hypnosis, meditation, and altered states of consciousness

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Hypnosis, Meditation, and Altered States of Consciousness. Altered States of Consciousness. General characteristics Distortions of perception Intense positive emotions Sense of unity Illogical Indescribable Transcendent Self-evident reality. Types of states Meditation During drug use - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Hypnosis, biofeedback, and meditation

Hypnosis, Meditation, and Altered States of ConsciousnessAltered States of Consciousness General characteristicsDistortions of perceptionIntense positive emotionsSense of unityIllogicalIndescribableTranscendentSelf-evident realityTypes of statesMeditationDuring drug use

Moment of religious conversion

Unusual intense sexual orgasmMeditation= when a person focuses his or her attention on an image or thought with the goal of clearing the mind and producing relaxation, or an inner peaceRoots in BuddhismMany varieties of meditationSimplest relax, concentrate on breathingMantras silent repetition of sounds or words with special meaning have calm effectTranscendental state achieved, desired altered state of consciousnessNatural remedy for stress-related problemsMeditation3 major approaches:Transcendental meditation- mental repetition of a mantra, usually a Sanskrit phraseEyes closed about 15-20 minMindfulness meditation- focuses on the present momentExample: the participant may move his or her focus through the body from the tips of the toes to the top of the head, while paying particular attention to areas that are in painBreath meditation- concentration on respiration

Most people can benefit from meditationLowers blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration rateMeditationMindfulness - focus awareness on present

Example: father concentrates on children, blocks out thoughts of work and other events

Mindfulness training may reduce mood disturbance during stressful experiences

Not all benefit from intense focusing on present

Psychologists have great interest in this

Altered States Hypnosis is a form of altered consciousness in which people become highly suggestible to changes in behavior and thought.

Hypnotists voice talks or lulls person into altered state of consciousness

Typical characteristicsRelaxationHypnotic hallucinationsHypnotic analgesia Hypnotic age regressionHypnotic controlWhat is Hypnosis?Mesmer trained in classical medicineUnusual practice called quackery by othersTreated patients with magnetic seancesSought to create magnetism in patients body

Created mysterious hypnotic trance known as Mesmerism

Limited belief that pain of some may be effectively controlled with hypnotism

Mesmer and MesmerismTrust is essential to hypnosisIt should involve cooperation, not dominationThe participant can be convinced to do things they normally wouldntAnyone can resist hypnosis by refusing to open their mind to the hypnotistHowever, participants can be convinced to do things against their willWhat is Hypnosis?People often view hypnosis as entertainment, but it has medical uses, as well.Posthypnotic suggestion- a hypnotist can suggest things for the participant to remember or forget when the trance is overExample: a participant is told not to hear the word psychology.He may report that people are talking strangely, leaving words outHe is not aware his consciousness was told to block out that wordMemory can be enhancedIt can even change certain behaviors (smoking, overeating, etc.)Hypnotherapists use hypnosis to allow their patients to think of their problems in a new waySome patients fear the loss of control, so it will not always workUses of HypnosisAs therapy?No support that it is any better than positive suggestions outside of hypnosis (placebo effect?)Alleviate pain?YES10% can become so deeply hypnotized they can undergo major surgery without anesthesia50% experience some pain relief from hypnosis.How? Selective attention or actually dissociating pain from conscious awareness?

Uses of HypnosisPsychoactive drugs chemical that alters perceptions and moodTolerance user requires a larger amount to get same effectsWithdrawal user experiences discomfort when discontinuing use Physical physical pain Psychological cravings

Most people do NOT become addicted when using drugs medicinally

People are equally as likely to overcome addiction by themselves as when they seek therapy

Drugs and ConsciousnessDrug Use: Basic ConsiderationsFive factors affecting response to a drugDose and purityPersonal characteristicsExpectationsSocial situationMoods States of ConsciousnessStimulants amphetamines, cocaine, nicotine, caffeineProduces both positive and negative emotions dependent on when usedReduces need for food and sleepDangerous to even occasional user can cause heart attacksUser tolerance varies so overdose is easyincreased heart and breathing rate, pupils dilate, blood sugar rises, appetite diminishes, self-confidence risesMay crash when drug is metabolized headaches, fatigue, irritability, depressionEphedra (ma huang) herbal stimulant

Drugs and ConsciousnessLow Change in test score for each measure of emotion2 Dose of caffeineNone 1 0 3 High Hostility Depression Anxiety Change in emotion after drinking decaffeinated coffee, and coffee containing small or large amounts of caffeineCaffeineBlocks adenosine (a neurotransmitter that blocks the release of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin)

