How we know what they know

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How we know what they know. Where are we . Coming attraction: experiments, results, etc. But: these need to be placed in perspective, to see what is needed to understand child language learning - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>How we know what they know</p></li><li><p>Where are we Coming attraction: experiments, results, etc.</p><p>But: these need to be placed in perspective, to see what is needed to understand child language learning</p><p>We want to understand what inferences children must make in order to arrive at mature language state</p><p>Evidence from cross-language typologyEvidence from observations/guesses about learners experienceEvidence from stages of child development do children overgenerate or undergenerate</p></li><li><p>Asking children about grammarStephen Crain, Macquarie U, SydneyYou cant ask a child: What interpretations do you accept for ? Some animal ate every piece of food ORHe thinks that John is the winner</p><p>Clever strategies can be used</p><p>Simple/indirect dependent measures carry risks</p></li><li><p>Crain &amp; Thornton, 1998</p></li><li><p>Truth Value Judgment Task</p><p>I know what happened in this story</p></li><li><p>Principle Ca. While John was reading the book, he ate an apple</p><p>b. While he was reading the book, John ate an apple</p><p>c. John ate an apple while he was reading the book</p><p>d. *He ate an apple while John was reading the book</p></li><li><p>Truth Value Judgment Task</p><p>Principle C in children: English - Crain &amp; McKee (1985) Russian - Kazanina &amp; Phillips (2001), etc.</p></li><li><p>Hello, Eeyore! I see that youre reading a book.</p></li><li><p>What a fine-looking apple.</p></li><li><p>No, Pooh. You cant eat the apple - thats my apple.</p></li><li><p>Ok, Ill have to eat a banana instead.</p></li><li><p>Ok, Pooh. Ive finished reading. Now you can read the book.</p></li><li><p>Great. Now that Pooh is reading the book, I can eat this delicious apple.</p></li><li><p>I shouldnt be such a greedy donkey - I should let Pooh eat the apple.</p></li><li><p>I suppose I have to eat a banana instead.</p></li><li><p>Here you are, Pooh. You can have the apple.</p></li><li><p>Oh, Im such a lucky bear! I can read the book, and I can eat the apple, at the same time.</p></li><li><p>Apple is eaten up.</p></li><li><p>OK, that was a story about Eeyore and Winnie-the-Pooh. First Eeyore was reading the book and then Winnie-the-Pooh was reading the book. I know one thing that happened...While Pooh was reading the book, he ate the apple.</p></li><li><p>OK, that was a story about Eeyore and Winnie-the-Pooh. First Eeyore was reading the book and then Winnie-the-Pooh was reading the book. I know one thing that happened...While he was reading the book, Pooh ate the apple.</p></li><li><p>OK, that was a story about Eeyore and Winnie-the-Pooh. First Eeyore was reading the book and then Winnie-the-Pooh was reading the book. I know one thing that happened...Pooh ate the apple while he was reading the book.</p></li><li><p>OK, that was a story about Eeyore and Winnie-the-Pooh. First Eeyore was reading the book and then Winnie-the-Pooh was reading the book. I know one thing that happened...He ate the apple while Pooh was reading the book.</p></li><li><p>How 3-4 Year Olds Performa. While Pooh was reading the book, he ate an apple</p><p>b. While he was reading the book, Pooh ate an apple</p><p>c. Pooh ate an apple while he was reading the book</p><p>d. *He ate an apple while Pooh was reading the bookyes!yes!yes!no!Works for English, Italian, Russian etc.