How to create and maintain Conceprocity CAPRICE and CAPRILOPE models
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DESCRIPTIONHow to create and maintain Conceprocity CAPRICE and CAPRILOPE models. Mark Gregory Based on the earlier work by LICEF Version 2.1 18/10/2013. Left and Right Brain?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
MotPlusHow to create and maintain Conceprocity CAPRICE and CAPRILOPE modelsMark Gregory Based on the earlier work by LICEFVersion 2.1 18/10/20131Left and Right Brain?The concept of right brain and left brain thinking developed from late 1960s research of psycho-biologist Roger W Sperry, who discovered that human brain has two very different ways of thinking: Right brain is visual and processes information in an intuitive and simultaneous way, looking first at the whole picture then the detailsLeft brain is verbal and processes information in an analytical and sequential way, looking first at the pieces then putting them together to get the whole2Illustrating ConceptsConcepts may be held both visually and linguisticallyMind Maps Tony Buzan (Buzan & Buzan 1996)Concept maps Joseph Novak and collaborators (Novak & Caas 2008) following David Ausubel (Ausubel 1963) and (Ausubel 2000)Concept maps with typed concepts and relationships: LICEF (Paquette 2010; Basque 2013)Concept Process maps: Conceprocity: Mark Gregory (www.markrogergregory.net) Using both the visual and the linguistic (written and spoken language) stimulates better understanding of a situation and later better learning3Here is a Wading birdTony Buzans Mind Maps are highly visual. However, their insistence on a single centre is unnecessarily restrictive and their strict hierarchy prevents conceptual cross-linking between branches of the tree4Conceprocity: An IntroductionConceprocity concept process reciprocity is a visual and textual language and toolset intended for capturing, expressing, communicating and co-creating models of topic areas of domain knowledge by domain experts or learnersYou decide the vocabularyVery simple grammar rules5CAPRICEWithin Conceprocity there is a beginners profile Simple concept mapping for beginners, in which the only available relationship between concepts is association This simple concept mapping for beginners usage profile is called CAPRICE: Concepts Actors Procedures Relationships Images Conditions EventsStrong emphasis on the use of sketches, icons and images to stimulate right brain involvementThere are other usage profiles which are not mentioned further in the first part of this presentationThey make use of a further notion principles; of typed relationships; and they distinguish instances from classes6An example Conceprocity model and how it has been created - 1Start with a simple English sentence: The cat sat on the matGive a specific instance: The cat called Kat sat on the mat in my loungeA concrete Conceprocity map is as rightIdentify concepts, any static relationships and any activitiesCreate a specific and a more general model using the meta-concepts (Conceprocity notions) of concept, procedure and relationshipConsider concrete and abstract representations7An example Conceprocity model and how it has been created - 2Observe, maybe discuss and then refine the resulting mapHere we choose to remove the concrete and retain the abstract elements in a conceptual model of the general situation of creatures acting in a geographical contextThe model that results depends upon the viewpoint and the purpose of the modellerA cat specialist (and a cat lover!) will take a different view from an expert in cognitive science applied to animalsBut the process of dialogue and of mutual understanding can be aided by visual concept mapping and by dialogue around the models8Conceprocity CAPRICE: FundamentalsPaquettes G-MOT and Conceprocity distinguish between types (classes) of objects:Concepts - things, ideas, etc.; these are usable and (sometimes) decidable classes of knowledge or dataActors - people, organisations, external systemsProcedures - the means of enacting knowledge in the form of specific activities, repeatable actions and processes the latter being templates for repeated actionsRelationships: concepts are related by relationships or relationship instances (links). In CAPRICE the only available type of relationship is an association; this should be given a name Images: images illustrate concepts or any other notion.Conditions: logical operators XOR, OR or AND.Events: EITHER occurrences in time that change the state of a class of objects OR named states of class of objectsPrinciples: constraints, rules or complex conditions. Not used in CAPRICE.9CAPRICE fundamentals10Abstract