how many of you know what type of smoke alarm you have?

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How many of you know what TYPE of smoke alarm you have?. Does it Matter?. Based on industry information, what has the fire service been promoting for 30 years?. In spite of their differences, either one of the two types of smoke alarms is acceptable for home use. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • How many of you know what TYPE of smoke alarm you have?Does it Matter?

  • Based on industry information, what has the fire service been promoting for 30 years?

    In spite of their differences, either one of the two types of smoke alarms is acceptable for home use.

    Find the least expensive smoke alarm that is UL Listed.

  • Smoke Alarm History1970 - 1st battery smoke alarm (Apx. $30)1977 - National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) conducted smoke alarm testing1980s - 75% of homes had smoke alarms2004 - 96% of homes had smoke alarms2008 96% of homes had smoke alarms, 20% of homes do not have a working smoke alarm.

  • IONIZATION: Contains a small amount of radioactivity that conducts electricity. Ionization alarms are more sensitive to the tiny particles of combustion that cant be seen or smelled, those emitted by FLAMING FIRES.

    Ionization alarms are more PRONE TO FALSE ALARMS from cooking and steam from bathrooms.

    PHOTOELECTRIC: Contains a beam of light and a photocell within the chamber. Photoelectric alarms are more sensitive to the large particles of combustion emitted by SMOLDERING FIRES.

  • The Difference Does Matter.Here Is What We Have Learned

  • Andrea Dennis, Kyle Raulin,Al Schlessman, Erin DeMarco,and Christine Wilson

    These five students died atOhio State University onApril 13, 2003 (Palm Sunday)

  • Julie Turnbull, Kate Welling & Steve Smith died in this house on April 10th, 2005 (Palm Sunday) at Miami University

  • Some of the Many Studies International Assn. of Fire Chiefs (IAFC) study-1980

    Texas A & M-2 1/2 year study: 1990s

    National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) sponsored private industry study-2001

    NIST study-2008

  • The ResultsHave been consistent

    Ionization alarms sounded tens of seconds faster than photoelectric alarms in flaming fires in many of the tests.Photoelectric alarms sounded tens of MINUTES faster in smoldering fires in many of the tests.Ionization smoke alarms failed to sound at all in some smoldering fires tests.

  • The ResultsIonization smoke alarms are more prone to nuisance false alarms from normal cooking and steam from the bathroom/shower.These false alarms cause residents to remove the batteries. The batteries do not get replaced.

  • What if a resident has only ionization smoke alarms?

    Educate them on the sensor differences.Recommend they replace their ionization smoke alarms with photoelectric or add photoelectric smoke alarms in addition to their ionization alarms per our guidelines.Remind them to maintain all of their existing smoke alarms until they replace them.

  • How do you tell what sensor you have?

  • National statistics:90% of homes in the US are equipped with Ionization smoke alarms only.20% of homes have non-working smoke alarms.53% of these non-working alarms were due to missing/removed batteries; the leading reason being nuisance alarms.Non-working smoke alarms were found in 23% of home fire deaths.Investigations of fires in (Your City Here), at the minimum, support these national statistics.

  • By the wayWhat types of alarms are being used to protect our most vulnerable citizens?

  • Photoelectric smoke detectors are now the only type being utilized in all commercial buildings including hospitals, nursing homes, schools, day cares & apartments!

  • Final Comparison

    SensorPhotoelectricIonizationEnvironmentLight SourceRadioactiveFalse AlarmsFewFrequent

    More Responsive toSmoldering FiresFlaming FiresLocatedCommercial Buildings90% of HomesPrice$12$8

  • Your City HereThe majority of home fires occurring within Your City are of the slow burning smoldering type creating heavy smoke.In the past XX years all but one fire fatality occurring in Your City were caused by smoke inhalation.Fire investigations conducted by fire department personnel have found operational smoke alarms that failed to operate in smoke conditions.

  • Fire Department RecommendationBased on this information, the Fire Department is already recommending that Photoelectric smoke alarms be placed in all the recommended areas throughout the home.Amend the city ordinances that require smoke alarms to require photoelectric smoke alarms as the primary alarm.

  • The passage of this legislation is important for promoting and enhancing the life safety of the residents of Your City, furthering our continued commitment to exemplary service and safety for our citizens.

  • Questions?

    *1977-NBS-Indiana Dunes1980s-USFA White Paper2004-NFPA2008-NFPA, USFA White Paper1965-The battery smoke detector with built in alarm was invented, made available in 1970.*There are 2 types of smoke alarms, Ionization alarms use radioactive material, Photoelectric alarms use a light beam. Dual sensors combine the two technologies. Ions detect flaming fires faster, Photos detect smoldering fires faster.False Alarms-NIST, USFA White Paper**Pictured are Dean and Andrea

    Andrea died April 13, 2003 in an off-campus housing fire at Ohio State University.

    She died on a Palm Sunday, at 4:00 in the morning from smoke inhalation. **Pictured are Doug and Julie.

    Julie died April 10, 2005 in an off-campus housing fire at Miami University.

    She died on a Palm Sunday, at 4:00 in the morning from smoke inhalation. **IAFC-International Association of Fire ChiefsTexas Agriculture & Mechanical-A research intensive university conducting world class research programs.NIST-National Institute of Standards & Technology*On many occasions we have observed ionization smoke detectors fail in smoke conditions in Shaker Heights.Failed to sound-NIST 2001 tests.*From the testing and also from direct observations by the Shaker Heights Fire Department.In many homes in Shaker, the kitchens are located directly adjacent to the stairs to the 2nd floor, where a smoke alarm is located.*Smoke detectors need to be replaced when malfunctioning or have reached 10 years of age. Many residents may need to replace their detectors anyway!*90%-Estimate from MSNBC, Chief Jay Fleming-Boston FD, CBSAtlanta20%-USFA White Paper53% & 23%-USFA White Paper & NFPA*Survey of Cleveland area contractors.*Survey of Cleveland area contractors.*False alarms due to normal cooking and kitchen/bathroom steam.Price from Lowes, October-2010.*We will not recommend the placing of ionization smoke detectors in any location. If a resident has ionization smoke detectors

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