</p></li><li><p>How the Task WorksChild is not being judgedIdentical story for all test sentences Avoids childs yes bias - child shows knowledge by answering noStory favors the ungrammatical meaningStory is set up to make no answer felicitous</p></li><li><p>How the Task WorksChild is not being judgedIdentical story for all test sentences Avoids childs yes bias - child shows knowledge by answering noStory favors the ungrammatical meaningStory is set up to make no answer felicitous</p></li><li><p>How the Task WorksChild is not being judgedchild understands that (s)he is helping the experimenter to test a puppet (e.g. Kermit)child does not feel that (s)he is being tested, and so feels under less pressurechilds response is very simple yes/nothe simplicity of the dependent measure is both a strength and a danger</p></li><li><p>How the Task WorksChild is not being judgedIdentical story for all test sentences Avoids childs yes bias - child shows knowledge by answering noStory favors the ungrammatical meaningStory is set up to make no answer felicitous</p></li><li><p>How the Task Works</p><p>Identical story for all test sentencesonly difference is in the final sentence that Kermit uttersif children respond differently to the different test sentences, this cant be due to any differences in the stories</p></li><li><p>How the Task WorksChild is not being judgedIdentical story for all test sentences Avoids childs yes bias - child shows knowledge by answering noStory favors the ungrammatical meaningStory is set up to make no answer felicitous</p></li><li><p>OK, that was a story about Eeyore and Winnie-the-Pooh. First Eeyore was reading the book and then Winnie-the-Pooh was reading the book. I know one thing that happened...He ate the apple while Pooh was reading the book.</p></li><li><p>How the Task WorksChild is not being judgedIdentical story for all test sentences Avoids childs yes bias - child shows knowledge by answering noStory favors the ungrammatical meaningStory is set up to make no answer felicitous</p></li><li><p>OK, that was a story about Eeyore and Winnie-the-Pooh. First Eeyore was reading the book and then Winnie-the-Pooh was reading the book. I know one thing that happened...He ate the apple while Pooh was reading the book.</p></li><li><p>OK, that was a story about Eeyore and Winnie-the-Pooh. First Eeyore was reading the book and then Winnie-the-Pooh was reading the book. I know one thing that happened...He ate the apple while Pooh was reading the book.</p></li><li><p>How the Task WorksChild is not being judgedIdentical story for all test sentences Avoids childs yes bias - child shows knowledge by answering noStory favors the ungrammatical meaningStory is set up to make no answer felicitous</p></li><li><p>Making no answers possibleHe ate the apple while Pooh was reading the book.</p></li><li><p>Plausible DenialHe ate the apple while Pooh was reading the book.</p><p>TRUE - but ungrammatical</p><p>He ate the apple while Pooh was reading the book.</p><p>Grammatical - but FALSEclearly FALSE, since it almost happened, but then didnt</p><p>Eeyore</p></li><li><p>Great. Now that Pooh is reading the book, I can eat this delicious apple.</p></li><li><p>I shouldnt be such a greedy donkey - I should let Pooh eat the apple.</p></li><li><p>I suppose I have to eat a banana instead.</p></li><li><p>Takuya Goro, UMd 2002-7, Asst. Prof. Ibaraki U., JapanTests of interpretations that involve uncertainty</p><p>Japanese disjunctionScope flexibility (we saw this already)</p></li><li><p>English vs. Japanese (1)John speaks Icelandic or Swahili.(but Im not sure which language he can actually speak)</p><p>John-wa Icelandic ka Swahili-wo hanas-u.John-TOP or -ACC speak-pres.(but Im not sure which language he can actually speak)</p><p> The interpretations of disjunctions are more or less same in both languages.</p></li><li><p>English vs. Japanese (2)John doesnt speak Icelandic or Swahili.John doesnt speak Icelandic AND he doesnt speak Swahili.</p><p>John-wa Icelandic ka Swahili-wo hanasa-na-iJohn-TOP or -ACC speak-neg-pres.John doesnt speak Icelandic ORhe doesnt speak Swahili.(I know it is either one of those languages that John cannot speak, but Im not sure which one)</p></li><li><p>Neither interpretation in JapaneseJohn-wa Icelandic mo Swahili mo hanas-u.John-TOP also also speak-pres.John speaks both Icelandic and Swahili</p><p>John-wa Icelandic mo Swahili mo hanase-na-iJohn-TOP also also speak-neg-pres. John speaks neither Icelandic nor Swahili.</p></li><li><p>Disjunction and parameterLets say that UG provides the universal disjunction operator OR, associated with a parameter={+PPI, -PPI}</p><p>OR(+PPI) disjunctions in Japanese / Hungarian / Russian / ItalianOR(-PPI) disjunctions in English / German / Korean(cf. Szabolcsi 2002)</p></li><li><p>Question about childrenCan Japanese children accept the wide-scope reading of ka in (4)?