impact of electromagnetic radiations of biology and behaviour of apis mellifera l

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  1. 1. Impact Of Electromagnetic radiations of biology and behaviour of Apis mellifera L. Shweta Patel 42537
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Honeybees play a vital role in the pollination of agricultural crops In recent years honey bee colony declines have reached 10-30% in Europe, 30% in the United States and up to 85% in Middle East, but such declines are not apparent in South America, Africa and Australia (Kluser,2010) The syndrome behind honeybee population decline is known generally as Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), which is characterized by a rapid loss of adult worker bees (van (Engelsdorp, 2009) EMFs are mentioned as a cause of honeybee colony losses, the sudden disappearance of honeybees, which is a huge problem in the field of beekeeping (VanEngelsdorp et al,2009)
  3. 3. There are several factors for CCD and they fall into two main classes: living organisms human activity Electromagnetic radiation can best be described as waves of electric and magnetic energy moving together (i.e. radiating ) through space . Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are physical fields that are produced by a source of EMR. Electric fields are associated with electric charge and magnetic fields with the movement of electric charge.
  4. 4. Radiation Pattern of a Cell Tower Antenna People living within 50 to 300 meter radius are in the high radiation zone (dark blue) and are more prone to ill-effects of electromagnetic radiation
  5. 5. Proportion of studies on different groups of organisms Birds; 3% Bees; 1% Wildlife;2% Other Animals; 12% Plants; 1%Human; 81% Bees Wildlife Other Animals HumanPlantsBirds Studies on EMF impacts
  6. 6. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifteen boxes of bees were place at specified locations. First three boxes were placed below the mobile tower. After measuring 200m, 400m, 600m and 800m distance from the tower, three boxes were placed at each location, respectively. At each place 3 replications was taken. 6 Treatment was considered at every place. Assuming first treatment as a no. of bees (bees-strength), second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth as area of honey, egg, larva ,brood and pollen. Each were be measure after 14 days interval. The experiment was divided into 5 spot with each spot different distances: Spot 1: 0 m Spot 2: 200 m Spot 3: 400 m Spot 4: 600 m Spot 5: 800 m
  7. 7. Experimental Site
  8. 8. Radio Frequency Meter
  9. 9. Effect of Radiations on honey area (cm2 ) of honeybees during 2012 Treatment 30.6.12 14.7.12 28.7.12 11.8.12 25.8.12 8.9.12 22.9.12 6.10.12 Mean E (mV/m) B(A/m) S (mW/m2 ) T1 (0 m) 275.833 (16.575) 665.000 (25.672) 277.500 (16.442) 387.500 (19.611) 478.333 (21.049) 745.833 (26.631) 554.166 (22.351) 616.666 (23.693) 500.101 (21.503) 304.297 541.22 302.913 T2 (200 m) 606.666 (24.300) 789.166 (27.588) 473.333 (21.448 521.666 (22.684) 372.500 (19.299) 305.000 (17.386) 308.333 (17.454) 514.166 (22.36) 486.35 (21.564) 10.663 24.08 0.248 T3 (400 m) 361.400 (18.346) 710.000 (26.442) 530.000 (22.799) 432.500 (20.333) 397.500 (19.686) 912.500 (28.609) 854.166 (28.753) 96.666 (9.791) 536.84 (21.844) 20.826 109.54 2.235 T4 (600 m) 500.833 (22.082) 798.333 (27.963) 455.833 (20.885) 370.833 (18.236) 