih(' world by 10';!U Al'llUI haIr of the hohda)>' mah.l'r~ viSIted 11011) l'IClJU'tt' thl") \\\"rc: 1Il1l."IC~h:J in Ihe.Jn ar:d ruhure. whC'rcJs Ih(' food and the' dintal(" were n.lml'd.1 .. rhc mtl)t ImporJnt fa(1of1 bv appro\lInatt"l} ("0 22 " 57%141).0Oc



SumlHtlri:t: rlti' info nllDl iou by SLiu till9 a lld rtporrill8 rilL' "w i" [ a Hll n s. mI d mal\(' comparisolls 1\"1t~n! ,.d ela nl.


I~ca d the Tas k t qu eslion and ans wer q ll t:Sl io llS i.l-C." b(

How d 's the :lge profile or pc pi c on celeh holldJ}, tyPt' lIi fl t!r'? Which age: group IS almost equally reprcsC.'mcd on ':iH;/i l}'(ll' l" huJtda}':OHow w/1u ld you descnb~ the oplllIon of IIw111t.. ' . lI ow('\ cr. Ih\.')' ''la y for fewer thaD len days on averageAl rh ough .......................................................................................... ,..................... .


Fo n y-five pe r cem of people spea k a rorelgn languagc . Nevcnhd(,'i!i:. tht: vast majonty are at a lo w level. A.llhough fort y-five per cent ................................ _ .............................................._


It has good weather. However. southern Friln is vlshcd by onl), two per cent 01 Asian t urists.

Despi te ............................................................................d

The COSt o f slude.nt ('xchanges went up Nne:nhdes' exchange: rose

The oumberof srudem exchanges .............. " ............._ (only

The c\'enl was promoted 10 t~enage~ Ne:H'rthcless n per cent of the audience .Allh ough ....................... _ ............................... ...... " ... ,...... ,





Arts and sciences Unit aimsTask I Adverbs U Sing ad,elbs 10 evaluate d"a A voiding I"erevance

Task 2OiSl:uSSIIIll Dlhel people's opinions HYPolhesinng

Task 1 Ad verbs


Read t h ese conOi cli ng view s abo ut sci Cnl iSIS mo vin g 10 rich co un lri es. Ans w e r q ues ti o ns a-c.Th e 'brn in drain ' 01 sk illed worke rs li ke soe nti Sl5 an d tcclin iciJ ll s 10 ri ch eco nomks is m ra ll y w ron g, P~o p le sh ou ld ha ve grea te r freedom to work w h ere th ey wa n t. Surely, iT '!; J p~rs o n.)l matter a b Which Vl('\\, S lio )'OU agre:e with ? ls t.h is 'brain drain ' a new phenomenon, or has If been around for a long lime'?


Shoul d something be done aboullhe situation or is it Ullsh1ppabk")


Head th e Task 1 quesli o n belo w, Tht.'n a n sw er qu es ti u ns a-c.Sources of fun ding for R&D i n the U K



Governmen t Bllli"us OVcr.leu


" Tlli.' cl/Ot't above sltows sources of fUIIf/iu9 fo r t'i!SeO,.f IJ amI (le\'i:/opm c.'1/f (R&[)'""0JO


iu ,Itt! UK from 1999 to 2001, T i lt! table below s h ows tllt:: pt.'reeuwgr! of Plmiolllll

iw:omc ~'pellt Oil RlYD fo r 0 rouge of CO lllltr;e s .Proportion of n al income a ll o cated to R&D ( \ 999)


USA2.75 %

Germany 2.4 %

Fra nce 2.3%

Italy1.1 %

Japan 2 .9 %

EU average:1.81 ~ o

Su",,,,nr;.:e tltt: ;" formatioll by sI!Ieaill9 alld reporriug tlte mn iu fC {llll res. aud IIldke colllparjsolls where reicl'{mt.a What gellerallrend can yo u see in th e chart? What gen~ral pa ttern can yo u seC' in the labl~? Wh ich is dearly th e main source o r funding in Iht: " ar chart? Wh ich piece of dala in th e {able ca n you use as a standard fo r comparison? Whi ch pieces of in fo rmali n in t.h e table arc sig,ni fi cant?

bc d e



3Comp lelc the mod ell ext below w ith ver bs from th e box. rose contributed (x 2)is shown


Arts l r,n')

In general.

aH~ most

people concerned about reforest,mon or not?


Fi nd and correct six faCl uaJ errors in th e tex t be low .

