IAHR - XIXth CONGRESS, NEW DELHI (INDIA) 1981
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This article was downloaded by: [University of Ulster Library]On: 25 November 2014, At: 03:21Publisher: Taylor & FrancisInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UKJournal of Hydraulic ResearchPublication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tjhr20IAHR - XIXth CONGRESS, NEW DELHI(INDIA) 1981Published online: 22 Jan 2010.To cite this article: (1982) IAHR - XIXth CONGRESS, NEW DELHI (INDIA) 1981, Journal of HydraulicResearch, 20:2, 147-174, DOI: 10.1080/00221688209499493To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221688209499493PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLETaylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (theContent) contained in the publications on our platform. 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Terms &Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditionshttp://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tjhr20http://www.tandfonline.com/action/showCitFormats?doi=10.1080/00221688209499493http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221688209499493http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditionshttp://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditionsIAHR - XIXth CONGRESS, NEW DELHI (INDIA) 1981 Panel Discussion during this Congress on February 3, 1981 on HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING EDUCATION - Present Trends and Future Outlooks -Contents Page Introduction - S. Bruk 147 Subject 1: Problems arising in university education - P. Novak 149 Subject 1: Experience dans Ie dmaine de l'enseignement du cours de l'hydraulique sur la facult hydrotechnique de l'Institut Poly-technique de Leningrad - R.R. Tchougaev et V.T. Orlov (Ex-perience in teaching hydraulics at the Faculty of Hydraulic Engineering at Leningrad Polytechnical Institute) 150 Subject 2: The Inter-American Center for the Integral Development of Land and Water Resources (CIDIAT) - G. Uzcategui, J. Aguirre Pe and R. Rojas 153 Subject 3: Research and education - P.C. Saxena 156 Subject 3: Economy of education and research - M. de Vries. 158 Subject 4: Transfer of know-how. Its new importance - M. Bouvard (in French and English) 159 Subject 4: Main problems of hydraulic engineering education in Africa -J.O. Sonuga 165 Subject 4: The role of UNESCO - J.S. Gladwell 169 Subject 5: Proposals for IAHR actions - M. Kozak 171 Some proposed questions for the discussion 172 Concluding remarks - S. Bruk 173 INTRODUCTION by Dr. STEVAN BRUK "Jaroslav Cerni" Institute for Development of Water Resources, Belgrade, Yugoslavia The first panel discussion ever organized within an IAHR Congress took place in Cagliari, in 1979, on the subject: "New Developments and Needs in Hydraulics" - an obvious topic, since Hydraulics is the profession of the membership of the association. An account of this panel discussion was given in Vol. 18, 1980 No. 3 of this Journal. On the XIXth Congress of the IAHR in New Delhi, 1981, a second panel discussion was included into the programme, this time under the title: "Hydraulic Engineering Education - Present Trends and Future Outlooks". In the following pages, the contributions of the panel members will be presented, with an introduction of the moderator and a short summary of the discussions. The subject of this second panel discussion is in many ways a continuation of the first one, since all members of the IAHR are products of hydraulic engineering education and many of them, educators themselves. Research and education are closely linked and hydraulic engineering education should respond to new developments in hydraulics and the hydraulic engineering profession. IAHR has a natural and keen interest in how Received March 15, 1982 Journal of Hydraulic Research 20 (1982) No. 2 147 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 hydraulic engineers are being educated and the opinions of its members, highlighted in the Panel discussion, will certainly have an influence on educational policies of educational institutions in various countries. The purpose of the present outline is in facilitating the access of interested readers to these opinions. The fact that IAHR has introduced the topic of engineering education on the agenda of the Congress reflects the increased social responsibility of the hydraulic engineer, who becomes more and more involved into the social and economical implications of his project. He has to understand not only economics, but also the social decision making process, with increased public participation. Communication skill is hence becoming an important asset of the engineer: he has to be able to speak a language understood not only by specialists, but by the decision - making laymen as well. To develop this ability is a new task in engineering education. No argument is needed to underline the necessity of educating the hydraulic engineer for an increased environmental awareness. He will be asked not only to predict the environmental impact of his project, but also to foresee the social reactions to environmental changes. He should be ready to give honest and unbiased answers to the many questions relative to the consequences of the project, and he should be even able to anticipate most of the questions. Some of the answers would require highly professional study and sophisticated investigations. The hydraulic engineer of present and future days should be prepared to cope with the rapidly changing technologies of his profession, from construction methods to planning principles, with new and powerful tools of design and prediction, which develop faster than the ability of using them. In his activity, the engineer has to be fully integrated into the world-wide progress of the profession, responding to the flow of information which spreads from one end to the other of the world. At the same time, present days are also marked by widening gaps between societies on various levels of development. The hydraulic engineer of the day, and more so of to-morrow, must face and accept this fact. In full knowledge of the state of his art, he is confronted with the many constraints of his own environment - physical, economical, social, political, financial, etc. Instead of feeling frustrated, like the many graduates returning from advanced centers to their countries, he should relish the challenge to do the best possible job under the constraints imposed by reality. Such an attitude is part of the ethics of the engineer of present days. To put more emphasis on the economy of education is an imperative of the coming era, marked by irreversibly increasing costs of energy. In simple words, it is not enough to produce good engineers, but to do it for less money. Methods of education should become more rational, avoiding waste of time, resources and talent of both students and staff. The same holds for postgraduate and other research - the cuts of funds must be compensated by improved planning. The IAHR is an association of individual members and behaves as such. It cannot and should not assume the responsibilities of public bodies, national or international, and therefore cannot undertake actions such as setting standards, prescribing rules, issuing regulations or pretending to exercise control on any aspect of the hydraulic engineering profession, inclusive education. The IAHR can, nevertheless, be instrumental in influencing professional views by an organized exchange of ideas among its world-wide membership. The panel discussion was meant to serve this purpose, aiming at bridging the gaps which exist between the various concepts concerning - the teaching of hydraulics (subject 1) - continuing education (subject 2) - research and education (subject 3) - transfer of knowledge (subject 4) 148 Journal de Recherches Hydrauliques 20 (1982) No. 2 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 with an outline of the - possible actions of the IAHR (subject 5). On the following pages the above subjects are concisely presented in the contributions of the panel members and followed by the concluding remarks of the moderator, in an attempt to summarize the main points of the discussion. Subject 1: PROBLEMS ARISING IN UNIVERSITY EDUCATION by P. NOVAK, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England Some problems 1. Should there be special first University degrees in Hydraulic Engineering? 2. Is it right to differentiate in University education between Applied Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics? What form should the differentiation take? 3. At what stage of the formation, in which form and depth should the experimental work in a hydraulic laboratory form part of the University curriculum? 4. What form should the teaching of Hydraulic Structures and Design take? How detailed and deep should it be? What are the best methods to support innovation -can this come only after a depth of experience or can it be brought to life at the stage of University education? 5. At what stage should the teaching of water resources be introduced? What form and depth should it have? 6. How best can we find time in a restricted undergraduate curriculum for considerations of environmental problems in Hydraulic Engineering Education? Discussion 1. Few would argue with the statement that amongst engineers the civil engineer has most contact with and impact upon public, society and the environment. Within the civil engineering profession the same can be said of the hydraulic engineer. When discussing the problems arising in hydraulic engineering education at the University stage we may therefore pose the question to what extent the University does and should prepare the hydraulic engineer for his future role. 2. As far as preparation for University is concerned again there is probably agreement that the incoming student should have a sound grounding in mathematics - pure and applied - and physics, particularly in mechanics, and also a broad general education enabling him to communicate and to appreciate the wider impact of his future activities. 3. After probable agreement on these initial statements different views may arise about the next educational stage. Should there be a specialised University education for hydraulic engineers or should they be educated and graduate as civil engineers specialising at a later stage? My preferred solution is a general civil engineering curriculum during the first 2-3 years of study with 1-2 final years specialising in hydraulic engineering (bearing in mind the broader aspects of the subject). 4. Hydraulic engineering education is based on Hydraulics and Hydraulics is usually preceded by a general course in Fluid Mechanics. Patterns differ in various countries according to tradition. Is it necessary and right to differentiate between the teaching of Fluid Mechanics and Applied Hydraulics? My experience of several educational systems has shown to me that a good grasp of one does not necessarily and automatically result in a knowledge of the other and that both have to be presented in a curriculum at the right time, in the right order and with interplay between both. 5. The undergraduate exposure to the hydraulic laboratory forms no doubt a contribution to hydraulic engineering education. At what stage is it most effective? Journal of Hydraulic Research 20 (1982) No. 2 149 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 What form and depth should it have? Demonstrations or own experiments? There is a wide range of views and experiences from very early (first year) and substantial involvement of the student (e.g. in UK) to a mere fleeting "conducted tour" of a laboratory late in the course of the study, (or even no exposure at all). Clearly the educational system, economics, class sizes, etc., all have an important role to play in the answer to the questions, but we should perhaps strive to a general goal, i.e. the active participation of students in laboratory experiments. 