knowledgeConceprocity CAPRICE: RepresentationWHAT?HOW?ProceduresProcedural KConceptsConceptual KWHO?ActorsK wieldersAbstract knowledge11Representing CAPRICE relationshipsDifferent kinds of arrow are used:SymbolMeaningAssociation. This needs a text label, such as is-a, is-composed-of, etc.Flow of control or of dataIs instantiated asRegulates. An actor or principle controls or governs a concept or procedureCommentary concerning the diagram12Images: Conceprocity for the Right BrainConceprocity makes it easy to include visual elements. Beyond Conceprocitys own symbols, we can include images and icons.You can either locate these for yourself, or you can use Google Images search, or they may be sketches made using apps such as ArtRage, or they may be sketches (e.g. fragments of rich pictures) drawn freehand on paper and then photographed and uploaded.Sketches less formal diagrams frequently have a role, particularly in the early development or the informal presentation of a model (especially during whiteboard sessions). You may even include a complete rich picture (Checkland 1981; Checkland & Tsouvalis 1997) or elements of a rich picture.1314Modelling businesses using rich picturesUse few wordsUse lots of pictures1415Making rich picturesRich pictures (situation summaries) are used to depict complicated situationsEncapsulate the real situation through a no-holds-barred, cartoon representation of layout, connections, relationships, influences, cause-and-effect etc. - objective notionsShould try to depict subjective elements such as character and characteristics, points of view and prejudices, spirit and human natureIf possible, ask the actors themselves rather than focusing on your own interpretation of the situationAllow competing pictures; dont reconcile; perhaps accommodate?15Begin to build a modelWhat is the question or topic area that you are addressing?What are the top five or so concepts?Are there any direct relationships (associations) between these concepts?E.g.: is-a-kind-of, consists-ofOtherwise: what processes link or transform the concepts?Make lists of likely concepts and proceduresPerhaps later keep these lists in a formal Conceprocity dictionary?Sketch out an initial CAPRICE model on a large sheet of paper or on a whiteboard preserve this using a smartphone pictureInclude rich picture elements on the CAPRICE map16How to get started with a CAPRICE modelIdentify and make lists of concepts and their obvious structural links / associationsExample: beech is-a-kind-of treeTake care to distinguish concepts as classes (often distinguished by an indefinite article in natural language) and instances of concepts (often distinguished by the definite article or evidently proper names)In English and in French, but not in German, the distinction is often made clear by the use of Capitals (instances) and lower-case (concepts)The difference is often that between abstract concepts and concrete factsIdentify processes which link concepts where one needs to be changed or transformed in some way which goes beyond a structural associationCow gives-birth-to calf(Better models are possible)17Your task: to create a simple CAPRICE model of the general principles of an e-marketing campaignOver to you:Twenty minutes as separate teamsPresent, compare, contrast, reject, synthesise for five minutesTell / show us your tentative conclusions on the flipboardModelling a marketing campaign18Full-fat Conceprocity: CAPRILOPECAPRILOPE: Concepts Actors Procedures Relationships Images Logical Operators Principles EventsMore emphasis on principlesFully typed relationships19CAPRILOPE fundamentals20The correct way to install Google Drive and LucidchartYou must install and use the Google Chrome browser and use it when setting up or changing Google Drive and Lucidchart accountsSubsequently its OK to use Firefox etc.You must ensure that BOTH your Google Drive email account AND your Lucidchart account are set to be your ESC Rennes username that is, something like email@example.comStart from Google DriveFirst: connect to and learn to use Google DriveTo do this, use the address https://drive.google.com/a/esc-rennes.fr/#my-drive Although it is not essential to do so, you are advised to Install Google Drive for PC, Mac or Android as appropriateThis permits you to move files between your computer and Google Drive very easily using your file manager (e.g. Windows Explorer, Mac Finder)22Go on to install LucidchartTo install Lucidchart, use Google Chrome. Disconnect from any other Google Account. Connect to your ESC Rennes address.From your Drive homepage Create > More > Get more apps and search 'Lucidchart Once the app is installed, you will