The ,haM .now for"".I. for Ine ,nnual c.\dort.f>tailon rale. In ~\ region!. and worldw,de log,1 ner wilh Ih, wrrenlal11lude.IOW3rd~ c.OI'lc.ern

It aiM Vlorth notu19 that the rr.forr.51allon rail. 11111,al\ nd 15 iU1ht'.lpllr..d 1 0 be

for Iree. lo~~

(",,,,r,lIj. il for''''l lh'l Ih, reforestation rate. ill the. four re9ion~ w,lI grow unlil 20". Iho"')" at va"1i"9 ral" \I " prQjul,d lt1allr,land will have Ih' nI9",,1 r. l, ,n 2Ot'5 al IS per "nl ollow,j,. Th, [or"..1 for both rt9lon~ for lOIS I'() the. !.amt at 1'5 per unl l1u"9'''1. 1>j ,0ntra>1. wllh Ih,low,,1 prOJUled rill' Ihroughoul tne penod. will e."'ptne.n.e. the. 9reale.~i ovenl\ tn..rta~ 11 6 antlc.lpalea Imt the. figure '.ul\ c.l.mb from OS per c.e.nt I n tol, 10 0 !, ptr .tnl ana Ihe.n nf>t morr, m,rplj 10 II per eonl

e'l-aGt\1In line with the. Vlor\c:\wldr, lvcrlgr [or bOlh 201'5 a"d tot'5. I, per "nl and 1.0 per cent reftpcc.h . . el~ Meanwl1~k. HUl1g3r"f will br. below the. 11l'1 e.I'I'1JhO \ rale!l, wl1llt both lrel3nd and T..I!TIJ!1I3 w,ll In,m


From the PIe. ,hart. C.3,' be ~r.n thaI 1ft ~mc. obviOUS ,ana m abollt Ihf nc.t.o for planting man Irr.f.fI (.OI1.tnlt:(i' 3~ per .e.I1I, and 'nat . . cr'( wll.tmr.d '2.5 pel" Genl) , while al the. ~mt lime there I~ a 5luab\e proporiton of ~op\t who 3rc not Gonttrnr.d







In each of se n tences a-f th ere is a wo rd m iss ing. Add the m iss ing word.II predicled Ihal Ihe use of so lar energy will become m o re important.

We see from the charllhal largesl conservation project.


of mon~y wa s s pent on Ih e water

C d

The cha n shows th e dHfcren t types of trees are found in

difl e r~nl

region s.

Fr m th e pic cha rt , ca n be seen that hydroelectric po r constitutcs St'vcn pe r cent of the world energy demand .


It is dear that majori ty of people are very concerned abom clima te chan ge .

Rece ntl y, a n um be r o r ca mpaigns have encou raged peo pk pla n [ trees.


Look aga in a l th e tex t in 9. There is a m iss ing w o rd in each o f [h e last [h [(.'e parag rap hs. Add Ih e m iss ing w o rd s in t h e correct p l ac~s . Read the tab le , w hi ch d escri bes in tho usands the esti ma ted and ar tuJl n u mbe rs o f ho uses b uilt in th e UK by r('g io n in 200 2. A nswer qu es tions a-h to ide n tify Ihe COrreCI fac ts. Regio ns Scoil and N on h em lan d Wa les Nonh of England Cent ral England Southern Eng land (exc. London) London Actual 3.000 5, 000 6.300 13. 500 16.20077. 500 4 7,800


Estim a led3.200 2.500 2.900 9.3 00 8. 100 51.100 24.800


What information does the table give'? Ho w many regio ns of lhe UK is it div-id ed into? Usually. was the es timated n u mber above o r belowth~


actu al


In wh ich th ree regions were the high est numbers of houses buil l? How diU

the fig u res for these regions compare wilh the es timates? c Wbich regio n had a clisparity of JUSt o ver four thou sand bctwc.-en the es tima te and the act ual fi gure? What were the figures for rhis regio n'? Which o the r two regions foll owed the usualucnd? What were th e figurl' s fo r lhese twO regions? gIn which region was [he lo west number of houses built?

h Which region is an exceplion 10 ~lC generai lrcnd? Whal were lhe liguresfo r th is region?


Usi ng the fact s idemi fi ed in yo ur ans w e rs to the q uest io ns above. s umm ari ze the tab le b y sel ect ing an d re p o n ing the mai n fea lU res. and make com pariso ns w here re lev an t. Write a t Ica s t 150 w ord s .



Task 2 A elicies


Answer qu csli ons a-d .d b c d ""hal are the mOSt serious threats thai the natu ral world is laci ng 10 Ihet WCnI ),-rirsl


What Is the most serious threat 10 the em'lronment In your Cf1untry' What J 1I n is being laken? What furth er steps do you think co uld be taken?