6. One of the most difficult subjects to include in a University curriculum is the teaching of Hydraulic Structures. This can be general, descriptive or very detailed in its various applications. It is of course a synthesis of many subjects (hydraulics, hydrology, soil mechanics, materials, theory of structures, etc.), with overtones of water resources (purpose of the structure), economics, environmental impact and safety aspects. It can be taken very far as a design exercise and is best taught by University teachers who themselves were (and possibly are) involved in the design, construction operation of, or research for, hydraulic structures. The problem facing us is not only to what depth the subject should be taught, but how best to stimulate new ideas in design. By teaching too much detail one could stiffle innovation and yet the passing on of good personal experience is clearly vitally important. 7. Hydraulic Engineering Education must go hand-in-hand with the teaching of at least the fundamentals of public health engineering and be conducted within the framework of appreciation of the role of water resources. Problems of water resources systems analysis and water resources management, including planning and practice, are dealt with to varying depth probably in most University courses. After all, this is one of the ways in which the role of the hydraulic engineer in and his contact with society can be emphasized. What is not clear again is the time in the curriculum and depth of teaching at first-degree level. No doubt the length of study will play an important role, but is not the only factor. In future the teaching of these broader concepts will surely assume an even bigger role. 8. I cannot imagine hydraulic engineering education without stressing the need for awareness of the broader aspects of environmental impact of the work of the hydraulic engineer. Again we are faced with the problems of breadth of issues, timing in the curriculum and depth of coverage. Although no doubt many of these apsects can be covered in continuing education, the awareness, basis knowledge and interest have to be - in my opinion - stimulated through lectures, seminars, discussion groups, projects at undergraduate level. 9. I have confined my remarks and questions to Hydraulic Engineering within undergraduate - first degree - University education as other panel members will deal with further and postgraduate educational aspects. Subject 1: EXPERIENCE DANS LE DOMAINE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT DU COURS DE L'HYDRAULIQUE SUR LA FACULTE HYDROTECHNIQUE DE L'INSTITUT POLYTECHNIQUE DE LENINGRAD par R.R. TCHOUGAEV, V.T. ORLOV Professeurs de l'Institut Polytechnique de Leningrad, URSS Resume La communication dcrit les bases et les principes de l'enseignement du cours de l'hydraulique sur la facult hydrotechnique de l'Institut Polytechnique M.I. Kalinin de Leningrad. Summary This communication presents fundamentals of the education in hydraulics at the Faculty of Hydraulic Engineering of the Leningrad Polytechnical Institute named after M.I. Kalinin. 150 Journal de Recherches Hydrauliques 20 (1982) No. 2 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 Cette communication reprsentant revolution du travail [ 1 ] dcrit brivement Ie systme d'enseignement adopt pa la chaire de l'hydraulique de l'Institut Polytechnique de Leningrad dirige par Ie professeur R.R. Tchougaev. Le systme vrifi par l'exprience de plusieurs annes est prvu pour l'enseignement de l'hydraulique aux tudiants qui se spcialisent dans le domaine de l'hydrotechnique. Ce systme d'enseignement comprend l'ensemble d'lments, a savoir: determination du but de l'enseignement; elaboration du programme, c'est-a-dire choix du materiel ducatif ncessaire; definition de son tendue, de la methode et de la suite logique de l'expos; repartition du temps entre les tudes en classe et celles individuelles; organisation du travail systmatique individuel et controle systmatique des con-naissances des tudiants. Le but de l'enseignement, le choix du materiel et de son tendu sont determines principalement par le caractre de l'activit future des specialistes. La facult hydrotechnique de l'Institut s'occupe de la formation des ingnieurs-hydrotechniciens qui vont travailler dans des bureaux d'tude et des organismes de construction. Done, le but de l'enseignement peut tre dfini d'une maniere suivante: le cours de l'hydraulique doit permettre aux tudiants de connaTtre la nature physique de phnomnes hydrauliques qui ont lieu dans des coulements dans des ouvrages hydrauliques, de connaTtre les lois principales de la mcanique des fluides et les principes gnraux de leur utilisation pour la resolution des problmes particuliers; d'apprendre les methodes principales exprimentales et de calcul employees pour la resolution des problmes pratiques traditionnels. Ce sont l'expos systmatique du materiel durant les cours et les tudes pratiques, ainsi que la realisation des tudes en laboratoire par les tudiants eux-mmes, qui continuent a la connaissance approfondie du sujet. Les tudes individuelles doivent permettre aux tudiants: a. de raliser les calculs hydrauliques strotypes pour les cas les plus rpandus des coulements en charge et a ciel ouvert; b. d'analyser individuellement un nouveau problme, de schmatiser un phnomne, de formuler un problme non-standard et de tracer les moyens de sa resolution. Etant donn que pour de tels specialistes la mcanique des fluides doit tre expos du point de vue des interets de l'hydrotechnique, le cours de l'hydraulique (ou bien de la mcanique technique des fluides, ce que est le mme) doit comprendre les divisions suivantes: hydrostatique, bases de l'hydrodynamique, resistances hydroliques, cou-lement des fluides dans des conduites d'eau, coulements uniformes et non uniformes dans des cancaux a ciel ouvert, dversoirs, conjugaison des biefs, coulements de filtration en charge en sans charge. Ces sujets sont examines en dtail durant les cours doivent faire 14 devoirs graphiques et de calcul et 11 travaux de laboratoire. Les autres divisions, telles que: coulements non-permanents dans des conduites en charge et des canaux a ciel ouvert, bases de la representation en similitude, problme plan de l'coulement sans charge, ondes des au vent, coulements biphasiques, elles ne sont exposes que dans les cours (mais d'une maniere moins dtaille que les divisions participales) et partiellement elles doivent tre tudies par les tudiants in-dividuellement a l'aide d'un manuel. Le choix du materiel ducatif et son expos sont bases sur le principe que le cours de l'hydraulique n'lucide que des problmes qui n'exigent pas la connaissance de la structure des ouvrages hydrauliques et des conditions de leur fonctionnement, les problmes de l'hydraulique exigeant ces connaissances tant examines plus tard, dans le cours des "Ouvrages hydrauliques". Les cours sont bases sur l'hypothse de l'existance de deux approches tout a fait diffrentes a l'tude de la mcanique des fluides [ 3] . La premire approche qui est appellee une approche diffrentielle est base sur la representation d'un coulement du liquide comme un champ de vitesse vectoriel et un champ de pression scalaire. Conformment a cette approche l'coulement du liquide en chaque point est dcrit par une equation diffrentielle correspondante (celles d'Euler, de Navier-Stokes, de Journal of Hydraulic Research 20 (1982) No. 2 151 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 Reynolds, etc.). La deuxime approche, celle integrale, est base sur l'examen de l'coulement en entier et sur l'utilisation de ses earactristiques moyennes (de la section mouille), Ie mouvement du liquide tant dcrit par cinq equations bien connues donnes sous forme integrale pour l'coulement entier d'un liquide reel: equation de Bernouilli, equation de continuit Q = const, o Q - dbit du liquide; equation hydraulique de la quantit du mouvement; formules de Weisbach et de Weisbach-Darcy pour dfinir respective ment les pertes locales en charge et les pertes en charge selon de la longueur. Dans la formation des ingnieurs-hydrotechniciens la mcanique technique des fluides est base sur la deuxime approche (integrale), la premire (diffrentielle) n'tant utilisee que dans des cas partieuliers. Ce fait est expliqu principalement par Ie caractre de l'activit future des specialistes, ainsi que par Ie niveau des connaissances mathmatiques des etudiants. La formation des ing-nieurs-hydrotechniciens exige plutot la connaissance de la nature physique des phnomnes hydrauliques en vue de l'utilisation pratique que des connaissances mathmatiques [ 4] . Dans Ie cours de l'hydraulique une attention particuliere doit tre accorde a l'explication aux etudiants de la nature physique des phnomnes hydrauliques. C'est pourquoi l'expos d'un nouveau problme est construit d'une maniere suivante: au commencement on dcrit la nature physique relle du phnomne, ensuite on propose son modle imaginaire fractionnaire pour lequel on donne une description math-matique. Aprs l'analyse des relations obtenues on donne Ie schema de leur utilisation dans les calculs pratiques et dfinit Ie domaine de leur emploi. Dans les explications des calculs hydrauliques on souligne les trois points suivants: a. les calculs examines ne reprsentent pas les phnomnes reels, mais seulement les modles fractionnaires imaginaires; b. la prcision des calculs depends toujours de la prcision et de la plenitude des donnes de base; c. les rsultats de calculs ne servent souvant que d'information de base ncessaire pour obtenir une solution rationelle. Tous Ie etudiants qui se specialisent dans Ie domaine de l'hydrotechnique sont pourvus d'un manuel [ 5] qui reflte tout le materiel obligatoire, la connaissance duquel est contrle par l'examen. Le volume du manuel est determine par la possibilit d'apprendre tout le materiel ducatif ncessaire dans un dlai determine. Le materiel est choisi d'une maniere a contribuer a la formation cratrive des etudiants dans le cadre de leur spcialit. Le manuel permet de n'exposer dans les cours que les sujets essentiels et non pas tout le materiel obligatoire. Outre cela, la chaire de l'hydraulique laborent des livrets didactiques, ncessaires aux etudiants durant le semestre pour la realisation des travaux individuels (ceux graphiques, de ealcul et de laboratoire). La realisation de ces travaux dans des dlais exigs, les consultations des professeurs et le controle permanent des connaissances des etudiants, tout cela contribue a leur travail individuel systmatique. Le controle est realise en deux tapes: au premier, le controle des travaux graphiques et de calculs est realise par une machine spciale qui permet de mettre en evidence la connaissance des notion et des termes principaux qui correspondent a une division dtermine du cours. Aux