see Lucidchart listed under Create More in Google DriveYou can use this feature to create new Lucidchart documents, in the same way that you start new Google documents or spreadsheets BUT use our templatesFor other questions, please see the Lucidchart Google Drive documentation23Check that youve set things up correctlyWhen connected to Lucidchart, click on Account and check that the Username and the Email are BOTH set to be your ESC Rennes user nameProblems? See Mark Gregory, room 338Most common problem: you have downloaded and installed Lucidchart while connected to another Google account, not your ESC Rennes one!PLEASE ONLY install Lucidchart while connected to your ESC Rennes free accountIf you have NOT done this, see Mark in room 33824Sharing files with your teacherWe advise you to set up a folder for files that you want to share with your module student colleagues and with your module teacherPlease make sure that the name that you choose contains the name of your team e.g. team 7 in group 02 is team G1T07 on module IS505E PEC; therefore call your folder something like IS505E PEC team G2T0725NEVER FORGETWork with your ESC Rennes username and password when you want to create documents that teachers can access!You have a free educational account with LucidchartBut to use it, you MUST ALWAYS connect using your ESC Rennes usernameUse Google Chrome to install LucidchartLucidchart has to be installed when you are using the Google Chrome browser, and generally works best with that browser26How to synchronise Drive and LucidchartIf you want to sync your files between your Lucidchart account and Drive you can select, from the Lucidchart editor, File > Google Drive Preferences, and choose what you would likeYou can learn more about integration by visiting the tutorial section on Google Drive27Syncing Lucidchart files with Google DriveGoogle Drive Preferences are accessible through the editor as well as your Account pageAllows you to modify the way you sync and secure your files to your Drive account and local backup In Editor: File > Google Drive Preferences Synchronization: Choose to automatically sync documents you create in Lucidchart to your Drive accountAutomatic Backup: Lucidchart with Google Drive allows you to have all of your Lucidchart documents backed up daily or weekly to your Google Drive Account28Syncing - 2Make sure you're logged into the Google account you'd like to link with Lucidchart in this browserIn Lucidchart, Go to Account / Documents / Google Drive to link Lucidchart to that account.To get to Account, you can click on the Lucidchart logo top left of the screen29Getting to know LucidchartHow Lucidchart worksLucidchart is an online diagramming software-as-a-service. It is a chargeable service but is made available free to educational institutions, including ESC Rennes School of Business.Getting started with LucidchartFollow the tutorial which you will find at https://www.lucidchart.com/pages/tutorialsStart with Create a new document and carry on until you get bored. Then come back to this document and keep reading and working from it!30YOU MUST USE these Lucidchart templatesPLEASE use the Lucidchart templates linked to from the latest version of those slides (and from the table which follows). On the page which then opens in your browser, click on Use as templateItemTemplateUse case diagram UCDhttps://www.lucidchart.com/community/examples/view/4904-2264-50bd807f-8bbd-5a850a442276 Event process chain EPChttps://www.lucidchart.com/community/examples/view/4572-ba14-5288fba4-bf49-10050a008fdc Conceprocity CAPRICE and CAPRILOPEhttps://www.lucidchart.com/community/examples/view/42d8-77d0-52b93213-9de6-29ca0a009f85 31Conceprocity CAPRICE NotionsConceptsInstance of object or ideaE.g. the ball bowled by bowler Smith which captured the wicket of batsman Jones at Lords on 15/06/2015Concept: named class of similar things or ideas, sometimes characterised by facts and measurements associated with specific instances of things; these are named properties of the conceptE.g. red, hard, bounces in (somewhat) controllable fashion, used in cricket a cricket ballSuper-concepts and sub-conceptsE.g. ball and cricket ballProcessesOne-off actionsE.g. see The HobbitActivities: repeated similar actionsE.g. go to the cinema periodicallyProcesses: activity templatesE.g. plan and undertake personal cultural improvement and diversion each weekActors: Intelligent AgentsKnowledge-wielding persons in rolesE.g. students, teachers, administratorsKnowledge-wielding intelligent agentsE.g. aircraft flight control systemsRelationshipsAssociationBook is associated with knowledgeInstantiationA123 Jemimah is a (specific) studentEvents