</p><p>John-wa Icelandic ka Swahili-wo hanasa-na-iJohn-TOP or -ACC speak-neg-pres.</p><p> Can they accept (4) in the situation where John cannot speak Icelandic but he can speak Swahili?</p><p>If they have the PPI setting, they should say No</p></li><li><p>Experimental conditions and the felicity of test sentencesJohn-wa Icelandic ka Swahili-wo hanasa-na-iJohn-TOP or -ACC speak-neg-pres.</p><p>Situation: John cannot speak Icelandic but he can speak Swahili</p><p>Experimental context should make the sentence perfectly felicitous under AB (adult) interpretation; otherwise, childrens negative responses may not be counted as evidence for childrens conjunctive interpretation of ka.</p></li><li><p>Felicity conditions for ABThe speaker knows that something with affirmative expectation turned out to be false.otherwise, he wouldnt use negation.</p><p>The speaker knows that it is either A or B (but not both) that is false. otherwise, he would say AB.</p><p>The speaker doesnt know which one is false. otherwise, he would simply say A, or B.</p></li><li><p>Creating UncertaintyTwo sub-sessions (1) The eating-game12 animals try to eat 3 kinds of food. Depending of how good they did, they get a particular kind of medal as a prize.</p><p>(2)Truth Value JudgmentKermit guesses how good each animal did on the basis of the medal the animal has.</p></li><li><p>ParticipantsJapanese monolingual children in Sumire kindergarden, Totsuka, Yokohama.</p><p>N=30, Age: 3;7-6;3, Mean: 5;3 </p></li><li><p>Experimenter: Look at this! There are animals going to play an eating-game!!</p></li><li><p>Experimenter: Heres a piece of cake, a green pepper, and a carrot. All animals love cakes, but they dont like vegetables. So heres the rule: if one eats not only the cake but also the vegetables, hell get a better prize.</p></li><li><p>Experimenter: For example, if one eats the cake, and the pepper, and also the carrotthen hell get a shining gold medal!</p></li><li><p>Experimenter: If one eats the cake, and either one of the vegetables, but not boththen hell get a blue medal.</p></li><li><p>Experimenter: If one eats only the cake, but none of the vegetables, then hell get a cross</p></li><li><p>Experimenter: Now, here comes a pig. He will play the game.</p></li><li><p>Experimenter: The pig first picked up the cake. Yes, he loves cakes and of course he ate it!</p></li><li><p>Experimenter: Then he picked up the pepper. He doesnt like peppersbut he managed to eat it up!</p></li><li><p>Experimenter: Then he picked up the carrotOh no, he couldnt eat the carrot!</p></li><li><p>Experimenter: So, the pig ate the cake, and he ate the pepper, but he didnt eat the carrot. Which prize will he get?</p></li><li><p>Experimenter: Yes, a blue medal!</p></li><li><p>Experimenter: Now here comes another animal(the eating-game goes on until all the 12 animals finish their trials. Every animal eats the cake. 4 of them eat both vegetables, other 4 eat either one of them, and other 4 eat neither) </p></li><li><p>(After the game phase, we move back to the first animal, the pig)Kermit: Ok, now Im going to guess how well those animals did with this game. Umm, the pig I dont remember what he ate oh, but, he has a blue medal! </p></li><li><p>Kermit: Now I know what happened. The pig ate the cake, but, he didnt eat the pepper ka the carrot! (the test sentence)</p></li><li><p>Experimenter: Was Kermit correct?(And the truth-value judgments go on)</p></li><li><p>Felicity of the test sentenceKermit knows that something with affirmative expectation turned out to be false, because it is not a gold medal that the pig has.Kermit knows that it is either A or B (but not both) that is false, because it is not a cross that the pig has. </p><p>Kermit doesnt know which one is false, because he cannot see which food is left.</p><p>Adult group (Age 29-32, N=10) accepted the sentence 100% of the time (20/20).