The paragraph b elow has bee.n taken rrom an t:ssay on measures to rcdllCl~ ri\'('r po liUl ion thr ughoul Lhe w o rld . Compi cle the gaps w h.h Ihe: nou ns in th e b ox. The firs l one ha s been done for yo u.faClo ries pollutants problem leisure action fish wildlife Incentives pressure

&j far Ih. bt ~'i to ",Ive Ih, 1.P'.tY,~!~!!.I" . of 'flattr po\lution 16 tolouie all 1- .. aw 3'j from river!! and \aKe~ and to Innta\\ '1'I3str. tnatmtn1 'enter!> ,0. 11 the 1...... ......... Ln the wat er

w ould be. abk to U5t tbc.m ort......... \I~t,

6w lmmn'9 Jl u.i f,~hlr'9

Tm:re I~ w nflldtrablt ' .................. 011 mJI'l'f roor 'Oll!ltnt6 1 0 rvrlop 1nrlr t(.onomlt.!I :lnd ~ ii would br dl iw\t 1 0

would th,n b. de;tr"1eO, ,. has been ui lding good fl'lnltOl1sbips bel wCen dl rt l!ft ll I COll ntriC's. Childrc: n iHC Ihe people who will h:ad th l! world In thc rU~\Jrc so they sh uld prc:pare I r IhlS role. The knowh:dgc wluch can be gained [romlhe history is (Hle of Ihe mtlSt imp ft.1I1t sources lor lhc irskllb e,f understand in g the human socicty. As rnurh as the)'leJm Ir m the hfs iory. lh t"' y will be eUidenl In theIr ability 10 dcd ilt when the)' fact: an y problem In the future. Also the hiStOry can give a good InlormalloD dbllUl the dc ... ~ l oJ1m l!nt In dnre r ~nt bmndll'S of science. Some o llh ('s~ In formaLion rna)' have a good value fllr in ven tors. In conclusi n. it b undenIable Iha! hislory. th.: summary ~tr hUl1lan expc: ric.nce. Is wry Import.lnl i n improvcmt'"nl of human's fUlu re If Ihey can use ft prop rl)' (161)

Grade: Co mm e n u: The (opic is ad equately covered. th ough th e re IS s me repc.: tflion Thc order a nd parag raphi ng o f id eas is mostly logical. Vocabu la ry is a Icquatl amf has SOfTIe pr eds l on~ Co mple x se ntences are well ma n,'ged. bu t Ih e re a re rnanv milwr grammatical e rro rs

.. II II


Practice Tes t 3

Ta k tTh~

d'.gr.un tJIUSlr.JIc:S' tht: various 5lagc:s 1u the: desa linatio n I se~W iua 10 make lo t dnuklng



Ftm uf ,,11. wal~r 15 1a.k~n [rom Ih~ sea and th~ pa.ssed lIn ouW1 a rr~~trr.1 tnH:1lI filler when: lht' t'lig )m'IU"l1~ &lrc r~movt'd. This bac.i. wash Is then pl ~d ba ck Inlo d l~ sea through \lnmh",r (dler AI the n~1 stag~m the Pro(Oj. the rctnillnlng \\,.UI:r 15 torn d th rough a n\(mbr,lnf' at hl8h P[dSUI"I! and any impurities mdmhng sail . Ur" ff'mO\ cd. Afl e r trust

Ihe e.Woller roocemralt:ls re-turned to the s~a whll~ Ihe r(!ntainlng W~t(J Ron Iluough d J)(JSll1c..llmcOl procen. In this phase. the wale:r Is trt'illed wIth lim.:. chlQrine: and flu oride: IU molkc II tinnkolbk bc fort it I.s stOred In a rc.scrvoir. FUt.1lJy. Ill e dc~alJnal cd Willer Is dt'flribulcd 10 Lhr" hl legraled watersupply )y5IeJJ] (orpCf,plc 1 0 IIsc.n drinking Wil ler. OcsaUI131 1on hIVIJlvC5 a proc~ss of purifiani(ln 01 w.ller fdl\llwed uy IIltrallun rind .. d dln~ ch~m l CitI ngcllls. ("J wpoo)Grade : 7

ma llliained b)' Ihe ne'\lble use of inpull.lngUJ);l'. and., wiJ dt!pltl) eJ grill11f11dl hll ~t rth.1 U ro ot\ II )tJ};!l" o..I fl" covered a Ufll i Cly. th ough some aJdlli os are made . The t)l.lCrvl(,\\ s h ollli.l mllre 11..t~llall) be t.hl! second se ntence. Comments: ImerestIS

r.ll1~l (I I \ lJcabu la I) a ntJ skiU ull}'

