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A brief basics for river engineering hydraulic structures

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B. Petry Lecture NotesN. LukovacHydraulic StructuresHydraulic StructuresTable of Contents:1 GENERALITIES 1 1.1 ABOUT THESE LECTURE NOTES 11.2 INTRODUCTION 11.3 BRIEF LIST OF HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES (INCLUDING THOSE OUT OF THE SCOPE OF THESE LECTURE NOTES) 22 COLLECTION AND EVALUATION OF BASIC DATA 5 2.1 TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS 52.2 GEOLOGY 62.3 HYDROGEOLOGY 62.4 SEISMOLOGY 72.5 METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY 72.6 HYDROLOGICAL ASPECTS AND RELATED HYDRAULIC ASPECTS 72.6.1 RIVER DISCHARGE SERIES (FLOW SERIES) 72.6.2 FLOODS 82.6.3 ROUTING OF HYDROGRAPHS. 103 SPILLWAYS13 3.1 CONCEPT HYDRAULIC STRUCTURE DESIGNED TO RELEASE WATER IN EXCESS FROM A RESERVOIR TO A RIVER STRETCH DOWNSTREAM OF A DAM 133.2 COMPONENT WORKS AND CLASSIFICATION 133.3 SPILLWAY TYPES 143.4 DATA FOR SPILLWAY DESIGN 173.5 DETAILED HYDROLOGIC DATA 173.6 DETAILED HYDRAULIC DATA SUPPORT OF HYDRAULIC DESIGN183.7 SELECTION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURE 183.8 DESIGN METHODOLOGY 183.9HYDRAULIC PROBLEMS (SEE HYDRAULIC DESIGN CRITERIA) 193.10 CONTROL GATES224 OUTLET WORKS25 4.1 CONCEPT HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES USED TO CONVEY WATER FROM A RESERVOIR TO A POINT DOWNSTREAM OF A DAM.254.2 CLASSIFICATION: COMPONENTS 254.3INLET AND OUTLET CHANNELS 264.4 INTAKES 274.5 CONTROL STRUCTURE 274.6 CONVEYANCE STRUCTURE 284.7 TERMINAL STRUCTURES 284.8 HYDRAULIC PROBLEMS AND THEIR PREVENTION 295 ENERGY DISSIPATERS 31 5.1 ENERGY DISSIPATION ON SPILLWAYS 315.2 SKI-JUMP AND FLIP BUCKET 315.3 STILLING BASINS 325.4 DOWNSTREAM EROSION 345.5 DISSIPATION AT BOTTOM OUTLETS 366 NAVIGATION LOCKS39 6.1 CONCEPT 396.2 TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION 396.3 LOCK CYCLE 396.4 RELEVANT HYDRAULIC ASPECTS 407 PUMPING STATIONS AND PIPELINE CONVEYANCE 45 7.1 PUMPING STATIONS 457.1.1 USAGE AND CLASSIFICATION 457.1.2 PUMP PARAMETERS 467.1.3 DESIGN AND SELECTION OF PUMP, SUMP AND MAINS 487.1.4 PRESSURE TRANSIENTS 497.2 PIPELINES 517.2.1 HYDRAULICS 517.2.2 LOADS 537.2.3 PLACEMENT CONSIDERATIONS 548 SPECIAL STRUCTURES57 8.1 FISH LADDERS AND PASSAGES 578.2 SPAWNING CHANNELS 588.3 SELECTIVE INTAKES 611 Generalities1.1 About These Lecture NotesThese lecture notes are written as brief guide to make it easier to follow the course on Hydraulic Structures. They should also serve as remainder for future reference concerning the lectures as well asreferences listed for each subject covered.Appendixesprovided informof handouts,mainly selected excerpts from useful references, should serve as extension of lecture notes and guidance for further more detailed studies.1.2 IntroductionIn various textbooks on Hydraulic Structures one can find different contents. That is mainly due to different perceptions about what the hydraulic structures are. The broadest definition is that: these are all structures in contact with water that would include structures such as bridges, hydraulic tunnels, docks, coastal and offshore structures etc. However, in this course curriculum is limited only to hydraulic structures of interestfor River Engineering and River Basin Development,and only those that are not given elsewhere. For instance: dams are given in Engineering of Dams, and river diversion structures in River Diversions and Headworks. Most other structures that are not related to River Engineering and River Basin Development are covered in other Masters Programmes of IHE especially in Hydraulic Engineering. Therefore, in this course the emphasis is giventostructuresthat are, inonewayortheother, relatedtoDamslike: Outlets, Spillways, Navigation Locks and the like. Part of these lecture notes will be repeated in Engineering of Dams as a reminder, since some of the structures given here can not be neglected in that course as they are inseparable parts of most of the dams. Humankind built hydraulic structures, in different forms, since the earliest days of known history, in ordertosolveproblemsthat couldnot besolvedotherwise. Hydraulicstructures areas oldas Civilization.Therecould notbe adeveloped civilization without watermanagement,andifone looks back,one can see thatallmajor settled civilizations were using water supply systems and irrigation. At first, small diversion dams were used (there are records about the dam built on the Nile Riverbefore4000BC)withwaterconveyancelinesandirrigationnetworks. Theoldest known aqueduct was built near Nineveh, the capital of Assyria in 703 BC. The first Roman aqueduct was Aqua Appia opened in 312 BC and it was supplying the city of Rome with water. Well-preserved remains and remnants of some of those structures can still be seen. Some hydraulic structures as old as 400-500 years are still in use. Need, for hydraulic structures in order to solve water management problems is ever present, and it will not be exhaustedinforeseeable future if ever. Theselecture notes will providesome references that mayhelp inproper planning, investigation, designandconstruction. It is not