542.500 (22.552) 460.833 (19.872) 407.333 (19.458) 234.633 (14.918) 471.388 (20.745) 7.198 19.338 0.0981 T5 (800 m) 645.000 (25.346) 733.333 (26.958) 488.333 (21.990) 527.500 (22.940) 190.623 (13.626) 883.316 (29.694) 592.083 (24.304) 347.500 (18.535) 550.958 (22.924) 7.088 19.12 0.132 Mean 477.946 (21.330) 739.166 (26.925) 445.000 (20.713) 448.000 (20.761) 396.291 (19.243) 661.496 (24.439) 543.216 (22.464) 361.926 (17.859) 509.130 (21.716) _ _ _ Sem 107.523 (2.635) 148.275 (2.851) 105.073 (2.5687) 102.057 (2.6173) 112.528 (2.828) 255.034 (4.9305) 163.145 (3.6768) 124.922 (3.026) _ _ _ _ Cd at 5% 350.449 (8.589) 483.270 (9.294) 342.466 (8.372) 332.633 (8.530) 366.763 (9.218) 831.228 (16.070) 163.145 (11.984) 407.156 (9.863) _ _ _ _ Cv 38.965 (21.40) 34.744 (18.344) 40.897 (21.480) 39.457 (21.835) 49.182 (25.458) 66.777 (34.943) 52.019 (28.349) 59.783 (29.350) _ _ _ _ F value ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns _ _ _ _
  10. 10. Honey area at different distance from tower during the year 2012
  11. 11. Progressive increase in Honey area during the year 2012
  12. 12. Method estimating the area of honey, egg, pollen, larva and brood
  13. 13. Effect of Radiations on the egg laying capacity in area (cm2 ) of queen bee at Pantnagar during 2012 Treatment 30.6.12 14.7.12 28.7.12 11.8.12 25.8.12 8.9.12 22.9.12 6.10.12 Mean E(mV/m ) B(A/m) S(mW/m2 ) T1 (0 m) 126.666 (9.060) 15.000 (3.142) 157.500 (11.742) 167.500 (12.598) 152.500 (10.018) 95.833 (7.426) 144.166 (10.863) 150.000 (11.258) 126.143 (9.513) 304.297 541.22 302.913 T2 (200 m) 210.833 (14.059) 59.166 (6.796) 199.583 (13.824) 185.833 (13.547) 220.000 (14.803) 145.000 (11.954) 168.333 (11.864) 176.666 (10.808) 170.673 (12.206) 10.663 24.08 0.248 T3 (400 m) 0.000 (0.000) 48.333 (6.915) 215.000 (14.192) 200.833 (13.967) 145.833 (11.842) 45.833 (5.202) 261.666 (15.408) 102.500 (10.055) 127.497 (9.697) 20.826 109.54 2.235 T4 (600 m) 122.500 (8.364) 37.916 (6.052) 203.333 (11.639 140.000 (11.512) 75.000 (6.921) 115.833 (10.305) 105.000 (8.162) 115.833 (10.394) 114.425 (9.168) 7.198 19.338 0.0981 T5 (800 m) 61.666 (4.533) 34.166 (5.824) 100.000 (7.8867) 65.833 (5.712) 125.833 (11.205) 64.166 (6.540) 80.000 (8.7561) 47.833 (6.562) 72.433 (7.127) 7.088 19.12 0.132 Mean 104.333 (7.203) 38.916 (5.746) 175.083 (11.857) 152.000 (11.467) 143.833 (10.958) 93.333 (8.285) 151.833 (11.010) 118.566 (9.815) 122.237 (9.542) _ _ _ sem 74.773 (4.292) 19.006 (1.374) 82.463 (3.960) 51.320 (2.622) 50.919 (3.154) 47.522 (3.200) 71.286 (3.164) 59.257 (3.145) _ _ _ _ Cd at 5% 243.706 (13.991) 61.946 (4.480) 268.770 (12.909) 167.266 (8.546) 165.961 (10.280) 154.888 (10.432) 232.342 (10.312) 193.137 (10.250) _ _ _ _ Cv 124.131 (103.214) 84.589 (41.435) 81.578 (57.860) 58.479 (39.604) 61.317 (49.853) 88.190 (66.912) 81.320 (49.772) 86.564 (55.497) _ _ _ _ F value ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns _ _ _ _
  14. 14. Egg laying by Queen bee at different distance from tower during the year 2012
  15. 15. Progressive increase in area of egg laying during the year 2012
