Horse Breeds

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<ul><li>1.Horse Breeds Anastasia Kellogg</li></ul><p>2. Breeds </p> <ul><li>A breed is defined as a group of animals within a species that have distinctive characteristics which are transmitted to their offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguishing characteristics may include any of the following: conformation, size, action, function, and color </li></ul><ul><li>Natural selection: shaped by environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial selection: shaped by human desires </li></ul><ul><li>The three main classifications of horse breeds are light horses, ponies, and draft horses </li></ul><p>3. Breeds </p> <ul><li>Hot blooded horses stem from eastern origins, and include the Arabian, the Barb, and the thoroughbred (some sources disagree and list the thoroughbred as a warm blood, others include many more breeds as hot blooded breeds) </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>For knowledge competition, choose an answer you like and bring a reference book to back yourself up </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Cold blooded breeds include the draft breeds </li></ul><ul><li>Warm blooded breeds include everything in between </li></ul><p>4. Breeds </p> <ul><li>The term Warmblood is also used to group together the German and other European non-Thoroughbred sport horse breeds </li></ul><ul><li>A feral horse is a horse that was once domesticated, before escaping into the wild again, for example the American Mustang and the Australian Brumby </li></ul><ul><li>Most breeds are derived from other breeds; the oldest breeds were derived from the four primitive horse types </li></ul><p>5. American Saddlebred </p> <ul><li>Originally called the Kentucky Saddle Horse </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation sire: Denmark, a thoroughbred </li></ul><ul><li>Denmark sired Gaines Denmark, out of the Stevenson mare </li></ul><ul><li>Originated in the southern United States, mainly Kentucky </li></ul><p>6. American Saddlebred </p> <ul><li>Derived from the Thoroughbred, Morgan, Narragansett Pacer, and Hackney breeds </li></ul><ul><li>May be three gaited or five gaited </li></ul><ul><li>Three gaited Saddlebreds walk, trot, and canter with great animation, and until recently were shown with a roached mane </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Note: the approved 4-H texts predate the roached mane rule change</li></ul></li></ul><p>7. American Saddlebred </p> <ul><li>Five gaited Saddlebreds walk, trot, canter, slow gait, and rack </li></ul><ul><li>While there are probably a greater number of Saddlebreds used for pleasure, more texts list their primary use as being in the show ring </li></ul><ul><li>The Five Gaited Championship is the breeds most sought after award </li></ul><p>8. American Saddlebred </p> <ul><li>Historically, Wing Commander is considered one of the breeds great horses, having won the Five Gaited Championship multiple times </li></ul><ul><li>Registered by American Saddle Horse Association (ASHA) </li></ul><p>9. American Saddlebred </p> <ul><li>National Saddle Horse Breeders Association formed in 1891; became American Saddle Horse Breeders Association in 1899 </li></ul><ul><li>The National Show Horse is a cross between the Saddlebred and the Arab </li></ul><p>10. American Saddlebred </p> <ul><li>Historically, solid bays and chestnuts were favored, with white markings frowned upon; pintos have come into fashion, however, and are often very sought after </li></ul><p>11. American White Horse </p> <ul><li>Not a true breed, but a color type, originating in the United States (Nebraska) around 1937 </li></ul><ul><li>May be a light horse or a draft horse </li></ul><ul><li>The foundation stallion is said the be Old King, foaled 1906 </li></ul><ul><li>Also called the American Cream </li></ul><p>12. American White Horse </p> <ul><li>Incorrectly called Albino, there is no true albino in the horse </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by the dominant white gene, but cannot be true breeding since homozygous dominant white is lethal to the fetus </li></ul><p>13. American White Horse </p> <ul><li>Used for riding as well as driving </li></ul><ul><li>Popular for parades and film work </li></ul><ul><li>Registered by the AWHC (American White Horse Club) </li></ul><p>14. Andalusian </p> <ul><li>Originated in Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Descends from Barbs, introduced into Spain from North Africa in the 8 thcentury </li></ul><ul><li>Used for pleasure riding, bullfighting, parades, circus, dressage </li></ul><ul><li>Was the dominant breed brought to America by Columbus on his second trip </li></ul><p>15. Andalusian </p> <ul><li>Noted for high stepping gait, the paso de andatura </li></ul><p>16. Anglo Arab </p> <ul><li>Not a breed, but a cross between a thoroughbred and an Arabian </li></ul><ul><li>Very popular cross in England and the United