and logical connectorsEventE.g. book returned to libraryCompound eventEvent associated with a logical connectorLogical connector: XORExclusive OR: exactly one of two or more outcomes may occur in a given instanceLogical connector: ORInclusive OR: one or more possible outcomes may occur represent zero with null processLogical connector: ANDAll the possible outcomes will occur in parallel and in no defined sequence32Conceprocity Usage Profiles - 1A Usage Profile is a named usage of Conceprocity by a defined group of model writers and readersThese various usage profiles require few or no extensions to the Conceprocity basic notation which is richly expressiveIt is possible and desirable to start with a beginners profile Simple concept mapping for beginners, in which the only available relationship is association and no use is made of principles, and only then to move on to typed relationships and principlesThis is the simple concept mapping for beginners usage profile CAPRICE: Concepts Actors Procedures Relationships Images Conditions Events Strong emphasis on the use of sketches, icons and images33Conceprocity Usage Profiles - 2Simple concept mapping for beginners: CAPRICEConcepts Actors Procedures Relationships Images Conditions Events Knowledge mapping: CAPRILOPEVery general with the full range of Conceprocity objects, Concept / Actor / Procedure / Relationship / Image / Logical Operator / Principle / EventTypical uses include: self-observation, research design, representing knowledge as-is and as-ought, demonstrating understanding, documenting a body of knowledge and design of teaching, learning and evaluationEvent-driven process chains34The Conceprocity CAPRICE Method 1Define a focus question to which your model will be a (partial) answer, or at least delimit a clear topic areaCreate a Google Drive directory (folder) to contain the files that will constitute the modelBegin to build a Conceprocity dictionary (in Microsoft Excel or in Microsoft Access) and glossary containing initial lists of:Concepts (and specific instances: facts)Actors (and specific instances: e.g. named persons)Processes35The Conceprocity CAPRILOPE Method 2Create some examples for each notionThink about the relationships between the concepts, actors and processesCan you identify and name relationships associations - between concepts?Or are concepts related only by processes?Start to sketch out the initial Conceprocity modelIts often necessary then to go back, reconsider and refine the initial lists in the dictionaryThis stage also typically requires further research around the original questionIf you wish to do so, add events and logical operators to the modelCreate, refine and use the model in Lucidchart36STOP! Go no furtherUnless you want to experience CAPRILOPE37CAPRILOPE links and grammarDifferent types of links (relationships):Association: simple connectionAggregation: is-a, is-made-of independent partsComposition: is-a, is-made-of dependent partsSpecialisation / Generalisation: kind-ofRegulation: controls, directs, influencesPrecedence: comes-after, comes-beforeEntrant-Product (Input-Output, Input-Product): is an input to a procedure which yields output or product, causes, gives rise toInstantiation: is an example (instance) ofGrammar Rules govern the valid types of links that may join the knowledge typesMany of the grammar rules in Conceprocity closely follow those of G-MOT see (Paquette 2010)38Simple relationships: AggregationsThe Aggregation link ( G ) associates multiplicity ordinality or cardinality with a relationshipAggregation is an extension of the G-MOT modelIt is essential in data modelling in accordance with the relational model of (Codd 1970)Link typeRepresentationAggregation link ( G )39Simple relationships: Associations, Aggregations and CompositionsThe Association link ( A ) is simply an untyped connection between concepts. By untyped, we mean that the modeller either does not yet know the type of the relationship or is not yet capable of deciding its more precise type.The Aggregation link ( G ) is a kind of association which says that one concept is part of another, together with others of the same type, so that all the parts are together a group of parts which constitute a whole concept: a part-whole relationship. Aggregation is a special type of association used to model a "whole to its parts" relationship. In basic aggregation relationships, the lifecycle of a part class is independent from the whole class's lifecycle.The Composition link ( C ) also connects a knowledge (object) with one of its constituents or its constitutive parts. The composition aggregation relationship is just another form of the