deuxime, les connaissances des etudiants sont controlees par le professeur, qui dans un entretien vrifie leurs possibilites de realiser les calculs hydrauliques et de resoudre des problemes non-standards. A la fin du semestre l'tudiant passe son examen, qui met en evidence la connaissance des division tudies du cours de 'hydraulique. Bibliographies 1. BOGOMOLOV, A.I., R.R. TCHOUGAEV, Tendances modernes de la composition et de l'enseignement du cours de l'hydraulique. C.R., XVIe Congres de l'AIRH, Sao Paulo, Brsil, 1975, pp. 7-9 2. TCHOUGAEV, R.R., Deux methodes (approches) diffrentes utilises pour les 152 Journal de Recherches Hydrauliques 20 (1982) No. 2 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 recherches hydromcaniques. Variantes possibles de la composition du cours de la mcanique technique des fluides (hydraulique). S. N 4 nauchno-metod. statey "Hydravlika", Izd. Vyschaya chkola, 1977 3. Resolution de la premire reunion - sminaire scientifique sur l'hydraulique (mcanique technique des fluides). Sb.N 1 nautchno-metod. statey "Hydravlika", Izd. Vyschaya chkola, 1977 4. TCHOUGAEV, R.R., Sur la formation des specialistes sur la faeult d'une cole suprieure technique et l'enseignement des branches techniques gnrales. Izd. Institut Polytechnique de Leningrad 5. TCHOUGAEV, R.R., Hydraulique. Izd. "Energie", Leningrad, 1975. Subject 2: THE INTER-AMERICAN CENTER FOR THE INTEGRAL DEVELOPMENT OF LAND AND WATER RESOURCES (CIDLAT) An Experience on Continuing Education on Hydraulics by G. UZCATEGUI Vice-Minister of the Environment - MARNR, CARACAS, Venezuela J. AGUIRRE, PE Academic Vice-President. University of Los Andes, Merida, Venezuela R. ROJAS Director, CIDIAT, Merida, Venezuela Synopsis CIDIAT was founded in 1964, and located in Merida through an agreement between the Venezuelan Government, Los Andes University of professionals and technicians from the Latin American and Caribbean countries at various university levels through seminars, short courses and postgraduate courses. The main fields of research are hydraulic resources, land resources, socio-economic and eco-development. Technical assistance is given through cooperative services. More than 200 courses and seminars with nearly 6000 participants have been carried out. A total of 205 students have been engaged in postgraduate courses. Resume CIDIAT a t cr en 1964, et est situ a Mrida, selon un accord entre Ie Gouvernement du Venezuela, l'Universit des Andes et l'Organisation des Etats Amricains, OEA. Les objectifs sont a former les functionnaires et techniciens a diffrents niveaux universitaires lors des sminaires, cours de formation et de mattrise. Les thmes principaux de recherches sont des ressources hydrauliques, de ressources de terre, de socio-conomie et d'codveloppement. L'assistance technique offre les cours cooperatives de perfectionnement. CIDIAT a donn plus de 200 cours et sminaires avec 6000 participants. 205 tudiants ont realise les cours de maitrise. 1. Location and objectives CIDIAT was founded in 1964, through an agreement between the Venezuelan Government, Los Andes University and the Organization of American States, OAS. After 10 years of operations and a transfer process, CIDIAT has become a center of the Venezuelan Government, jointly directed and administered by the Government and Los Andes University. CIDIAT operates in the city of Merida, Venezuela, located in the Andes region, it has a population of 100.000 inhabitants. The city is near both plains and mountains and offers a natural laboratory for research and teaching activities concerned with Journal of Hydraulic Research 20 (1982) No. 2 153 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 renewable natural resources. As Los Andes University and other well known cultural and scientific institutions are located in this city, Merida has become an important cultural and social center. The objectives are training of professionals and technicians at various university levels through seminars, short courses and postgraduate programs, do research and testing in the field of water and land development, give technical assistance to specialized agencies and institutions and the collection, production and publications of teaching materials and experience on aspects concerning water, land and related resources. 2. Organizational Structure and Financing CIDIAT operations are based on an organizational structure headed by the Council of Directors which is composed of the President of Los Andes University and two General Directors from the Ministry of the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources. When appropriate to the Inter-American Program, the following persons also participate in the meetings of the council: the Director of the Program of Regional Development of the OAS, the CIDIAT Coordinator of the Inter-American Program and the National Director of Technical Cooperation of the Central Coordination and Planning Office of the Venezuelan Government, CORDIPLAN. The Council of Directors meets every 6 months in order to analyse and approve working programs and budget for the immediate period, to approve the final report of the Director, and to discuss other aspects provided for in the By-laws. The Director of CIDIAT is the Executive Secretary of the Council and as such, is responsible for the implementation of programs and guidelines. Most of CIDIAT's financing comes from the Ministry of the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources. Los Andes University supplies professors, laboratory facilities and support personnel, a computer center and other services. The National Scientific and Technological Research Council, CONICIT finances, in part, the graduate research activities. The Organization of American States contributes with part of the financing for the "Inter-American Program" and the Central Co-ordination and Planning Office of Venezuela, CORDIPLAN grants scholarships to professionals from other countries. 3. Training programs Training is the primary purpose of the Center and is provided through seminars -for high-level managers of technicians at which topics related to resources policies, and short courses - for university graduates with different levels of experience. These courses offer a comprehensive view of all those factors and i n t e r -relationships affecting resource development. At the same time they provide the understanding necessary for the correct application of modern technology and social sciences in the solution of specific development problems. These courses may involve specific topics or global reviews and can be considered either disciplinary or interdisciplinary programs, at national, regional or inter-American levels. 4. Graduate courses Starting in January of 1973, CIDIAT introduced a substantial modification in its training program, creating jointly with the University of the Andes, a graduate program leading to a Magister Scientiae in the fields of: Soils and Irrigation, Irrigation and Drainage, Hydrology, Hydraulics Structures, Water Resources Planning and Water Resources Development. This program sets the basis for an increase in 154 Journal de Recherches Hydrauliques 20 (1982) No. 2 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 the research activities of the Center. To accomplish research activites, CIDIAT has drawn from a fairly large group of professors from its own staff with collaboration from Latin America and other non-Spanish countries, specially the USA and Canada. One of the main reasons for CIDIAT's success lies in the selection of those collaborators and in the wide sphere of institutions with which the Center maintains contact. At present, CIDIAT has a permanent staff of 17 professors. The University of the Andes and other Venezuelan universities and institutions provide the main source of about 30 visiting professors each year. Other Latin American Universities and Government Agencies complete the list of Spanish speaking institutions col-laborating with CIDIAT training activities. In some special activities, such as graduate courses, CIDIAT gets consulting support from some American Universities among them: Stanford University, Colorado State University, Cornell University and Utah State University. 5. Research Research activities are aimed at the improvement of training methodology; the exploration of different perspectives in the field of water and land development; the innovation of knowledge; and the adoption of techniques appropriate to the Latin American and Caribbean environment. It is intended to establish a very close relationship between research activities and postgraduate programs. The main fields of research are: Hydraulic Resources, Land Resources, Socio-economic and Eco-development. 6. Technical assistance Technical assistance is composed of cooperative services aimed at the improvement of institutions in Latin America and the Caribbean Island and are provided through courses and advisory services to professional personnel, and through training on new proved systems and methods that will enable them to reach their goals. This technical assistance is often a projection of training activities, where case studies are jointly processed by students and professors during the course. Frequently, it is also achieved through the results of research activities. Because of these assistance activities, CIDIAT is kept well informed on the situations of many operating institutions with regard to the nature and magnitude of their problems and their capabilities to handle them. 7. Documentation This activity is organized to meet the specific needs of Latin American and Caribbean countries and to alleviate the shortage of publications concerning water, land and related resouces. It includes: publications and distribution of data compiled by the permanent and visiting professors of CIDIAT, consultants and students, reproduction of material from other sources, translation of documents, specialized library and a Computer Programs Library (regarding water and land development). 8. Summary of activities As of December 1979, the following activities had been carried out: - 244 courses and seminars with a total of 6829 participants: 2652 of them from 24 different American countries and 4179 from Venezuela. - A total of 235 students in postgraduate courses, 133 completed the academic Journal of Hydraulic Research 20 (1982) No. 2 155 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 requirements. - 73 research projects. - Advisory services to public and private institutions. - Distribution of more than 230 publications, mainly teaching material. - Creation of a specialized library with more than 15.000 books and 780 periodical publications from various parts of the world. - Creation of a Computer Program Library in the field of water and land development. 9. Conclusions Cidiat's experience in Water Resource Knowledge Transfer in Latin America has been highly positive. The main reasons for this success are: 1. Careful selection of visiting professors and consultants from Latin America and other non-Spanish speaking countries. 2. Maintenance of close relationship with a great number of national and foreign institutions as a source of consulting personnel. 3. Strong support of the Venezuelan Government, especially the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources which provides not only funding but a large group of the Venezuelan visiting professors. 