  16. 16. Impact of Radiations on the brood area (cm2 ) of honeybees at Pantnagar during the year 2012Treatment 30.6.12 14.7.12 28.7.12 11.8.12 25.8.12 8.9.12 22.9.12 6.10.12 Mean E(mV/m ) B(A/m) S (mW/m2 ) T1 (0 m) 109.166 (10.101) 161.449 (20.812) 281.666 (15.901) 198.333 (13.966 283.666 (14.336) 450.833 (17.861) 355.833 (16.619) 574.166 (23.838) 340.817 (16.679) 304.297 541.22 302.913 T2 (200 m) 189.166 (13.750) 435.416 (20.695) 389.583 (19.683) 453.333 (21.133 360.000 (18.883) 451.666 (21.131) 721.666 (26.608) 250.833 (14.163) 406.453 (19.505) 10.663 24.08 0.248 T3 (400 m) 314.166 (17.5487) 570.000 (23.688) 333.333 (18.175) 468.333 (21.585) 441.666 (20.974) 435.000 (20.812) 407.500 (19.234) 578.333 (23.901) 443.531 (20.739) 20.826 109.54 2.235 T4 (600 m) 261.666 (16.084) 553.750 (23.500) 223.541 (13.415) 505.000 (22.441) 204.166 (11.655) 635.833 (25.094) 490.833 (20.054) 587.500 (23.716) 432.772 (19.494) 7.198 19.338 0.0981 T5 (800 m) 164.166 (10.461) 339.166 (17.825) 252.500 (15.869) 286.666 (13.573) 240.833 (14.539) 225.833 (14.991) 215.833 (13.962) 245.000 (15.616) 246.246 (14.604) 7.088 19.12 0.132 Mean 207.666 (13.589) 474.250 (21.304) 296.125 (16.609) 382.333 (18.54) 306.066 (16.078) 439.833 (19.978) 438.333 (19.295) 447.166 (20.247) _ _ _ _ sem 49.535 (2.647) 113.819 (2.634) 85.661 (3.036) 87.997 (3.455) 100.027 (4.431) 122.459 (3.796) 143.272 (4.560) 88.835 (2.545) _ _ _ _ Cd at 5% 161.449 (8.629) 370.969 (8.587) 279.196 (9.896) 286.809 (11.263) 326.017 (14.443) 399.130 (12.373) 466.967 (14.864) 289.540 (8.297) _ _ _ _ Cv 41.315 (33.744) 41.568 (21.420) 50.104 (31.663) 39.864 32.284 56.605 (47.738) 48.224 (32.912) 56.613 (40.937) 34.409 (21.777) _ _ _ _ F value ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns _ _ _ _
  17. 17. Area of Brood at various distance from tower during the year 2012
  18. 18. Progressive increase in brood area during the year 2012
  19. 19. Impact of Radiations on the larva area (cm2 ) of honeybees at Pantnagar during the year 2012 Treatment 30.6.12 14.7.12 28.7.12 11.8.12 25.8.12 8.9.12 22.9.12 6.10.12 Mean E(mV/m ) B(A/m) S(mW/m2 ) T1 (0 m) 25.833 (3.865) 21.166 (3.554) 138.333 (10.561) 183.333 (12.959) 82.500 8.891) 146.666 (9.878) 220.000 (11.988) 169.166 (12.219) 123.37 (9.239) 304.297 541.22 302.913 T2 (200 m) 7.500 (2.017) 17.466 (4.432) 198.333 (13.982) 194.166 (13.738) 195.000 13.769) 213.333 (14.318) 251.666 (15.576) 164.166 (10.455) 155.2 (11.035) 10.663 24.08 0.248 T3 (400 m ) 201.666 (13.680) 37.500 (6.046) 196.666 (14.011) 215.000 (14.284) 188.333 13.578) 70.000 (6.573) 273.333 (16.448) 263.333 (16.165) 180.726 (12.598) 20.826 109.54 2.235 T4 (600 m) 51.666 (5.849) 40.833 (6.175) 134.166 (9.291) 340.833 (17.956) 179.166 10.407) 124.166 (8.973) 122.500 (8.979) 255.000 (15.370) 156.037 (10.375) 7. 19.338 0.0981 T5 (800 m) 102.500 (7.142) 13.750 (3.700) 109.166 (7.625) 40.833 (5.195) 27.500 (5.210) 39.166 (5.042) 92.500 (8.922) 39.166 (5.9387) 58.07 (6.0968) 7.088 19.12 0.132 Mean 77.833 (6.511) 26.143 (4.782) 155.333 (11.094) 194.833 (12.826) 134.500 (10.371) 118.666 (8.957) 192.000 (12.382) 178.166 (12.029) 134.684 (9.869) _ _ _ sem 56.032 (2.962) 26.143 (1.044) 74.674 (3.793) 74.950 (2.828) 63.498 (2.881) 51.631 (2.953) 66.675 (3.516) 62.312 (2.512) _ _ _ _ Cd at 5% 182.626 (9.656) 32.051 (3.404) 243.385 (12.364) 244.286 (9.217) 206.961 (9.392) 168.280 (9.624) 217.313 (11.462) 203.094 (8.188) _ _ _ _ Cv 124.691 (78.809) 65.151 (37.831) 83.265 (59.226) 66.630 (38.189) 81.772 (48.123) 75.360 (57.102) 60.148 (49.191) 60.577 (36.174) _ _ _ _ F value ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns _ _ _ _
  20. 20. Area of Larva at different distance from tower during the year 2012
  21. 21. Ar

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