States, used for riding horses, hunters, endurance horses, etc., and may be shown as half Arab in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>IAHA = Interantional Arabian Horse Association </li></ul><p>17. Appaloosa </p> <ul><li>Originated in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Developed in the Palouse River Valley by the Nez Perce Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics include spotted coat pattern, visible white sclera in the eye, mottled skin and striped hooves </li></ul><p>18. Appaloosa </p> <ul><li>The coat patterns are: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Blanket </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Leopard </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Snowflake </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Frost (usually on roan) </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Marble (usually on roan) </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Originally primarily stock horses, now a versatile breed used for huntseat and western show classes, cutting, reining, gymkhana, rodeo, driving, racing, and endurance </li></ul><p>19. Appaloosa </p> <ul><li>Registered by the Appaloosa Horse Club (ApHC) in Moscow, Idaho </li></ul><p>20. Arabian </p> <ul><li>The Arabian is known as the worlds oldest breed of horse, originating in Arabia before 3000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>The Arabian was first brought to America by Homer Davenport </li></ul><ul><li>A versatile breed used for riding and driving, showing, and endurance riding </li></ul><p>21. Arabian </p> <ul><li>Usually gray, bay, chestnut, or less frequently black or roan, has a dished face, bulging forehead (jibbah), a fine, elegant neck which is long and arched, short back, and a flat croup </li></ul><ul><li>Only has seventeen pairs of ribs </li></ul><p>22. Arabian </p> <ul><li>According to legend, the Arab descends from seven horses selected by King Solomon from his 52 thousand horses </li></ul><ul><li>Kind Solomons seven horses were: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Koheilan </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Manaki </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Hedregi </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Saklani </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Gilfi </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Hedban </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Trefi </li></ul></li></ul><p>23. Arabian </p> <ul><li>A more popular legend claims that the Arab descends from the five mares chosen by Mohammed. The story had two versions </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>They were first to reach Mecca, out of the 85 he had sent to spread the news of victory </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>They were the five who turned back without drinking when Mohammed called a thirsty herd away from water </li></ul></li></ul><p>24. Arabian </p> <ul><li>Notable famous Arabians include Raffles, need current list </li></ul><p>25. Barb </p> <ul><li>Originated in Morocco and Algeria, on Africas Barbary Coast </li></ul><ul><li>Said to be the most hardy of the Oriental breeds </li></ul><ul><li>The Barb has a straight face, good muscling, an arched neck, a short back, and a sloping croup (solid colored) </li></ul><p>26. Barb </p> <ul><li>An extremely old breed, the Barb was imported to Spain in the 8 thcentury and used in founding numerous breeds, including the Andalusion </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish Conquistadors rode horses with Barb blood </li></ul><p>27. Barb </p> <ul><li>The true purebred Barb is almost extinct, with those seen today usually mixed with Arab </li></ul><p>28. Cleveland Bay </p> <ul><li>Originated in England during the Middle Ages, in the Cleveland district of Yorkshire </li></ul><ul><li>The oldest breed of horse in England </li></ul><ul><li>Always bay in color </li></ul><ul><li>Stands between 16 to 16.2 hands </li></ul><p>29. Cleveland Bay </p> <ul><li>Typically has a convex head profile, long neck, good shoulders, deep girth, long, but still strong, back, and short legs with good bone </li></ul><ul><li>Originally called the Chapmans Horse </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly used as a driving horse; also used for riding, and is crossed with the Thoroughbred to produce show ring hunters and jumpers </li></ul><p>30. French Trotter </p> <ul><li>Originated in France </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation sires include Conquerant, Phaeton, Lavater, Normond, and Niger </li></ul><ul><li>Sampson, by Blaze, was influential in the formation of this breed, as well as the Hackney, and also sired Messenger, the great grandsire of Hambletonian 10, the foundation sire of the Standardbred </li></ul><p>31. French Trotter </p> <ul><li>Through Sampson, the French Trotter and American Standardbred are related </li></ul><ul><li>Used for racing at the