human health & toxicology. three major categories physical – natural disasters biological –...
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DESCRIPTIONInfectious Disease Caused by pathogens – Bacteria, virus, fungi, protist, & helminths Top three infectious diseases – Respiratory – AIDS – Diarrhea (parasitic worms)
Human Health & Toxicology Three Major Categories Physical Natural disasters Biological disease Chemical Natural or synthetic * Most deaths Infectious Disease Caused by pathogens Bacteria, virus, fungi, protist, & helminths Top three infectious diseases Respiratory AIDS Diarrhea (parasitic worms) Infectious Disease Categories Chronic Disease that slowly impairs function Ex. Heart disease, most cancers Acute Rapidly impairs bodily functions Ex. Ebola Risk Factors (Chronic) Low income countries Poverty Unsafe drinking water Poor sanitation Malnutrition High income countries Availability of tobacco Less active lifestyle Poor nutrition/overeating Historically Important Infectious Diseases Plague Cause: Yersinia pestis (bacteria) Vector: fleas 1300 of European population died Today - antibiotics Historically Important Infectious Diseases Malaria Cause: Plasmodium (protist) Vector: mosquito Hardest hit: Africa, Asia, Middle East, & Central & South America 1951 eradicated from the US Historically Important Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Cause: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (bacteria) Affects the lungs Today antibiotics Drug resistant strains Hardest hit: Africa & Russia (20% MRTb)Russia Emergent Infectious Diseases HIV/AIDS Cause: Human immunodeficiency virus Discovered in the 1980s (coined in 1982) Jump from chimpanzees to humans Today 33 million worldwide (1 million US) With meds 24 yrs Without meds 10 yrs Poverty can affect access to meds HIV/AIDS Timeline of Events 1959 first case confirmed from male in Congo from preserved blood samples 1980 first death in US 1996 first meds published to block progression of AIDS 1999 study published to suggestion the retrovirus began in chimpanzees 2007 first patient cured via bone marrow transplant (Germany) Still HIV free in first toddler cured by bone marrow transplant but relapsed Emergent Infectious Diseases Mad Cow Disease Cause: Prions (proteins that act as pathogens) Vector: transmission requires an uninfected cow to consume the nervous system of an affect cow 1980 in Europe many cow diets included ground up remains of cattle for extra protein Emergent Infectious Diseases Ebola Cause: Ebola virus 1 st seen: Republic of Congo (Ebola River) Also infected other primates 50-89% death rate Source: Remains unknown Harmful Chemical Categories Neurotoxins Carcinogens Teratogens Allergens Endocrine disruptors Neurotoxins Disrupts the nervous system of animals Insecticides Lead Improved eliminate lead in gas and paint Mercury Carcinogens Chemicals that cause cancer Interfering with metabolic processes Damaging DNA Examples: Asbestos Formaldehyde Tobacco Teratogen Chemicals that interfere with the normal development of embryos or fetuses Famous teratogen: ThalidomideThalidomide Morning sickness Birth defects Famous teratogen: Alcohol Fetal alcohol syndrome Reduce birth weight Damage to brain & nervous system Allergens Chemicals that cause an abnormally high immune response from the immune system Endocrine Disruptors Chemicals that interfere with normal hormone function in animals Hormone binding = response Sources: agriculture, birth control (unfiltered in sewage, pesticides Biomagnification The process by which toxic substances accumulate at increasingly high concentrations in progressively higher trophic levels Two Characteristics Non Biodegradable Non Biodegradable Fat soluble Fat soluble Accumulate in fat of body Bioaccumulation Bioaccumulation Stored energy is passed to higher trophic levels DDT - Pesticide Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane Use in WWII to control malaria Use in WWII to control malaria After war agricultural insecticide After war agricultural insecticide 1972 Banned in US 1972 Banned in US Bald Eagle DDT affected offspring DDT affected offspring Affects not seen initially Affects not seen initially Egg Shell Thinning Caused by DDE (broken down DDT)Caused by DDE (broken down DDT) Blocks calcium carbonate productionBlocks calcium carbonate production Shell Thinning Toxicology The study of harmful effects of chemicals on humans & other organisms Toxicity measure of the harmfulness of a substance (the ability to cause injury, illness, or death) Basic principle: Any synthetic of natural chemical can be harmful if ingested in a large enough quantity Exposure Key factors: Dose - the amount of a harmful chemical that a person has ingested, inhaled, or absorbed Response resulting damage to health Variables: Age Genetics Functionality of detox systems (liver, kidney, etc.) Solubility Persistence Response Health damage Acute immediate or rapid Dizziness, nausea, or death Chronic Liver damage Dose Response Curve Median Lethal Dose LD50 The dose that can kill 50% of the population within a 18 day period