how do you know it worked
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DESCRIPTIONHow do you know it worked. Single Subject Designs in Teaching. How do we know if our teaching is successful or change is due to chance?. Functional Relationship a cause and effect. The target behavior changes as a result of the intervention - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
How do you know it workedSingle Subject Designs in Teaching
How do we know if our teaching is successful or change is due to chance?Functional Relationship a cause and effect. The target behavior changes as a result of the intervention
Functional Relationship exists between the two variables when the interventions have been systematically replicated on or more times
Variable: any number of factors involved in research. (factors related to participants, conditions, interventions)GOAL: to control for the presence of absence of variables that may effect the outcomes
VariablesIndependent: intervention being used
Dependent: behavior targeted for change
Confounding: Those variables in the environment that are not controlled but may influence the dependent variable
Components of a SSDBaseline MeasuresA measure of the behavior under the conditions that currently exist.
Provide a measure of the behavior if no intervention occurs.
Components of a SSDBaseline Measures Why do we want a baseline to be as stable as possible?
What are two measures of stability?VariabilityTrend
What to consider when trying to intervene?Too much variability makes it difficult to draw conclusionsGood operational definition of the dependent variableNaturally occurring variability
Trends in the data pointsNo trendAscending trendDescending trend
Components of a SSDIntervention Measures Repeated measures of the behavior under treatment conditions
Experimental Control insures that changes in the behavior are in fact due to the intervention and not other confounding variablesa functional relationship exists
Teaching designsA functional relationship is not established (lack of experimental control)Less confident assumptions can be drawnProvide sufficient indication of behavior change
Research DesignsAllows for experimental control and the existence of a functional relationship
AB DesignsReferred to as the Teaching designConsists of two phasesData collected during intervention are compared to those collected during baseline
Reversal DesignsUsed to study the effectiveness of a single intervention (independent variable)Consists of 4 phasesShould not be used:When dependent variable is dangerousWhen dependent variable is not reversibleWhat problems does this pose?
Reversal DesignsRepeatedly compares baseline data to intervention dataDependent on the replication of baseline and intervention effectsConfounding variables?
Changing Criterion DesignEvaluates the one independent variable on one dependent variableExperimental control is demonstrated by incrementally increasing or decreasing the dependent variableConsists of two phases
Changing Criterion DesignImplementationCollect baseline dataDetermine interim criterion for performanceMean of the stable portion of baselineHalf the mean of the baselineHighest or lowest baseline Professional estimate
Changing Criterion DesignDemonstrating Functional RelationshipAlter the number of sessionsContinue with a sub-phase until a stable rateVary the increaseRequire a change in the opposite direction
Multiple Baseline DesignsAnalysis of 1 independent variable on more than 1 dependent variablesAcross behaviorsAcross settingsAcross individualsConsists of 2 phases
Multiple Baseline DesignsCannot be used with a behavior that calls for immediate actionWhen behaviors are not independent
Multiple Baseline DesignsImplementationBaseline is collected on all conditions at the same timeBegin intervention in first condition when stable baseline is reachedBegin intervention in second condition when change has occurred in the first condition
Multiple Baseline DesignsExtended BaselinesNot appropriate for some behaviorsKids may learn error responseKids may become frustratedNo instruction being delivered
Alternating Treatments DesignsAllows the comparison of the effectiveness of more than one intervention on a single dependent variable
Alternating Treatments DesignsImplementationEach condition equal number of timesSchedule of interventions should be counterbalanced (to avoid order effects)Distinctive discriminative stimulus should immediately precede the condition
Changing Condition DesignImplementationInterventions are introduced sequentially.Functional relationship only if a return to baseline occurs before C condition
Used to study the effectiveness of two or more treatments on the behavior of a student. ABC designCummulative effects
Analysis of ResultsVisual InspectionMean of data pointsLevels of performanceTrend in performance
What if in the Ellis study on the same day as the teachers began using the stop watches, another teacher began giving ten minutes of extra free time?Used to test the effects of an intervention
Variability research 5% range; theraputic 20% range, they suggest 50%Too much variability makes it difficult to draw conclusionGood operational definitionNaturally occurring variabilityShow Odom and StrainEllis et al
Usually used to monitor progress in:Reading instructionHow to play 42Washing handsMust withdraw interventionReversal may seem dangerous or inaapropriateCannot be used with interventions that are not reversioble (learned behaviors)unethicalFunctional relationship is demonstrated by repeated shifts in the behaivor corresponding to changes in criteriaAppropriate when ultimate goals of behavior change requires a considerable length of time to reachCALLED shaping designIMPORTANT: the minimal criteria for reinforcement to be such that student will work and con obtain SR+Use tolerance for delay graphControls for learner history?
DISADVANTAGESBehaviors must be independentExtended baseline is problamaticWhen is it necessary to take baselineAlso known as the discovery design
EXAMPLESComprehension with oral reading or silent readingRun faster with fast paced music or slow paced musicCumulative effectsCannot compare any conditions other than those next to each other