intendedheretoprovidearecipecookbookbut ratherbasicconsiderationsofmajoraspects, giving the clue where and how to search for answers to questions that may arise in practice. Even 1then all the answers will not be found. To try to find some of them, at least in special non-standard cases, further research may be required.1.3 Brief List Of Hydraulic Structures (including those out of the scope of these lecture notes) Dams (given in Engineering of Dams) Intakes (partly given here partly elsewhere in the programme of this branch) Outlets (given here) Spillways (given here) Energy Dissipaters: Stilling Basins, Plunge Pools, Flip Buckets, Ski Jumps, Aprons (given here) Navigation structures locks, ship-lifts and inclined planes (given here), inland ports Pumping stations (briefly given here) Canals, (navigation and water conveyance) (Spawning Canals given here) Other conveyance structures like pipelines (briefly given here) Drop structures, culverts and siphons Steel structures like gates, valves, air-vessels, air vents, silt outlets etc. (partly given here) Diversionworkstructures diversiondams andweirs, river intakes, settling basins, drop structures etc. (given in River Diversions and Headworks) Fish ladders and passes (given in River Diversions and Headworks) Barriers weirs and barrages, bottomwithdrawal or Tyrolean intakes (given in River Diversions and Headworks) Check dams Hydro power stations of various types (given in Hydropower Development) Earth retaining structures like sheet-piles, retaining walls, gabions, etc. (partly given elsewhere in the programme) Piers, jetties, groynes (groins) for river training and/or shore protection. (partly given elsewhere in the programme) Other river training structures like sills, cascades etc. . (partly given elsewhere in the programme) Bridges, viaducts, aqueducts2 Tunnels . (partly given elsewhere in the programme) Drainage sluices Irrigation structures Levees and canal dikes (embankments) Revetments Docks Caissons Fendering and mooring structures Dikes (sea-dikes, and flood control dikes in river training) Coastal structures breakwaters, shore protection works Sea outfalls and intakes Offshore pipelines Offshore structures Man-made islandsEventhis list isnot exhaustiveas onecanthinkof evenmorestructures that couldbecalled hydraulic. However, some of them, that are most important for program in River Engineering and River Basin Development, are dealt with in this course. They are marked above, as well as other structures that a taught elsewhere in the programme. Most of the others are covered in other two programmes (branches) of Hydraulic Engineering at IHE.3SOME IMPORTANT REFERENCES ON HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES 1. Hydraulic Structures P. Novak (and others)2. Handbook of Applied Hydraulics C.V. Davis3. Design of Small Dams United States Bureau of Reclamation4. Advanced Dam Engineering Jansen5. Hydraulic Design Criteria U.S. Corps of Engineers6. Proceedings of International Conferences ICOLD7. Proceedings of International Conferences IAHR8. International Water Power and Dam Construction9. Hydropower and Dams (International Journal on)10. Water Power Manual U.S. Corps of EngineersIn addition to that there is: A large variety of technical periodicals in a variety of languages with papers on hydraulic structures (RussianChertousov, Agroskin and Chugayev, then other books in English, German,Spanish, Portuguese, Japanese, etc.) A large variety of other texts (books, periodicals) on subjects related to hydraulic structures. NOTE:Lists of good references can also be found in the appendices of several publications cited above.42 Collection and Evaluation of Basic DataIn order to carry out reliable engineering activities of hydraulic structures there are major aspects that could be regarded as basic INPUT data that must be carefully studied. Topography and geomorphology, geology and hydrogeology, meteorology and climate, hydrology and hydraulics are among those. Raw data must be collected, analyzed or investigated, tested and processed in other ways to obtain suitable and reliable data for further activities. Extent of data collection and processing usually depends upon current stage of the project. These would be discussed more into detail in the lecture notes and course on Dam Engineering, but here just a brief list is included as a reminder. Most of those data depend on the purpose of the structure, whether it is part of more complex structure (Dam or the like) or stand alone structure, and they also depend on stage of the project. In a word: quantity and quality of data depends on the aim of the present project stage, but they can also be limited by physical availability.2.1 Topographic SurveysNo engineering work can be done without topographic maps. Most of the countries in the world have ready-made maps for all or most of the area up to certain scale (usually 1:25000 and, for areas of higher interest, even better maps).Those, if existent, can be used for preliminary studies. However, more detailed maps are required for each particular project,and those are to be done on purpose, covering the areas determined

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