</p></li><li><p>Result (1): the wide-scope reading of A ka B he didnt eat the carrot ka the pepper for an animal with a blue medalThe sentence is true under adult Japanese interpretation, but false under the narrow-scope, conjunctive interpretation of ka. </p><p>The acceptance rate is 25% (15/60)</p><p>4 kids were adultlike: 4;11, 5;5, 5;10, 6;2.If we exclude them from the count, then the acceptance rate is 13.46% (7/52)</p></li><li><p>Further support: narrow-scope kahe didnt eat the carrot ka the pepper for an animal with a cross</p><p>The sentence is true under the narrow-scope, conjunctive interpretation of ka. </p><p>The acceptance rate is 78.33% (47/60)</p><p>The result makes a lot of sense given that children accepted the wide-scope ka 25% of the time.</p></li><li><p>Result (2): childrens performance on A mo B mohe didnt eat the carrot mo the pepper mo He didnt eat the carrot or the pepper</p><p>for an animal with a cross (true under adult interpretation) 95% acceptance (57/60)</p><p>for an animal with a blue medal (false under adult interpretation) 95% rejection (57/60)</p><p>Children did very well with A mo B mo.</p></li><li><p>The ideal control item: nanikanani - ka something whatnani - mo anything</p><p>John-wa nanika tabe-nakat-taJohn-TOP something eat-neg-pastThere is something that John didnt eat</p><p>John-wa nanimo tabe-nakat-taJohn-TOP anything eat-neg-pastJohn didnt eat anything</p></li><li><p>The control experimentSubjects: N=30, Age: 3;7-6;3, Mean: 5;4</p><p>A ka B is replaced with nanika; A mo B mo is replaced with nanimo</p><p>Food: 3 different vegetables, and 4 animals dont eat anythingget a cross</p><p>All the other details are the same with the previous experiment.</p></li><li><p>Result (1): the wide-scope reading of nanikahe didnt eat nanika for an animal with a blue medal</p><p>The sentence is true under adult Japanese interpretation, but false under the narrow-scope interpretation of nanika. </p><p>The acceptance rate is 88.33% (53/60)</p><p>They can access the wide-scope interpretation!</p></li><li><p>Result (2): childrens performance with nanimohe didnt eat nanimo He didnt eat anything</p><p>for an animal with a cross (true under adult interpretation) 100% acceptance (60/60)</p><p>for an animal with a blue medal (false under adult interpretation) 85% rejection (51/60)</p><p>Children did fairly good with nanimo.</p></li><li><p>Why all the fuss about pronouns?Children (age &lt; 6) appear to allow non-adultlike interpretations for:</p><p>Big Bird washed him.</p><p>At least 30 papers on the Delay of Principle B Effect (DPBE), and still counting </p></li><li><p>Mama Beari touched heri.Forwards Anaphora: Principle B(Chien &amp; Wexler 1990)From sample of 30 studies</p><p>Jakubowicz 198430%Kaufman 198816%Lombardi &amp; Sarma 198955%Grimshaw &amp; Rosen 199038%Chien &amp; Wexler 199050%McKee 199282%McDaniel &amp; Maxfield 199238% Avrutin &amp; Wexler 1994 (Rus.)52%Hestvik &amp; Philip 1996 (Norw.)10%Matsuoka 199770%Savarese 199931%Thornton &amp; Wexler 199958%Varlokosta 2001 (Greek)13%Kiguchi &amp; Thornton 200427%</p><p>etc.</p></li><li><p>Mama Beari touched heri. Forwards Anaphora: Principle BEvery beari touched heri.(Chien &amp; Wexler, 1990)FailureSuccess</p></li><li><p>Noam ChomskyTanya Reinhart</p></li><li><p>The scope of binding constraintsBill loves his mother-in-law.</p><p>Bill loves his mother-in-law, and Tom does too.</p><p>Every linguist loves his mother-in-law, and every philosopher does too.</p><p>The people who work for him love Bill. The people who work for him love every department chair.</p><p>The people who work for Bill love him, and the people who work for Tom do too.</p></li><li><p>The scope of binding constraintsReinhart (1983 et seq.): binding constraints apply to bound variable interpretations only</p><p>I know what Mary, Sue, and Bill have in common. Mary likes him, Sue likes him, and Bill likes him too.</p><p>Every student washed him. John washed him.</p></li><li><p>Mama Beari touched heri. Forwards Anaphora: Principle BEvery beari touched heri.(Chien &amp; Wexler, 1990)FailureSuccess</p></li><li><p>Thornton &amp; Wexler 199958% 8%</p></li><li><p>Paul Elbourne, Queen Margaret, U. LondonElbourne 2005, Linguistic Inquiry</p></li><li><p>Grumpy painted him.Every dwarf painted him...</p></li></ul>