Ta k 2(i t ('o1l

changes bavC' tilkc.n place in ou r Iif~ along with devc10pmenl of ~e ty As far a I am concerned the Inte.rne.t plays a big pan in this Ani uf all with the: opponunJlY o f sudin8 Inte.rnet tlr playtng com"ul c:.r ;1J1d "Ideo game). people- howe. II Olore StdemaIY urt!:s[yl~ ChDdren no I ngel pla}' Holmes outSide and gel en m se but the)' ~l>Cnd tune ontht: computer hilS bold elfea o n thd r hCllltb and can ColUSe- probkms5uch ru. obesity. AnOth r r problem is the negative effect on their rcl.lIloruhlp with the'lr family. inl cm ei acce5~ 111Is mo~t )'Ol108 pNpie'stlme. ilnd even thclr Icb ute IIm1:, su this I.s the: Cil ollhd r tIlSCt)nI1C(tlon with Iheir famUy and uhimaltly can have un ('He I on their soda l beh llviQu r. /II Ihird problem Is thal n ot olO Intt'r.ncl sitcs oUe useful In foml.lIlon Is o ften n OI aCCUrill C and ~(jmc It t!. are n OI sullilble lor chJldren . Some Intcmel .. hcs IIkt' dloll rooms citn c\'cn be danserous he nllse YOLI dt) nOt know who Is the olher pt.:rstm .As regarding children 's ust o f the: Imenu,!1. Ihl' fIrsI solution nlll1t be: wltJl lhc pa.rcnt.!.

They nc:cd 10 Ihnh hQua thaI childre.n spend on Ihe ct1mpulcr and Itl encourage them 10 ha\'c othcr hobhtcs and pas1imes There is an fmponaJII Ih:cd for II~crn 10 ~ pend more lime t'l .. pc~k whh Ihtlr (amUl' than an electronTC collnec1ioll Pt1 rt:n ts )hDUJd also encourase children ttl UK' uthumean5 oLinformalion in addition 1 0 IOlernel l\) O)lIdude. I , uld say thallbe mternct hilS brought nwn)' ncndil( and h wlU nOI dl~prcat. Iheldure it Is very unpc:manl WI W( ltaml 10 lIl e: it \HlI lhlll w t' an reap the benefits and n()1 the dL~dvaniages. (l 78 ntlroisJ

Grade: 7

COI.r unenl5: Thl' topic is co n side red fuJly. wh h ideas prcstnlcd In il clear progrl'5Sinnwith mostl y logical pa.ragraphi ng. A good range o f vo ahulary gIves f1cxtbilily dn d p reosi n 10 the w ri ting. Sentence strucru re is rcas nilh ly varied. but nun r graJnmlu!cill err IS are freq u ent.



Practice Test 4 Tas k ITilt:: bar chart shows the': Ilgure.s for quallficatiom all" give la"t 10 Ihe gO\lcrnmcol Morcov ~r If we ,)ayant:. the)' art hdPPY 10 1I\'c longer 11.~ lhl.") devolt ml)Sl of their IJvcs !o working. In rCl ireml!nl 3gc: eld~ly people ne ed comlort ;tnd lI ch PCQI~Ic:;J irt' 1 0 do IIIlmy Ihln ij~ Ihallhc}' did not do bdOrl:. Thus. in ctcaSin8 ;1Uc:d P(WU ll1llon gh'es hope 10 Ih e

scnlorl who would li ke to enfoy Lhcir Lives. H~wc"('r, I do hellcv(' thai hIgher aged populaLion m;e;ds hlghcr lnvl.' '1011.'111 n$ people Incldcr liKe ullcr frtJnI dJscJSC!l suc.h a:.; hl!aIt dlsCI1$C:, Stroke, dldbcti.s, A! zI:hnm er dtsease. fI\'e rllmcn ts n.:ed '" Inve5'13 colasal sums ofmonc:y Irentl ng slU:h 1 "lIhmu, Funhcr more pc:vple in ddcrngt': bel-orne morc dependent 1 '6 olhen a5 lhesc rcop'c nt't' to be supervised b y olher people. I lbJnk"nobcldy liKes 10 IrYe \vllJ I other Ilcop lr lmd USc Ihe [acHIiJes Ihill art" HOI hc!IODg 10 lhc."m. 1'hercfore scniors !iufrer trom lIcpre:,ssl.)Jt nnd Pwchologkil l probkms, AI the il1tne time If people: w Grk longe.r, there ~ IIUl I' UludtHl' r Ihe: youn,l;.cr t-te.ncration bcau).( tnO$t "O~ltlotU /lre occupIed by the ddcrl}' people!. 1'0 ronclude. J feel 'hnt the ntgative effects on St."ICfc\y oUlwclSh Ihr paJ>hl\'e c.Uero bcCilU5C of the obo\C' rea5qIl$. (2S:! U,\....ts)