aggregation relationship, but the child class's instance lifecycle is dependent on the parent class's instance lifecycle.Link typeRepresentationAssociation link (untyped)Aggregation link ( G )Composition link ( C )40The difference between aggregation and composition - 1 CompositionIn a composition, the existence of the parts is dependent on the ongoing existence of the parentExample: in the human body, we can inter alia distinguish a cardiovascular subsystem. That itself consists of a heart and two lungs. Normally, it is meaningless to talk about the ongoing existence of a heart after the body of which it forms a part has died.Similarly, for most purposes, we regard an engine as part of a carThe key phrase is is part of, as in An engine is part of a car, or is composed of or consists of example: A body is composed of a heart and two lungsComposition is indicated in Conceprocity (as in UML) by a filled lozengeFor inspiration, see: http://www.c-sharpcorner.com/UploadFile/pcurnow/compagg07272007062838AM/compagg.aspxThe difference between aggregation and composition 2 - AggregationIn an aggregation, the existence of the components is independent of the ongoing existence of the parentAggregation gives us a 'has-a' relationshipWithin aggregation, the lifetime of the part is not managed by the wholeThus, in a situation in which we wish to model households, neither the persons who currently constitute a household nor the address at which they live depend for their ongoing existence on the householdA child might be part of the household of his parents at one moment but will continue to exist when that household no longer doesSimilarly, the address at which a household lives is a building whose existence is independent of that of the households who currently inhabit itHowever, reversing the argument, a household consists of the persons who currently inhabit an addressThis whole discussion is reminiscent of the distinction between strong and weak entities in the work of Peter ChenAggregation is indicated in Conceprocity (as in UML) by an open lozengeInheritance, generalisation and specialisationThere are many instances when a general concept gives rise to two or more specialisationsIn each case, the specialisation shares certain properties with the more general concept but also possesses properties which are distinct from other specialisationsWe say that each specialisation inherits the properties of its parent but also has its own distinct propertiesIn a University library, we have the generalisation Member and the specialisations Academic (Faculty) and StudentFaculty can borrow more books for longer than can StudentsIn Conceprocity (as in UML) generalisation-specialisation is represented using an open arrowheadMultiplicities, cardinality and ordinalityWe can ascribe a multiplicity to either end of an association, an aggregation or a compositionThis multiplicity can be:An exact numberA range of numbers, separated by two dotsAn arbitrary unspecified number represented as an asterisk *Example multiplicities:11..10..11..*0..*3..4 e.g. number of legs on a stool0..0 this means that there is NO relationshipCardinality specifies the maximum number in relationships and ordinality specifies the absolute minimum number in relationships. When the minimum number is zero, the relationship is usually called optional and when the minimum number is one or more, the relationship is usually called mandatory.44Representation of links - 1Link typeRepresentationGeneralisation / Specialisation link (G)Regulation link (R) 45Representation of links - 2Link typeRepresentationPrecedence link (P) 46Representation of links - 3Link typeRepresentationSequence (Entrant-Product, Input-Output link) (I/P) Instantiation link (I)47Type of links: some examplesCharacteristicsExamplesCSPI/PRILINKSRoberts car is an instance of Volkswagen carsA table is composed of legs and of a flat surface. Table is a sort of furniture Prepare an outline precedes Write a textAn entrant or an output of a procedureOutline is an entrant of Write a textText is the product of Write a textA principle defines a concept by constraints to be satisfied or establishes a law or a relation between several concepts. The principle typically controls from the outside the execution of a procedure or the selection of other principles.Editing text norms regulates TextInstances of concepts, procedures or principlesThe attributes or components of an abstracted knowledgeAir traffic control rules regulates Take off the planeProject management rules regulates Instructional design of a telelearning systemFrom specific to generalFrom the precedent to the next48Lets see other examples for each