4. Close relationship with Los Andes University. 5. Use of native language in all the courses. Subject 3: RESEARCH AND EDUCATION by P.C. SAXENA, Director Central Water and Power Research Station, Poona, India Statements 1. How is research effort shared? Where are problems referred in Indian situation vis-a-vis western countries? What is its effect on the system of education? 2. How does the hydraulic research profile present itself: past achievements, present emphasis and future horizons? 3. How should engineering education be oriented to fulfill national development targets? What part do large research organizations play in fulfilling the targets? 1. The Epic of "MAHABHARATA" is known mostly by the sermons of Lord Krishna to the ace-archer Arjuna urging him to keep on fighting fearlessly for the triumph of truth irrespective of the consequences. The philosophy is beautifully contained in the "Geeta". Arjuna, as most people know, was the disciple of the famous teacher in archery - Dronacharya - handpicked from thousands of aspirants in a test for his single mindedness, for Arjuna saw "nothing but the bird's head". Dronacharya, however, was not only a teacher of archery but a researcher in military strategy who designed the famous "chakravyuha" which helped trap and kill Abhimanyu who was Arjuna's son. 156 Journal de Recherches Hydrauliques 20 (1982) No. 2 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 2. India has unfortunately forgotten the ancient tradition of a system which provided a perfect synthesis between research and education - a man who was a teacher of archery was also a military researcher. This is more true of engineering education and particularly Hydraulic Research and teaching as borne out by the wide disparity between India and, say, the United States of America in the percentage of Applied Research work referred to the Universities and teaching institutions on one hand and Research Stations like CWPRS on the other. 3. While apex institutions like the Indian Institute of Science, the Institute of Technology, the University of Roorkee and occasionally, the Regional Colleges of Engineering provide valuable consultancy services to India's mighty effort in development of its water and energy resources and water borne transport, the major share of Applied Research still goes to Central and State Research Stations i.e. the CWPRS and State Irrigation Research Institutes like Roorkee, Nasik, Mysore etc. 4. What makes it even less tolerable is the formal management culture which breeds isolation between different institutions and even between the laboratory and the field engineer. In the process, some of the research stations who have to solve day-to-day field problems do not get the benefit of advanced concepts developed in Universities while the educators in the Universities and Engineering Colleges do not get exposed to the real life problems and, like the Arjuna of Mahabharata, "can only see the bird's head" - a very narrow part of the whole spectrum. 5. Hydraulic engineering is not merely the production of goods or services by an ideal combination of manpower, money and materials, but also a system of management that results in satisfaction of human needs at a minimum cost and optimum efficiency. The Indian scene, therefore, calls for an intimate sharing of research effort between research institutions like the CWPRS and the educational insti-tutions, such as exists in USA - say between Waterways Experimentation Station, Vicksburg and US Water Resources Service Engineering Research Centre, Denver, and the Universities and similar other centers of research and education. 6. The history of Hydraulic Research in India relates the past achievements in design of hydraulic structures like dams, barrages, bridges, river behaviour and training to designers etc. The present emphasis is in sediment transport simulation, random sea wave dynamics, mixing processes, mathematical modelling, thermal diffusion etc. The future horizons are, of course, in the direction of tidal power, drought incidence and relief, national watergrid, watershed modelling, river basin studies for flood prediction, control etc. Remote sensing techniques have come into being and have large impact on flood forecasting and mitigation. 7. The Central and State Research Institutions could more profitably take up a major portion of Applied Research like development of physical modelling techniques, utilisation of mathematical modelling concepts, testing of hydraulic structures like dams, barrages and bridges, river training and control, breakwater design, exploitation of tidal power, watershed modelling, flood forecasting and control, national watergrid, drought incidence and relief, instrumentation etc. while the Universities and the teaching institutions may devote their major effort in basis reseach say, for example, leading to the development of mathematical formulations of sediment transport, random sea wave dynamics, mixing processes, measurement techniques etc. on the basis of idealised problems leading to theoretical solutions. A constant interaction between the two would lead to general solutions of wide practical application. 8. Simultaneously, there should be a constant exchange of personnel and ideas between the field laboratories and educational institutions to optimise the effort in different sectors. This interaction would result in constant updating of syllabii in the Journal of Hydraulic Research 20 (1982) No. 2 157 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 Universities and Academic Institutions and in considerable improvement of tech-niques and instrumentation applied in research laboratories. An active cooperation between teaching institutions and research laboratories would also help improve the quality of students by providing them involvement in practical problems during their education. The students would greatly benefit by working in laboratories during vacation, while the laboratories would have the advantage of emploing young engineers who have had hands-down practical experience during their education. Subject 3: ECONOMY OF EDUCATION AND RESEARCH by M. DE VRIES, Professor of Civil Engineering Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands 1. Some statements - Required is the minimum cost for society for the quality the society can afford/needs - Distinction should be made as far as education is concerned - Basic training (say BSC-level). This academic training regards mainly routine problems - Research training (say PhD-level) - Post-graduate courses (Education permanente) - Except perhaps for the BSC-level: the academic education should preferably be carried out in a University carrying out also research - One should be aware of the fact that both under-education (leading to in-competence) and over-education (may lead to frustration and is uneconomic) have to be avoided - Also the time of the student is money. 2. Education and Research - University education and research in engineering is relatively expensive. Example (general value restricted): Relative expenses (Netherlands, 1977, incl. Univ. research) yearly cost per student R = ratio = "~ " * yearly cost per employee Veterinary Science Medical Science Dental Surgery Science and Technology Agricultural Engng Management Technology Li tera ture Social Sciences Economy Law 2.02 1.73 1.40 1.34 1.17 0.81 0.41 0.35 0.34 0.29 0.24 * in the whole country 158 Journal de Recherches Hydrauliques 20 (1982) No. 2 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 - In a declining economy, it is realistic to assume that with less money a better "result" will have to be produced - The economy in education should not only look at the educational period itself but also at the productive phase of the hydraulic engineer. Example: A training in a harmonic attitude towards the use of mathematical model and/or scale models for hydraulic engineering research is not cheap on the short run. On the long run, however, it pays. 3. Education at various levels Basic level (BSC) - It is to be regretted that no widely used textbook does exist that can serve for the basis training in Fluid Mechanics/Hydraulics for civil engineers. The production of such a book (stimulated by e.g. IAHR) would be economically justified. As basic training should not be carried out preferably in a foreign language, the book would require translation into some languages. - It is economically justified to include in the basic training some experimental work by the students even if rather modest facilities can be made available. Professional training (MSC) - It is to be regretted that no textbook on hydraulic engineering structures is available. Is it realistic to propose that IAHR (members) start the production of such a book? A foreign language may be acceptable here. - It is economically justified to train the students in the use of models in hydraulic engineering. Both scale models and mathematical models should be considered. Research level (PhD) - The variation over the world of this training is large. No general statements seem possible in this respect, besides the warning' against over-education. Post-graduate courses - It seems economically attractive that hydraulic engineers during their career follow post-graduate courses to get acquainted with modern developments. - It seems relevant to indicate that in post-graduate courses practising engineers and university professors should do the teaching. For the latter it is only possible to function when he keeps an active contact with developments outside the University. Subject 4: TRANSFERT DE KNOW-HOW ET COMPETENCE ET SA NOUVELLE IMPORTANCE by M. BOUVARD Ancien Directeur, Professeur de l'Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Hydraulique de Grenoble, France Les idees les plus fondamentales et les questions qui en decoulent sur la formation de l'Ingnieur hydraulicien me paraissent pouvoir tre centres sur les thmes suivants: Journal of Hydraulic Research 20 (1982) No. 2 159 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 A. Importance nouvelle de la competence dans l'action conomique moderne Si, bien entendu, capitaux et matires restent indispensables a l'action conomique, la "competence" (sous ses aspects multiples mentions ci-dessous), prend une importance nouvelle, pour plusieurs raisons: - Ie dveloppement des Sciences et Techniques, dans tous les domaines, no-tamment ceux couverts par l'AIRH, rend chaque jour plus complexe l'analyse conomique, technique des problmes et des solutions a mettre en oeuvre. Le calcul d'une turbine, des fondations d'un barrage est infiniment plus complexe aujourd'hui qu'hier, et le sera encore plus demain; les difficults de l'acquisition de cette competence, compte-tenu de son caractre immatriel, de son intransmissibilit sous forme directe. N'a-t'on pas nanmoins tendance, encore aujourd'hui, a sous-estimer son role, alors qu'elle constitue souvent une "rigidit" extrieure a' l'analyse financire classique, mais qui justement impose des contraintes invisibles si on ne lui prte pas une attention spciale. Combien de rseaux d'irrigation ont t mal dimensions, peu utilitables, inadaptes, en raison d'une insuffisante formation des utilisateurs, ou du trouble apport par des techniques inadaptes au milieu de traditions sculaires? B. Malheureusement, les composantes de cette "competence" sont multiples et comprennent