Grade: 6COlllmen15: Then~ art: plenty o f ideas. bU I paragraphin g is n OI well managl."d. Ho"... eYc r. Ihl! sentences lend (Q be clearly link~d The range o f vocabulary is adcqualt.' for lh(' purpose. as i5 the vari("ty of enlence SlrUCIu rcs. but gramrnatl 411 crr r5 are

o btru.s lve


Pract ice Test 10

Tas k 1The bar chari illustrates the: percentage 01 people in Great Britain living alo ne accordin g 10 their age and gender Irom 2004 10 :::W05 , It Is immediatelyapPII.r\!"m tlmt living alone increased as pcoplc gell in g o lde r an d the percentage oj females outnumbered the: oppo -he se~ , ForinsulnCe, ~h (! laslI:atcgo ry " I age ShP'f'Il'd \hal the overwhelming majO[ilY of people living alo ne \Vas female s aboul 59 % compared o nly to 18% Qf males. As regards ma les living on Ihei r own we can see a linl\! dHfercncc in th'eSt!cond Ihlrd and fourth groups of age. The}' almost had the simi lar pcrccruage. However !his was n OI the case In the nrSt category which was just 5%. Unllkc men. women's prtdor'ninan ct: began In Ihe b5 /74 year o ld) which showed a dramaric change. For example lhe pcrccntilgl" o f kmales \'Vas 32 % as opposed lO 15% (or males. Prior to this gro up, the third catego ry of age had almoS! the same pe rct'IIIage.By and large. living a lolle was common among women as they go older. Th e 35-1 -1 y\!ar a ids was Ihe onl,l cal ego ry with g cfl eci elkel

d 5011111 n I r:xamplC' h :.olUlion



.1 becomes

8 falls

7 8

In tum then su bsc:q ut!nt I)'

4a imransi live h tra nsi live ( bOlhSeOlt'nce a CdnnO! be pUI '010 tite pa ssive::.

10When Ih e Sri!)\\' 10115. it coven; Ihe g lou nd with a protcclin' layer. b As soon dS her cu bs are born. the lIullt"1s li cks them all over c Once Iht' paper b collected, \I is scnt for recycll ns . d Ill'f rc volcanoes crupt, they send huge amounts Ismoke Into the :tlr e When the: plants petSllire. lhe air beromc~ humid The trees 3U.' lit down and the torcS! Is ~raduall)' deSlfO)'cdII

12Possible answers One way is to ncourage childrcilto stud)' history b) uo;lng th e Inlernet. I~or eX.1tn l)lc, l hey cou ld senf h for inform:llion about hlSI neal figUft'S online. This

5Trolmitive: design. produ c. st'nd. rnanUfJCIUfC. obtain. become IntrolrJ.Silivc: filII. rist'. die BOlh begin. dry, grow. (001

!.."Quld IncreaSt' their mOtiviltion do hLStOnc.a1 rt'.5C'archThe ~CSI wa}' is probably 10 ViSit 1l15h1riC'JI sittS t:or Insta nce. children could \'bl1 :llocal .,fcheologk., l sitc A\ a n:sult.Ih~


6Some' variation is l1ossibll' a After the mOlorcydl' is designed. a prolol p~ is milde 11 is tested and the motorcycle Is manu la UTeri . Ahcr Ih l~. II Iscxpo n ed and sold , h !lim the whctll Is pl iHllcd . ,nc! later U1l' crop is harvcst cd The w hea t is tromp ned 10 the mill where it 15 ma de il1lo no ur. The !lour b bough I by a bdker. La ter the bredd is baked and sold.

historical plates will rome 10

('('111 1110rt" real An Iher method Is Ii) in"QI\'t" children in ding \\ ruing pr 1CClS, ~lIch ,15 producing a pOSte r or a n Inforrlli1 1lon bookici . , 'II/: sk ill ~ th'11 lhcy pra tise in these SO ri S 01 proJcn s (ould then he nppllcd in ulht'rsubjcru.

11Possible an swers ., ASsQOnasl hc l o