category of link.The Composition link can be used to indicate the attributes of an abstracted K.The S link goes from the specific to the general.The P link goes from the precedent to the next.The I/P link indicates an entrant OR a procedure (depending on the sense of the arrow) of a procedure.The R link is used to link a principle which.The I link is used to represent instances of a.Representing Conceprocity relationshipsConceprocity relationships very broadly follow UML class diagram conventions rather than G-MOT onesThis is because the UML conventions are more visually expressive than the letters used in G-MOT and can be made more semantically preciseThe meta-syntax is:SymbolMeaningFlow of control or of dataInfluences, governs, directsIs instantiated asCommentary concerning the diagram49Principles and the regulation linkIn Conceprocity, it is possible to link knowledge objects to each other The links are represented by different kinds of arrow, indicating the type of links.The regulation link exists to enable links from Principles to be expressed:In conjunction with CONCEPTs: Here the principle defines some constraints that must be satisfied or establishes a law or a relation between two or more conceptsIn conjunction with a PROCEDURE OR ANOTHER PRINCIPLE: Here the principle controls or governs the execution of a procedure or the selection of other principles50Labelling relationshipsConceprocity permits relationships to be labelled, but it doesnt insist that this be the caseIn CAPRICE: YES, label the relationships because there is no other way to give meaning to the relationshipIn CAPRILOPE, if concepts, procedures and principles are well named, there is usually no additional value in labelling relationshipsA possible exception: multiplicities should perhaps be labelled when modelling data structures, since a relationship between classes or entity types is bi-directional and may require two labels in order more fully to express its meaning51Conceprocity CAPRILOPE NotionsConceptsInstance of object or ideaE.g. the ball bowled by bowler Smith which captured the wicket of batsman Jones at Lords on 15/06/2015Concept: named class of similar things or ideas, sometimes characterised by facts and measurements associated with specific instances of things; these are named properties of the conceptE.g. red, hard, bounces in (somewhat) controllable fashion, used in cricket a cricket ballSuper-concepts and sub-conceptsE.g. ball and cricket ballProcessesOne-off actionsE.g. see The HobbitActivities: repeated similar actionsE.g. go to the cinema periodicallyProcesses: activity templatesE.g. plan and undertake personal cultural improvement and diversion each weekActors: Intelligent AgentsKnowledge-wielding persons in rolesE.g. students, teachers, administratorsKnowledge-wielding intelligent agentsE.g. aircraft flight control systemsRelationshipsAssociationBook is associated with knowledgeGeneralisation / specialisationBook is a kind of media (medium!)CompositionA human is composed of head and four limbs and a torsoRegulationAccountancy principles regulate accountancy practicePrecedenceBirth comes before life comes before deathInput-Output (G-MOT: Intrant-Product)Hops + barley are brewed to make beerInstantiationA123 Jemimah is a (specific) studentEvents and logical connectorsEventE.g. book returned to libraryCompound eventEvent associated with a logical connectorLogical connector: XORExclusive OR: exactly one of two or more outcomes may occur in a given instanceLogical connector: ORInclusive OR: one or more possible outcomes may occur represent zero with null processLogical connector: ANDAll the possible outcomes will occur in parallel and in no defined sequencePrinciples: Rules and ConstraintsGeneralrules, permissions , constraints and logic that surround and sometimes govern or regulate the conceptsProgramscomputer programs - concrete expressions of algorithms and an encoding by programmers of knowledge52Grammar RulesGrammar Rules govern the valid types of links that may join the knowledge types53CAPRILOPE Grammar Rules - 154CAPRILOPE Grammar Rules - 255Conceprocity event rulesEvents must be preceded and followed by EITHER a procedure OR a logical connector56Swim Lanes in ConceprocityBusiness process models realised in BPMN or as Event Process Chain EPC diagrams frequently make use of the concept of swim lanes (or swimlanes) to show ownership or responsibility for aspects of a processThe usual way to show such ownership or responsibility (or simply participation) in a Conceprocity model is to show an actor class or instance linked by a regulation link to a concept or processConceprocity models can include swimlanes