notamment: - les qualits personelles des individus, spcialement importantes dans le cadre de disciplines aussi "tires" que les notres (cf. definition ci-dessous). La garantie de ces qualits objectives ne peut que rsulter d'une selection pousse. Celle-ci par eontre n'est pas toujours facile, notamment quand elle heurte des critres sociaux; - l'apprentissage scoiaire notamment thorique Malhaureusement, le tableau noir o se dispense une partie de eet enseignement - mme s'il complete par l'action dans un laboratoire - reste a deux dimensions, alors que les faits qu'on tente de transfrer de la ralit a l'Ecole en prsentent une infinite. Ils ne peuvent dont qu'y tre dpouills de beaucoup de leurs aspects. - Ces "dimensions complmentaires", en nombre considerable, ne peuvent tre acquises que par la pratique directe du mtier, au sein d'organismes de haut niveau, comptents, expriments, ayant pu justement accumuler cette in-dispensable technologie sur une longue priode. D'o des types de structures d'ducation bien diffrentes, posant chacune leurs propres problmes. C. Acquisition et transmission du savoir scoiaire Dans ce domaine plus que dans d'autres, l'existence de structures de formation propres a chaque pays est indispensable. D'abord, plusieurs des disciplines du ressort de l'AIRH (Hydrologie, Hydraulique souterraines, Transport solides), prsentent en general un facies regional important. Ensuite et surtout, le programme des enseignements doit tre troitement reli aux conditions de base du pays considr: le dosage optimum entre la formation 160 Journal de Recherches Hydrauliques 20 (1982) No. 2 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 thorique, et, inversement, de la technologie depends entre autres, mme a l'Ecole, du type d'industries installes dans le pays consider, de l'existence pralable d'organismes industriels relais (cf. ei-aprs), de l'existence de formation de techniciens. Lorsque ceux-ci sont nombreux, ils permettent aux Ingnieurs de se consacrer aux taches fondamentales. Mais ils sont beaucoup plus difficils a former que les Ingnieurs, auxquels il suffit d'apprendre a lire (mais a bien lire), de comprendre le "pourquoi". Par contre, la formation des techniciens prsente surtout le "comment", ce qui est bien difficile si on doit limiter les explications a un niveau lmentaire, faute de formation de base suffisante. Si la cooperation en matire de formation scolaire offre des avantages in-contestables, elle ne doit pas faire oublier l'imprative ncessit de disposer partout de ces structures autonomes, compltement repenses pour tre insres dans le contexte de chaque pays. Les questions qui surgissent sont nombreuses: Quel est l'apport rel de la theorie la plus sophistique s'il s'agit de projeter et construire des ouvrages simples, destines a faire face a des ncessits immediates? Une certaine forme de vulgarisation intuitive ne permettrait-elle pas de faire bnficier le practicien de l'essentiel de ce qu'elle apporte? Le but essentiel de plusieurs des equations de la Mcanique des Fluides n'est-elle pas, au fond, de prciser un mcanisme conduisant, ensuite, a une formation qualitative subconsciente, plutot que de donner une solution rigoreuse (ex.: theories du tassement des couches argileuses). L'inventaire des besoins rels des pays ne doit-il pas prcder l'tablissement d'un programme d'enseignement, sans qu'on cherche systmatiquement un niveau d'abstration qui rsulterait surtout d'une tendance a l'imitation des programmes les plus ambitieux. Les structures d'ehanges au niveau international, ne peuvent-elles faciliter la solution des "hautes formations"? - Quels moyens peut-on mettre en oeuvre pour accrottre l'efficacit d'un systme de formation scolaire, permettant de former sur place l'essentiel des cadres indispensables a l'conomie d'un pays, tout en permettant aux meilleurs esprits de mettre en valeur tout leur potential (en assurant surtout leur retour s'ils partent a l'tranger ...). D. Le savoir "appliqu", lui, ne peut s'acqurir que dans des structures industrielies: bureaus d'tudes - Iaboratoires, etc. ... C'est une tache d'intrt national que de crer dans chaque pays des "rservoirs de competence" permettant de "capitaliser" cette experience. La cooperation peut constituer a ce titre la meilleure ou la pire des choses. La pire si elle conduit a transfrer systmatiquement a l'tranger les tudes appliques, ou a les confier, mme a l'intrieur du pays, a des cadres etrangers en sjour de courte ou moyenne dure. Lorsqu'ils s'en vont, ceux-ci repartent avec tout ce qu'ils auraient pu apporter: notes de calcul, procds d'tudes, archives, ce qui interdit l'accumulation du capital technique. La meilleure des choses si elle pouvait au contraire faciliter la formation de ces organismes technologiques en apportant une technologie assimilable, que certains pays du fait de leur histoire on t amens a acqurir plus tot que d'autres. L'importance nouvelle de ce "transfert de technologies" devrait susciter la creation d'une nouvelle activit: "1'Engineering Educatif" charg a la fois de traiter les problmes techniques, et surtout de montrer comment ils peuvent l 'tre. Si pour le Journal of Hydraulic Research 20 (1982) No. 2 161 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 moment le dveloppement de ce type de contacts se heurte a de tres nombreux et difficiles obstacles (pas tous avouables ...), I'importance du problme devrait conduire des organismes internationaux tels que l'AIRH a en tudier les modalits, et les gouvernements a les imposer dans le cadre au moins de certains contrats d'tudes: compte-tenu de son caractre immatriel (mentionn ci-dessus) la competence ne peut tre transferee que par contact direct, au prix d'un effort considerable. En particulier, chaque pays o les problmes d'eau sont importants -tous, a un degr ou a un autre - se devraient d'avoir chacun des laboratoires leur permettant de traiter chez eux l'essentiel de leurs problmes. Seule cette solution permettrait de trouver la solution totalement "sur mesure", et surtout de contribuer a l'tablissement d'une technologie nationale. Quelques unes des questions ainsi souleves sont les suivantes: - Comment peut-on harmoniser la fonction "formation scolaire" (ou on traite les problmes avec 2 ou 3 paramtres, des questions bien prcises), et la formation "professionnelle"? (o on doit poser les problmes avant une infinite de variables, aprs avoir limin les moins importances). C'est une question sur laquelle les autres contributaires du "panel" ont pu traiter de leur ct aussi (education permanente). - Un des obstacles majeurs a la transmission des competences est reprsent par le fait que beaucoup d'organismes de haute technicit chercheurs a tout prix a conserver leur avance et peuvent tre incites a instaurer une certaine forme de "retention technologique". Quelles mesures pourraient s'opposer pour ragir contre cette tendance? E. L'hydraulique et la formation L'hydraulique reprsente une discipline tres tire, entre des notions thoriques les plus sophistiques et abstraites, et les notions les plus empiriques: la formule de Chzy, le tube de Pitot, ont deux sicles d'existence. La construction d'ouvrages fait appel a d'autres technologies encore plus varies, presque toujours tres difficiles a paramtrer (Mcanique des Sols, Hydraulic souterraine). D'o la difficult a former des Ingnieurs comptents dans ces activits, si on considre que, pour tre efficace, chacun devrait avoir une vision d'angle maximum sur le spectre infini que reprsenterait le savoir idal total. De la I'importance d'echanges interdisciplinaires, entre laboratoires, bureaus d'tudes comptents en hydraulique, Gnie Civil. Techniques d'tudes conomiques, specialistes du calcul sur ordinateur. Mais comment faciliter l'largissement du spectre de chacun des specialistes, sans que eet accroissement en surface de leurs competences ne se traduise par une reduction de celles-ci dans son domaine fundamental? Ne devrait-on pas prvoir des "cours de synthese" spciaux, prsentant sans tre trop superficiels les disciplines de I'exterieur (ex.: la turbulence) de fagon simplement a completer les connaissances de specialistes tres familiers de certains aspects voisins troits. Subject 4: TRANSFER OF KNOW-HOW AND COMPETENCE. ITS NEW IMPORTANCE by M. BOUVARD Former Director, Professor at the Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Hydraulique de Grenoble, France The most fundamental ideas and the questions which arise regarding the education of the hydraulic engineer seem to be centered on the following tonics: A. The new importance of competence in modern economic action It is quite clear, that capital and primary raw materials remain indispensible when 162 Journal de Recherches Hydrauliques 20 (1982) No. 2 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 talking of economic action, while "competence" (in all its many aspects mentioned below) acquires a new importance due to a number of reasons: - as a result of the development of Science and Technology, in all spheres, and especially in those covered by the IAHR, the complexity of economic analysis grows each day, as does the technique regarding the problems and solutions which should be implemented. The calculation of a turbine or of the foundation of a dam is today much more complicated than it was yesterday and will be even more so in the future; - the difficulties in acquiring the competence, keeping in mind the immaterial character and the impossibility of its transfer in direct form. There is, nevertheless, a tendency to even today underestimate its role as it often constitutes an external rigidity with regards to the classical financial analysis, but which actually imposes certain invisible constraints if we do not give it special attention. How many irrigation systems have been improperly dimensioned, inadequately used, or were not adapted because of the insufficient education of the users, or because of the problems caused by using new techniques which were not suited to the environment or to the tradition which had existed for centuries? B. Unfortunately, "competence" consists of a number of components, and mainly: - the personal qualities of an individual, which are especially important when considering the scope of disciplines which are as "wide" as are ours (definition given below). A guarantee of these personal qualities can only be the result of an advanced selection. On the other hand, this is not easy, especially when it does not coincide with social criteria. - Mainly theoretical education in schools Unfortunately, the blackboard which is used to conduct part of the teaching, even if it is complemented with laboratory work, still remains as a two-dimensional asset, while all that one tends to transfer from reality into the classroom actually represents an infinity. It is therefore impossible not to rid the matter in the process of its aspect. - These many "complementary dimensions" can only be acquired by actually doing the work in an environment of highly professional, competent people who have the experience and who had actually been able to accumulate the indispensable technology over a longer period of time. This is the reason for the very many different educational structures of which come up with their problems. C. Acquisition and transfer of the knowledge acquired at school It is in this field more so than in the others, that the existance of specific educational structures in