impression formation

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  • 1. Institute Of Management StudiesIndorePresentation On:- Impression Formation From:- Aparna BakreJayshree Pateriya

2. What is Impression? An idea, feeling, or opinion about something or someone, esp. one formed without conscious thought or on the basis of little evidence. An effect produced on someone. 3. impression formation A social psychological term referring to the way in which strangers develop perceptions of each other. A long tradition of (largely experimental) studies have investigated the impact of initial impressions. These have identified phenomena such as primacy effects and halo effects. 4. This breaks down into six influences on how weperceive other people: Self-fulfilling prophecy Implicit personality theory Perceptual accentuation Primacy-Recency Consistency Attribution of controllability 5. Six Basic Principles1. On the basis of minimal information2. Special attention to salient features than toevery thing3. We use the context of a persons behavior rather than interpreting the behavior in isolation 6. 4.We organize our perceptions bycategorizing or grouping stimuli5. We use our enduring cognitive structures tomake sense of peoples behavior6. Perceivers own needs and personal goalsinfluence how he or she perceives others 7. Solomon Asch 8. We look at a person andimmediately a certain impression of his characterforms itself in us a glance , a few spoken words are sufficient totell us a story about a highly complex matter..... 9. Aschs reseArch oncentral and peripheraltraits 10. Asch conducted manyexperiments in which he askedparticipants to form animpression of a hypotheticalperson based on severalcharacteristics said to belong tothem. 11. Experiment 1-variation in central quality Group A: intelligent-skillful-industrious- warm-determined-practical-cautious Group B: intelligent-skillful-industrious- cold-determined-practical-cautious 12. result Series A ("warm") A person who believes certain things to be right, wantsothers to see his point, would be sincere in an argumentand would like to see his point won. Series B ("cold") A very ambitious and talented person who would not letanyone or anything stand in the way of achieving his goal.Wants his own way, he is determined not to give in, nomatter what happens. 13. Experiment 2- Omission of a Central Quality Group A: intelligent-skillful-industrious- determined-practical-cautious Group B: intelligent-skillful-industrious- determined-practical-cautious 14. result Appears that a more neutral impression has formed. 15. Experiment 3-Variation of aPeripheral Quality A. intelligentskillfulindustriouspolitedeterminedpractical cautious B. intelligentskillfulindustriousbluntdeterminedpracticalcautious 16. Experiment 4-reversing the order of series A. intelligentskillfulindustrious determined practicalcautiousevasive B. evasivecautiouspractical determinedindustriousskillful intelligent 17. result Series A He seems to be a man of very excellent character,though it is not unusual for one person to have allof those good qualities. Series B This is a man who has had to work for everythinghe wantedtherefore he is evasive, cautious andpractical. He is naturally intelligent, but hisstruggles have made him hard. 18. Impression formation-acognitive perspective We pay attention to information abut their traits and values rather than information about their competence 19. Additional research Indicates that impression of others consist of examples of both:1. Behaviour relating to specific trait2. Mental abstractions based on observations of many instances of behavior 20. ask yourself? Why do we immediately form impressions of other people on first meeting them? What factors influence whether we like or dislike someone immediately? Can we tell when someone is lying or telling the truth? 21. What information do weuse? Roles Physical Cues Salience From behavior to traits Central traits Categorization Context effects 22. RolesPeople tend to think of others within arole context first and only thenaccording to personality traits 23. Physical Cues Appearance and behavior are key determinants of our first impressions 24. SaliencePeople pay attention to the figure ratherthan to the ground or setting 25. Effects of Salience1. Draws attention2. Influences perceptions of causality3. Produces evaluatively extreme judgments4. Produce more consistency of judgment 26. FROM BEHAVIOR TO TRAITSWe move very quickly from observable information (appearance & behavior) to personality trait inferences Traits are more economical to remember Trait inferences occur automatically 27. Central TraitsSome traits may be more central thanothers, that is, highly associated withmany other characteristicsWarm-Cold appears to be such a trait(Kelley, 1950) 28. CategorizationWe automatically perceive stimuli as part of agroup or category 29. Consequences of Categorization leads to category-based social judgments(stereotyping) speeds processing time can lead to errors 30. The Continuum Model ofImpression FormationImpressions range from stereotypic, category-based impressions to individuated impressions(dual processing) 31. Dual ProcessingWe generally tend to use category-basedinference because it is easy and quickWe use individuated information when we aremotivated to be accurate the person doesnt fitour categories we have other reasons for wantingto know the person better 32. Context EffectsContrast biases judgments away from thecontext (sees them as different)Assimilation biases judgments in the samedirection as the context (sees them as similar)Assimilation occurs more when people are usingcategory-based processingContrast occurs more when people are usingindividuated information 33. Integrating ImpressionsHow do we combine all of theseseparate inferences about aperson into an over all impression? 34. Evaluation Negativity effect Positivity bias 35. Emotional information The averaging principle Imputing meaning 36. Imputing consistency Schemas Prototypes Exemplars 37. Thank you

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