but Conceprocity does not mandate their useAn exception occurs in the Conceprocity Event Process Chain EPC model type where swimlanes should normally be used for major actors57The Conceprocity CAPRILOPE Method 1Define a focus question to which your model will be a (partial) answer, or at least delimit a clear topic areaDecide the type of model which you wish to buildConceptualProceduralPrescriptiveMethods and processesDecide the usage profile which is appropriate to you and to the situation you are modellingCreate a Google Drive directory (folder) to contain the files that will constitute the modelBegin to build a Conceprocity dictionary and glossary containing initial lists of:Concepts (and specific instances: facts)Actors (and specific instances: e.g. named persons)Processes58The Conceprocity CAPRILOPE Method 2Create some examples for each notionThink about the relationships between the concepts, actors and processesCan you identify structural relationships between concepts? See next slideOr are concepts related only by processes?Can you identify principles (rules) which affect the modelled situation? Include constraintsStart to sketch out the initial Conceprocity modelIts often necessary then to go back, reconsider and refine the initial lists in the dictionaryThis stage also typically requires further research around the original questionAdd principles, events and logical operators to the modelCreate, refine and use the model in Lucidchart59Identifying structural relationships between conceptsRelationship TypeEnglish statementAssociationis-associated-withTry to avoid this very general relationship, in favour of:Aggregationis-a, is-made-of independent partsCompositionis-a, is-made-of dependent partsSpecialisation / generalisationkind-ofPrecedencecomes-after, comes-beforeInput-Outputis-input-to, causes, gives-rise-to; an input to a procedure which yields outputRegulationcontrols, directs, influencesInstantiationis-an-instance-of60Why Conceprocity is importantConceprocity is a semi-formal visual knowledge representation language which enables and encourages the modeller to be more precise in defining, bounding and relating conceptual and procedural knowledgeIts a way to constrain and enhance natural language expression to increase the precision of the meaning which the modeller needs to expressTo the extent to which two modellers can agree upon a Conceprocity model, it is also a means to establish and to verify communication of ideas and concepts61Student use of ConceprocityPEC students use it to map the content and meaning of a research article as their individual projectIBIS students use it in their individual project: active and reflective learning journalMIS students use Conceprocity in their individual project: use a tool to improve the ways in which you get things done and keeps found things found and progressively enhance a Conceprocity map which shows how you use ICT to live and work more effectivelyPlease ALWAYS use the Conceprocity template:https://www.lucidchart.com/community/examples/view/42d8-77d0-52b93213-9de6-29ca0a009f85 The Conceprocity templateIf you use the correct template and if you are a part of the ESC Rennes Lucidchart team, you should be able to see the Conceprocity shape libraries which look like this:ReferencesAusubel, D.P., 2000. The acquisition and retention of knowledge: A cognitive view, Kluwer Academic Pub.Ausubel, D.P., 1963. The psychology of meaningful verbal learning. Available at: http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1964-10399-000 [Accessed September 19, 2013].Basque, J., 2013. La modlisation des connaissances en milieu organisationnel. Available at: https://oraprdnt.uqtr.uquebec.ca/pls/public/docs/FWG/GSC/Publication/1518/93/1924/1/52315/13/F2080926314_UQTR_midi_p_dago_27mars13_VFF.pdf [Accessed April 16, 2013].Buzan, T. & Buzan, B., 1996. The mind map book: how to use radiant thinking to maximize your brains untapped potential, Plume Books.Checkland, P., 1981. Systems thinking, systems practice, Chichester: Wiley.Checkland, P. & Tsouvalis, C., 1997. Reflecting on SSM: The Link Between Root Definitions and Conceptual Models. Syst. Res. Behav. Sci., 14(3), pp.153168.Novak, J.D. & Caas, A.J., 2008. The theory underlying concept maps and how to construct and use them. Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition Pensacola Fl, www. ihmc. us.[http://cmap. ihmc. us/Publications/ResearchPapers/T heoryCmaps/TheoryUnderlyingConceptMaps. htm].Paquette, G., 2010. Visual Knowledge and Competency Modeling - From Informal Learning Models to Semantic Web Ontologies., Hershey, PA: IGI Global.64
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