each country is indispensable. First of all quite a number of the subjects covered by the IAHR (Hydrology, Groundwater Hydraulics, Transport of Solids) in general represent an important regional "facies". To continue, and above all, the educational programme should be closely related to and linked with the conditions in the base of the country, the optimum dosage of theory, and on the other side of technology, among other things depends, even at school, on the type of industry developed in the respective country, on the previous Journal of Hydraulic Research 20 (1982) No. 2 163 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 industries, and on the education of the technical staff. If they are in great number, engineers can then devote their time and attention to the fundamental problems. However, it is much more difficult to educate the technical staff than the engineers, as it is enough to teach engineers how to read (but read well) in order for them to be able to understand "the why". On the contrary, educating technicians is above all the "how" and that is rather difficult if the explanations are to be limited to elementary level, lacking a satisfactory basic education. If the cooperation within the scope of school education offers definite advantages, it should not be forgotten that these autonomous structures, completely adapted, should become in integral part of each country. The number of questions which arise is quite large: - What is the true input of the most sophisticated theory if what it actually deals with is the design and construction of simple structures destined to mere immediate needs? Would not an intuitional simplification be of more good in helping the practical worker to understand the essence of things? Is it not the basis and essential aim of a number of equations in the field of Fluid Mechanics, to define a mechanism leading to a subconscious, qualitative understanding, rather than to provide a strict solution? (e.g. theories of the settling of clay layers). - Should not a list of the real needs of a country precede the establishment of an educational programme, instead of systematically looking for an abstract level which would as a result only tend to imitate the most ambitious programs? Cannot the bodies of exchange at an international level help ease the solutions of "top education"? What can be done to improve the efficiency of an educational system, assuring the education on the spot of the essential staff which is absolutely necessary for the eceonomy of a country, but allowing the best ones to use all their potential (assuring above all their return home if they go abroad). D. "Applied" knowledge Can only be acquired within industrial structures: design bureaus, laboratories, etc. It is a matter of national importance to form these "reservoirs of competence" in each country, then allowing to "capitalize" the experience. In this field, international cooperation can provide the best or the worst of things. The worst can happen if the applied studies are systematically transferred abroad or even if they are entrusted to foreign staff within the country who will not be staying there for very long or who even spend a very short period within the country. Once they leave and go back home, they take with them all they can: calculation notes, methods of study procedures, archives and that makes it impossible to accumulate the technical capital. The best of things would be, if it could on the contrary, facilitate the education of these technical structures bringing along a technology which could be assimilated, and which some countries managed to, in the course of their history, acquire sooner than others. The importance of this "transfer of technologies" should incite the development of a new activity: "Educational Engineering", which would in turn deal with technical problems, and would also show how they can be treated. If for the moment, the development of such contacts is not in accord with the numerous difficult obstacles (which cannot all be admitted ...), the importance of the problem should guide international bodies, such as the IAHR, to study the different possibilitites, as well 164 Journal de Recherches Hydrauliques 20 (1982) No. 2 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 as the governments in order to at least include them into certain study contracts: keeping in mind its immaterial character (mentioned above), competence can only be transferred through direct contacts, on account of considerable efforts. It should be particularly said that each and every country with important problems regarding water should all - up to a certain level - have their own laboratories which would allow them to treat their essential problems all by themselves. Only this solution would enable them to find the right solution, and above all to contribute to the establishment of a national technology. These are some of the questions which came up as a result: - How can one bring into harmony the function of "school education" (where we deal with problems with 2 or 3 parameters and with very precise questions), with that of "professional education" (where we should postulate the problems having an infinite number of alternatives, after eliminating the less important ones)? This is a topic that the other panel members could have dealt with and contributed to from their point of view (continuing education). One of the major obstacles when considering the transmission of competence lies in the fact that many of the most advanced technical societies are trying hard to preserve their advantage and could be incited to create a form of "technological retention". Which measures could be used to oppose this in order to react against this tendency? E. Hydraulics and education (formation) Hydraulics is a subject which covers a very wide range, from very sophisticated and abstract theoretical notions to the most empirical ones: Chzy's formula and Pitot's tube have existed for two centuries. The construction of structures invites other more varied technologies whose parameters are almost always too difficult to determine (Soil Mechanics, Groundwater Hydraulics). It is because of this that it is so difficult to get engineers who would be really competent in the scope of these activities, if we consider that in order to be efficient, each one of them would need to have a very wide insight into the infinite spectrum which would represent the ideal total knowledge. But how should one facilitate the broadening of the spectrum of each of the experts without reducing their competence in the fundamental fields of their work? Should not special "courses of synthesis" be foreseen, which would - without being superficial - present the external subjects (e.g. turbulence) in order to complete the knowledge of experts already well acquainted with certain closely related aspects. MAIN PROBLEMS OF HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING EDUCATION IN AFRICA by Dr. J.O. SONUGA ENPLAN Group, Lagos, Nigeria 1. Introduction From past experiences, educational planners in Africa have recognised two fundamental factors. Firstly, that engineering educational problems of the underdeveloped countries are vastly different from those of the advanced countries and that they require a different approach. Secondly, the engineering educational programme should be relevant to the immediate and foreseeable needs of the country and that it should not be merely a "carbon copy" of methods and forms prevailing in developed countries. However, the Journal of Hydraulic Research 20 (1982) No. 2 165 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 level of social, economic and technological development in the African country has a tremendous influence on trends in the engineering educational objectives of the country. Thus there are bound to be differences in the problems of engineering education from one country to another. But there are many major problems common to all African countries. These are essentially inherent problems associated with underdevelopment. In discussing the main problems of hydraulic engineering education in Africa, let us first look at the present state of affaire in hydraulic engineering education in Africa and the man-power needs in this field. 2. Present state of affairs We shall restrict our discussion to the education of the hydraulic engineer at the professional level. This cadre of people receive education in hydraulic engineering in the universities and in certain higher institutions. The undergraduate curriculum normally gives a good grounding in hydraulic engineering but usually not to a level of professional proficiency. Therefore post-graduate training is always essential to complete the education of the hydraulic engineer. There are very few Universities in Africa which/ offer post-graduate courses in hydraulic engineering. For instance, a recent rapport of ANSTI (African Network of Scientific and Technological Institutions), UNESCO, Nairobi, reveals that only 3 universities of all the participating insitutions in Africa presently offer post-graduate courses related to hydraulic engineering. Thus, due to this shortage of training facilities, the majority of the African hydraulic engineers receive their specialized education in institutions abroad. However, ANSTI is currently planning a project to develop and/or improve post-graduate courses related to hydraulic engineering/water resources in about 9 Universities/Institutions in Africa. 3. Man power needs for hydraulic engineers There is an acute shortage of man power in the field of hydraulic/water resources engineering in Africa in view of the large scale activities and development plans of this Region. Assessments of such man power needs have been made in various international and regional reports, as for example, the country reports of the UN-Water Conferences in Rio del Plaza 1977. The figures are staggering. Consider as an example the requirements for Nigeria, a country of over 80 million people. The country is committed to the development of river basins for multi-purpose uses. Other hydraulic engineering related developments include urban and rural water supply, river navigation and river ports, hydro-power, sea ports, erosion and flood control, and land reclamation. For the planning, execution and management of these development schemes, there have been the establishment of 10 River Basin Authorities, 18 Water Boards/Corporations, the Nigerian Ports Authority, and other related Agencies. With the establishment of these Agencies, there has arisen the urgent need to develop local manpower in hydraulic engineering for the efficient performance of the functions of these Agencies. It has been shown elsewhere (ref. Sonuga, 1975) that by the end of the last Nigerian Development Plan (ending Dec. 1980), some 750 water resources engineers (mainly with hydraulic engineering educational background) and 70 specialists will be required for the activities of the River Basin Authorities, Water Boards/Cor-porations, river engineering, ports development, and other Agencies. This then gives an idea of the manpower needs which is not only staggering but urgent. 