CocaineBlocks reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin

Drugs and ConsciousnessAmphetaminesFirst became a problem when used as diet drugs in 1950sIncrease secretion of dopamine and norepinesphrineincreased heart and breathing rate, pupils dialate, blood sugar rises, appetite diminishes, self-confidence risesMay crash when drug is metabolized headaches, fatigue, irritability, depressionNicotineMimics acetylcholine receptors that lead to release of dopamine and serotonin (and adrenaline into bloodstream)

Depressants calm neural activity and slow body function

BarbituratesDepress sympathetic nervous systemImpaired memory and judgmentMixed with alcohol, can be fatalAlcoholdecreases inhibitions people are more aggressive and more lovingRelaxes sympathetic nervous system (reactions slow speech slurred, performance deteriorates)Disrupts processing of information into long-term memorysuppresses REM sleepPeople who believe they have ingested alcohol exhibit symptoms of being drunk

Narcotics: OpiumPowerful, high physiological addictive; prolonged addiction profoundly damages bodyUse of opium poppy is over 7,000 years oldOpiates: Morphine, heroin, codeineSudden rush, then relaxed stateWithdrawal brain stops producing natural endorphins; when use is stopped, user suffers painLabs have produced synthetic narcoticsDemerol, Percodan, OxyContinDrugs and ConsciousnessPsychotropic DrugsDepressantsSedatives Used for sleep problemsBoth highly addictive and dangerous with alcohol

AmbienHalcionRestoril States of ConsciousnessTranquilizersMilder drugs

Common namesXanaxValiumLibriumAtivanMiltownEquanil Inhalants: toxic substances that produce a sense of intoxication when inhaled. Hallucinogens: evoke vivid images or hallucinationsLSD, mescaline, shrooms, PCP serotonin antagoniststrong emotions from euphoria to detachment to panicPersons mood and expectations can influence the experienceHallucinations geometric forms, meaningful images (often a tunnel), replay past emotional experiences, often feel outside of body

Glue, cleaning fluid, paintTypically placed in paper bags and sniffed. Common among childrenHighly addictive and extremely dangerous. Toxic fumes cause permanent brain damage and other serious complications. Drugs and ConsciousnessPsychotropic DrugsPCP or phencyclidine

Derived from animal tranquilizer

Usage common among adolescents

Effects last 4 to 6 hours

Some experience hallucinations, detachment from the environment, and euphoria

Considered one of most dangerous street drugsStates of ConsciousnessMarijuanaHotly debated, popular conscious-altering drugTHC active ingredientrelaxes, disinhibits, and produces euphoric high, inhibits pain, increases appetite, alleviates nausea, disrupts memory formation and motor coordinationmechanism of action unknown, but recent evidence indicates that THC binds to a previously undiscovered neurotransmitter active during childbirth that block memory formation

Not physically addictive; regular users have uncomfortable withdrawal symptomsProlonged use decreases cognitive processing efficiencyWeakens immune system responseDecreases action of male sex hormonesGreatly increases risk of lung cancer

Drugs and ConsciousnessPsychotropic DrugsAct-Alike and Designer Drugs

Legal in most states to manufacture and sell drugs that look and act like illegal substances

Act-alike drugs: combinations of high doses of powdered caffeine and some over-the-counter decongestants produce same effects of amphetamines

Designer drugs not yet classified illegal

States of ConsciousnessDrug Abuse and DependenceDrug abuse when it causes physical or psychological harmAlcohol and liver damageInhalants and brain damagePerformance decline and marijuanaStimulants and heart attacksShared needles and HIV

States of ConsciousnessDrug Abuse and DependenceDrug dependence intense cravings and withdrawal symptoms when not using drug

Three reasons for psychoactive drug addiction

Sensitization of pleasure and reward systems in the brain

Reduction of negative feelings

Learning States of ConsciousnessHuman Diversity:Substance Abuse and Human DiversityDrug and alcohol abuse major U.S. problem

About 1 in 4 once had substance abuse problem

Men 2x as likely as women to abuse substances

African Americans less likely to abuse drugs, alcohol, and tobacco than whites; ethnic influence counters income and education trendsStates of ConsciousnessNicotine and AlcoholNicotine found in tobacco products

Usage rates high, given clear evidence of cancer, heart attacks, lung and birth problems, and death

Most smokers began in teenage years

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