how did manifest destiny shape us government policy?

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  • How did Manifest Destiny shape US government Policy?
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  • Define: Manifest Destiny The fulfillment of our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions John L. OSullivan U.S. Magazine & Democratic Review 1845 Manifest Destiny is the belief that it was Americas God given right to extend across the continent to the Pacific Ocean
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  • Why did Americans head west? The abundance of land was the greatest attraction for westward expansion Farming opportunity Land speculation Settlers viewed land ownership as an important step toward prosperity As settlers moved west & towns were built, merchants & manufacturers followed Future trade with Asia created the need for western ports Mormons (Brigham Young) migrated west to escape religious persecution, eventually settle Salt Lake City, Utah
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  • Trails West The Santa Fe Trail stretched 780 miles from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico (1821-48) A American traders, settlers used the trail to move west Travelers often clashed with Native Americas, settlements in Mexican owned territories lead to conflicts with Mexico The Oregon Trail stretched from Independence to Portland Oregon Travel was difficult & dangerous Caravans provided protection from possible attack by Native Americans
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  • Impact on Native Americans Westward settlers clashed with Native Americans who had already lived on western grounds Some NAs attempted to assimilate, some were forced off native lands, others attempted to fight the settlers Conflicts between Settlers and NAs resulted in Wars which forced NAs west of the Mississippi River (and eventually onto reservations) Forced migration & hunting of the buffalo helped to destroy Native American culture & traditions Fort Laramie Treaty promises NAs control of central plains in exchange for permission for US government to build roads, forts. As settlers move west, NAs continue to be driven from their territories. (settlers dont honor treaty)
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  • Resolving Territorial Disputes: Westward migration of Americans caused conflict with European nations that held a claim to western territories The US and Great Britain clashed over the Oregon Territory President James Polk called for annexation of the entire Oregon Territory (based his Presidency on MD) The dispute centered on the 54-40 boundary line (possibility of war v. GB) Newspapers adopted the slogan 54 40 or fight! Polk believed that northern territories were unsuitable for farming Polk & Britain negotiated the new border between the US and Canada on the 49th parallel (current border)
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  • How did Manifest Destiny shape US government Policy? The US Government: 1.Encouraged settlers to move west: helped to created trails, roadways, encouraging the growth of western towns 2.Supported settlers with troops to combat Native Americans, built forts (towns would grow around forts) 3.Negotiated with foreign countries for western lands 4.Fought wars over western territories
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  • Impact of Mexican Independence Mexico gained Texas & California after it secured its independence from Spain Mexico encouraged Americans to settle in Texas (to bring manufactured goods into the country) Mexicans and Americans begin to clash over cultural differences & the issue of Slavery (Mex. Against it) Stephen Austin established American colony in Texas
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  • Texas Fights for Independence Slavery continues to fuel hostilities between Americans (living in Mexico) & Mexico Austin petitioned Mexico for self-government over Texas Mexico refused, Austin believes that war is the only option. The American revolt against Mexico is put down at the Alamo Rebels led by Sam Houston, under the battle cry Remember the Alamo secure Texas independence from Mexico Texas becomes the Republic of Texas (the Lone Star Republic) Under President Polk, Texas was annexed into the United States (Mexico objected to the annexation)
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  • Polk & War With Mexico Polk is elected president because he campaigned as an expansionist Mexico objected to Polks annexation of Texas Polk sends an emissary to Mexico to purchase California, Tx, New Mexico for $25 million Mexico refused, Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to the Rio Grande to prepare for war Mexico viewed this as an invasion into their territory Many northerners questioned the impending war with Mexico American victory over Mexico secured the disputed territory (Manifest Destiny nearly complete)
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  • America Claims the Spoils of War Mexico lost 50,000 men in the war The US lost 13,000 men in the war The US enlarged its territory about 1/3! The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo officially ended the war The US gained California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Arizona, parts of Colorado & Wyoming The US agreed to pay Mexico $15 million (Mexican Cession) Gadsden Purchase (Pierce Administration) completed the borders of the 48 states
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  • Zachary Taylors Election War hero Zachary Taylor wins the election of 1848 (Polk chose not to run due to poor health) The ongoing controversy over slavery in the new territories continues Taylor dies in office and is replaced by Millard Fillmore
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  • The California Gold Rush GOLD was discovered at Sutters Mill in California (Near San Francisco) Gold Fever spread through the country/Gold Rush causes thousands to migrate to California in 1849 (forty-niners) Californias population exceeded 100,000! California outlawed slavery & applied for statehood CA. statehood increased tensions between the already strained North & South
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  • Conclusion: Westward Expansion How did the US gain western territories? Territories were acquired by: 1. T reaties/negotiations with foreign countries 2. P urchased from foreign countries 3. W ar with foreign nations How did expansion impact the US? 1. N ative Americans were displaced/killed 2. S lavery spread to some parts of the new territories 3. T he spread of slavery caused greater conflict between north & south
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