166 Journal de Recherches Hydrauliques 20 (1982) No. 2 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 4. Problems associated with underdevelopment 4.1 Manpower Shortage The first major problem is how to plan engineering educational programmes to train hydraulic engineers in the shortest possible time in the quantity and quality required for the magnitude of the development projects in the African countries. The educational programme should take into account the possibility that because of the acute shortage of manpower, the young hydraulic engineer can be given greater responsibilities at the earliest stage in his career. For this reason, some universities in Africa have considered the introduction of some specializations in the undergraduate engineering courses. Some "elective" courses are introduced at appropriate stages to lead to a specialization in one of the major fields of civil engineering (e.g. structures, hydraulic engineering, transportation engineering, etc.). 4.2 Problem of Curriculum Development As indicated previously, there are very few universities in Africa offering specialized training in hydraulic engineering. These institutions are usually faced with the problem of developing a hydraulic educational curriculum appropriate to the immediate environment. The curriculum, basically modelled after patterns and contents of the advanced countries, is often modified and expanded to meet the special environmental requirements. In doing this, there has been the tendency of "overloading" the curriculum. The students are given much more additional or extended course requirements over and above the normal programmes in the advance countries. As a consequence, the student is unduly burdened with work. He has no free periods to spend for creative thinking. This results in a poor development of the creative skill of the student. This has been a major problem confronting those of us concerned with developing engineering educational programmes in African universities in the past 15 years. 4.3 Inadequate Facilities A great handicap to hydraulic engineering education in the developing countries is the lack of adequate laboratory facilities. Because of the high capital cost involved, hydraulics laboratory facilities and equipment of the new engineering institution are normally phased with the planned development of the institution. In most cases, however, funds are not generally available at the stage when the essential laboratory facilities are required for the courses. This could have a serious effect on the quality of the education. The relative high cost of engineering text books and the inavailability of good engineering reference libraries (particularly in the specialized areas of hydraulic engineering) in the developing countries of Africa are other factors which may influence the hydraulic engineering educational programmes. 5. Political and sociological problems 5.1 Lack of Career Appeal and Possibilities Although there is a greater manpower need in the water related disciplines than the other aspects of civil engineering, students offering specialization in hydraulic engineering are usually very few compared with disciplines such as structures and highways. Hydraulic Engineering activities do not offer enough appeal such as for structural engineering and highway engineering. This has been a major sociological problem in developing hydraulic engineering education in Africa. Journal of Hydraulic Research 20 (1982) No. 2 167 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 Career possibilities are also not very attractive for the young engineers. Most of the major works are carried out by foreign firms who prefer to use experienced hydraulic engineers because of the demands of such assignments. 5.2 Quality of the Instructors The professional development of a student may depend to a large extent on the approaches and attitudes of the instructors. In the African situation, there are two sides to the problem. There is the case of foreign staff in the African university who may hold religiously to the dogma that, due to poor technological exposure, the African student has an inadequate background to easily comprehe^ modern theoretical concepts in hydraulic engineering. On this premise, the course^ are watered down and presented with repeated emphasis on even trivial concepts. As a consequence the student develops a wrong approach to hydraulic engineering concept and practice. On the other side, there is the African academic staff who is highly qualified academically but who has no professional, teaching or enough research experience. His treatment of his course would tend to have too theoretical a bias. The student becomes unduly burdened by details of the theoretical concepts which in most cases he cannot relate to practical engineering problems. It is needless to emphasize that the teaching of major concepts of hydraulic engineering is more meaningful if the instructor can draw on his professional experiences. 5.3 Political Decisions on Education Policies The educational policies and objectives of a country are largely influences by trends in the social, economical and technological developments in the country. There may be political decisions limiting the establishment of hydraulic engineering courses or hydraulic research organisations and even the type of courses to be organised. Such political decisions may affect the quality of an approach to hydraulic engineering education. 6. Other problems 6.1 Lack of Challenges of Engineering In the developed countries, we see around us public facilities (both ancient and modern) of unusual engineering features. One is struck by the remarkable engineering feat in the design and construction of large scale hydraulic engineering works (barages, dams, sea defence works, etc.). These are the challenges of civil engineering. They may serve to rouse the student's interest in hydraulic engineering and to improve his understanding of what hydraulic engineering is. In the African countries, such prominent engineering features are just being developed. 6.2 Lack of Hydraulics Research Facilities Research is a necessary stimulus to education. There are no established Hydraulics Research Institutes/Laboratories in the African countries of such capability to handle meaningful real life engineering projects. These facilities are just being developed with some assistance from foreign organisations (e.g. the University of Lagos Hydraulics Research Laboratory). Furthermore, there is as yet little cooperation between the industry and the existing universities offering hydraulic engineering education and research. Most of the projects in these countries which may provide training opportunities for the hydraulic engineer, student, or research worker are handled by foreign firms. These firms find it economical and efficient to carry out the design in their head office and to use hydraulic research laboratories/organisations in their own country. 168 Journal de Recherches Hydrauliques 20 (1982) No. 2 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 In order to achieve a balanced education and to involve the student in problems related to the local environment, it is necessary to have a good cooperation between the institution and the industry and to develop research activities in hydraulic engineering locally. It is gratefying that recent trends in some of the African countries are in this direction. 6.3 Lack of Facilities for Continuing Education Advances and changes occur in technology at an ever increasing rate. Thus the education of the hydraulic engineer cannot be considered as ending after graduation from the institution. It is necessary to enhance the effectiveness of the engineer by further education ("Continuing Education") as a practising engineer. These may be achieved by short courses and workshops to educate the engineer on new techniques, theories, etc. There are very few facilities for such programmes in the African States. The efforts of UNESCO and other international organisations in developing such programmes in Africa should be recommended. 7. Conclusions The foregoing reveals some of the important problems for hydraulic engineering educational planners for the African countries. The solution to most of the problems is obvious. As the country develops technologically, many of the problems which are essentially due to environmental causes will disappear in the long range picture. References 1. SHOJOBI, J.O., 1967, Education and Training of Engineers in African Countries, Ford Foundation Conference on Engineering Education in Middle Africa, Kumasi, Ghana, July 1967 2. SONUGA, J.O., 1967, Difficulties Confronting the African Undergraduate Civil Engineering Student: Their Causes and Cure, Conference on Civil Engineering Education and Professional Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, Nov. 1967 3. SONUGA, J.O., 1975, Priorities for Developing Countries; Education Policies, IWRA/UNESCO, International Seminar on Water Resources Education, Paris and Strasbourg, France, March 1975 Subject 4: THE ROLE OF UNESCO by J.S. GLADWELL, Senior Programme Specialist, Division of Water Sciences, UNESCO, Paris, France UNESCO's IMP activities now put more emphasis on the environmental aspects of water resources and on the study of hydrologieal problems of particular relevance to developing countries. The term "hydrologieal" in the title of the programme has come to be used with a much wider meaning including its interaction with water management in general. For the period 1981-1983 the objectives include: 1. the carrying out of a scientific programme which will contribute to a better knowledge of the hydrologieal system and serve as a basis for the exploitation and integrated management of water resources; 2. the development and improvement of teaching methods in water sciences and the carrying out of national, regional and international training and information Journal of Hydraulic Research 20 (1982) No. 2 169 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 programmes in order to assist in the training of the specialists needed for the development of water resources and to bring out more clearly the importance of these resources for social and economic development; and 3. the strengtening of Member States'institutional infrastructures in the sphere of water resources, with a view to increasing their capacity to evaluate their water resources and manage them scientifically. During this second phase, the activities of IHP will be directed increasingly towards seeking integrated solutions to the problem arising in connection with the multi-purpose uses of water resources. It will be concerned with the protection of those resources, taking into account ecological, econmic and social factors. Even greater emphasis will be given to education and training, with a step-up in the transfer to developing countries of the experiences gained thus far under IHP. The problem of the training of water resources engineers is not one that is unique to developing countries. But a number of questions can and should be asked: - Who are we trying to educate? - Why are we trying to educate? - Do we already know more than we are applying? - Are we sometimes trying to get too sophisticated for the problems? - Are we sometimes more concerned with the approach to the solution than to the solution itself? The engineering professional with a background of broad knowledge who has an understanding of many related fields is demanded by the problems. I should be clear at this point that I do not believe that the highly-trained specialist is in any way obsolete in this modern world. In fact, I believe strongly that the water resources engineer of whom I have been speaking should rise from a traditional speciality. I would personally be very leery of any such engineer who had a lack of depth, with only a broad superficial exposure to a range of topics. Such a person would soon be dropped by the other team members and would become quite ineffective in any professional sense. The educator of this water resources engineer, then, is faced with a dilemma between providing the young student with a solid specialized professional training, while in some way bringing to him a satisfactory broad-based understanding of the requisite areas. The question is not really if it can be done; rather how it must be done. My one admitted bias in this respect is that I do not believe this can be accomplished in an undergraduate programme. I would like to suggest three questions which I hope will inspire discussion: - What do universities teach best? - What is best left to post-graduate non-university training/education? - What are the roles and responsibilities of consulting firms and governmental organizations in "rounding" and engineer's education? As one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations, UNESCO strongly promotes the general advancement of education and training - in particular in the area of water sciences. We believe that significant progress has been made in the last fifteen years. We will continue to assist in the assessment of educational needs in various regions, provide methodological guidance in its various forms, and support training courses at various level. With the increasingly obvious need for integrated solutions to multi-purpose uses of our water resources we will be looking - as we all are here today -for the best means by which the water resources engineers of the future can be assisted in their professional development. 170 Journal de Recherches Hydrauliques 20 (1982) No. 2 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 Subject 5: PROPOSALS FOR IAHR ACTIONS by M. KOZAK, Professor of Hydraulics Technical University of Budapest, Hungary Hydraulic engineering education is fundamentally important both from the point of view of scientific standards and from that of the future generation of engineers. It is proper if IAHR deals with the problem. It is quite clear that the university education of hydraulic engineers is not the same all over the world and that it differs from country to country. Obviously it cannot be uniform, as the contents and standard of education depend on a great many factors (social, economic relations, the size of the country,etc). But the real set-back is the lack of unity in important hydraulic ideas and procedures. I would now like to say what I believe the IAHR could do in order to improve the education of hydraulic engineers. Proposals 1. Overview of the present situation The first and most important task is to get to know the engineering educational forms, contents and problems of the different countries or continents. On this behalf, various activities could be undertaken, such as organizing seminars at IAHR congresses or convening symposia. In the text which follows they shall be called "Educational symposia". The lecturers should carefully be selected. The main outlines of the lectures should also be given, in order that everyone is able to comment on the main characteristics and contents of hydraulic engineering education following the same pattern. Both the good and the bad experiences should be discussed in the reports. 2. Analysis of the basic subjects At the symposia, special attention should be paid to the contents of such subjects as are mathematics, hydraulics and hydraulic engineering, as well as to the extent to which they are taught. It could be very useful to demonstrate the curricula in form of books or lecture notes. New technical books, updated lecture notes and text-books could be demonstrated in the course of these sessions. 3. Computer techniques Special attention should be paid to mathematical programming and to its role in university education. In this respect, the qualification of hydraulic engineers is very heterogeneous, depending on the hardware possibilities of different countries. 4. Standardization processes Topics, such as the development of universally accepted views in Hydraulics, the application of unified concepts and the introduction of hydraulic methods and calculations which could be standardized, could be discussed at the educational symposia. In general, more work should be done on the standardization of basic hydraulic concepts and hydraulic calculations. In this respect, engineering education has also a significant role. Things would be ever so much easier if a good Journal of Hydraulic Research 20 (1982) No. 2 171 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 multilingual explanatory technical dictionary were compiled. A good example is the latest publication of ICID (Multilingual technical dictionary of Irrigation and Drainage). 5. Laboratory education Laboratory education is one of the most effective teaching tools, which makes use of hydraulic models, instruments and equipment. The most advanced laboratoricould provide assistance to others by - organizing seminars in their laboratories, during which the participants could have a detailed insight into laboratory education, giving detailed descriptions and information about their most important and most powerful models, exchanging opinions and experiences, etc. The basic goal is to learn more from each other and to help hydraulic engineering education all over the world. 6. The role of films in hydraulic engineering education Let us try to make a list of films, which relate to hydraulic engineering education. Good films are also very powerful tools in the effective audiovisual education. 7. Common principles of the international hydraulic language IAHR should work out suggestions and recommendations with respect to the basic principles of hydraulic engineering education. Participants could propagate these suggestions in their countries as postulates of an internationally unified hydraulic engineering education. In some countries the contents of education can be somewhat different in accordance with the local characteristics and with the technical-economic situation of the given country. However, the international scientific relation between hydraulic engineers would definitely require a common view on the fundamental concepts and standard hydraulic calculations. It would also require a common technical knowledge at a given level. In this respect, IAHR as an internationally recognized scientific organization could do a lot. The chances of success of an educational reform would be much better if the initiative came from the IAHR instead of from an individual. 8. Scientific development and education At the educational symposia outstanding experts could be asked to express their opinion on the needed improvements in teaching certain subjects, or parts of subjects, in view of the accelerated scientific developments (e.g. the energy crisis puts an emphasis on the enery-saving aspects of every detail of research or planning, much more so today than it was in the past). SOME PROPOSED QUESTIONS FOR THE DISCUSSION University education At what level should hydraulic engineering be taught? Teaching of hydraulics Is there any need to change the traditional pattern? Continuing education Which should be the preferred mode: roving or stationary educational centers? Journal de Recherches Hydrauliques 20 (1982) No. 2 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 Research and education Could the big laboratories open their doors to students and engineers looking for specialized training? Economy of education How best to reduce costs: by cutting courses shorter, by improving tools for self-education, by ramifying and articulating the studies? Transfer of know-how Is endigeneous consultancy the clue? UNESCO Is its most valuable input in funding, or providing staff, or promulgating ideas? IAHR Should IAHR standards be set in hydraulic engineering education? CONCLUDING REMARKS by Dr. STEVAN BRUK It is not possible to give here a full account of the discussions which followed the reports of the panel members. It seems, however, to be of interest to recall some of the points on which an apparent concensus of the participants of the meeting was reached. Since educational and technological needs differ very strongly between contries, no general guidelines can be given with regards to organization, contents, syllabi and curricula of hydraulic engineering education. Having in mind, however, that engineering education should anticipate scientific and technological development at least 15 to 20 years ahead, it can generally be recommended to concentrate university education on principles rather than on technological details. This is in particular valid for the teaching of Hydraulics as one of the basic subjects of hydraulic engineering. Acquisition of appropriate technologies could greatly be left to continuing education, which has an important and increasing role in hydraulic engineering education. More interaction should be achieved between research and applications. Publication of cheap monographs on selected topics can serve well this purpose, much more than of expensive and generalized textbooks. It was recognized that communication skill becomes increasingly important both in developed and developing countries. In addition to their professional abilities, hydraulic engineers should know how to deal with economical and social problems, safety considerations and environmental influences, and to interfere in the public decision-making process. Awareness of the constraints imposed on technologies in different environments is essential both in engineering practice and education. Transfer of too complicated technologies either in planning, design and construction has proved to be very difficult within industrialized societies, and is even more so between highly industrialized and developing countries. Engineers and researchers in the developing countries should face the challenge of finding their own methods adjusted to and applicable in their specific Journal of Hydraulic Research 20 (1982) No. 2 173 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014 social, economical and environment. Within the broader context of hydraulic engineering, IAHR is concerned mainly with hydraulics, fluid mechanics and related subjects and its main task is to keep abreast with developments in these fields. It can, nevertheless, influence hydraulic engineering education by means of disseminating information among its membership through regular activities such as congresses, specialty conferences, seminars, etc. Concerning the teaching of hydraulics as one of the basic subjects of hydraulic engineering, it could assume more responsibility by organizing special symposia or workshops devoted to educational problems, and even to propose minimum standards for university courses. Hydraulic engineering education could repeatedly be discussed on the forthcoming congresses and conferences of the IAHR. 174 Journal de Recherches Hydrauliques 20 (1982) No. 2 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 03:21 25 November 2014
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