trot, both in harness and under saddle </li></ul><p>32. Friesian </p> <ul><li>May be classified a light horse or a draft horse </li></ul><ul><li>Originated in Holland </li></ul><ul><li>One of the oldest breeds in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Used as a coach horse, and is an excellent trotter </li></ul><p>33. Friesian </p> <ul><li>Used as a war horse and coach horse in the Middle Ages </li></ul><ul><li>Has some draft characteristics, including feathers, and is almost always black </li></ul><ul><li>Also called the Harddraver (Dutch for good trotter) </li></ul><p>34. Hackney Horse </p> <ul><li>Two separate breeds, the Hackney Horse and the Hackney Pony </li></ul><ul><li>Originated in England, from the Norfolk Roadster, as well as the Thoroughbred, Arab, and Friesian </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation sire: Blaze, by Flying Childers </li></ul><p>35. Hackney Horse </p> <ul><li>Blaze had two famous sons, Old Shales and Sampson </li></ul><ul><li>Sampson, by Blaze, sired Gold Farmer and Foxhunter </li></ul><ul><li>The Hackney Horse is used primarily for fine harness driving, and is noted for its high action and elegance </li></ul><p>36. Hackney Horse </p> <ul><li>The Hackney is usually bay, brown, chestnut, or black, and frequently has white markings </li></ul><ul><li>The Hackney is registered by the AHHS (American Hackney Horse Society) </li></ul><p>37. Hanoverian </p> <ul><li>Originated in Germany (Hanover and Lower Saxony) </li></ul><ul><li>In 1735, George II founded a stud farm in Celle, 25 miles from Hanover, to breed carriage horses </li></ul><ul><li>First Hanoverian breed society formed 1867; stud book formed 1888 </li></ul><p>38. Hanoverian </p> <ul><li>In 1922 the current Verband Hannoverscher Warmblutzuchter formed </li></ul><ul><li>By adding the blood of the Trakehner Semper Idem, the Hanoverian became the sport horse it is today </li></ul><p>39. Hanoverian </p> <ul><li>American Hanoverian Society formed 1974 </li></ul><ul><li>Solid colored with frequent white markings, with a distinctive head, good muscling, and a long neck </li></ul><ul><li>Used for dressage, show jumping, and eventing </li></ul><p>40. Holstein </p> <ul><li>Originated in Germany, during the early 14 thcentury at the monastery of Uetersern </li></ul><ul><li>War horse, now sport horse, late thoroughbred influence </li></ul><p>41. Lipizzan </p> <ul><li>Originated in Austria, in the town of Lippizza, which is now part of Yugoslavia </li></ul><ul><li>The breed used by the Spanish Riding School in Vienna, Austria, for high school dressage </li></ul><ul><li>Becoming popular for dressage world wide </li></ul><p>42. Lipizzan </p> <ul><li>Derived from Andalusian, Neopolitan, and Arab breeds </li></ul><ul><li>Born black, turns gray with age </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish Riding School was founded in 1729 by Charles VI </li></ul><p>43. Missouri Fox Trotter </p> <ul><li>Originated in United States (Missouri and Arkansas) in the 1800s </li></ul><ul><li>Noted for the fox trot gait, may be any color including pinto </li></ul><ul><li>Used as pleasure horses and stock horses </li></ul><p>44. Morgan </p> <ul><li>Originated in United States (New England) during the 1700s and 1800s </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation sire: Figure, by Beautiful Bay (or True Briton) </li></ul><ul><li>Figure was owned by Thomas Justin Morgan </li></ul><p>45. Morgan </p> <ul><li>Figures four famous sons were: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Sherman </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Woodbury </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Bulrush </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Revenge </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Sherman sired Black Hawk, who in turn sired Ethan Allan </li></ul><ul><li>The Morgan influenced the Standardbred and American Saddlebred </li></ul><p>46. Morgan </p> <ul><li>Very versatile, used for driving, riding, showing, esp. Saddleseat, also Western, sometimes Huntseat </li></ul><ul><li>Registered in Vermont, with the American Morgan Horse Association (AMHA) </li></ul><p>47. Orlov </p> <ul><li>Originated in Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Used for harness racing at the trot </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation sire: Bars 1 (f. 1784) by Polkan </li></ul><ul><li>Named for Count Alexei Orlov, who owned Smetanka, the Arab stallion who was the grandsire of Bars 1 </li></ul><p>48. Orlov </p> <ul><li>Derived from Arab, Friesian, and Thoroughbred blood </li></ul><ul><li>Most famous: Ulov (1928) </li></ul><p>49. Paint/Pinto </p> <ul><li>The Paint is a color breed which registers piebald and skewbald horses of Quarter Horse or Thoroughbred ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>The Pinto registry accepts horses of a much wider range of breeding (ie Saddlebred, Arabian, Miniature, etc.) </li></ul><p>50. Paint/Pinto </p> <ul><li>PtHA (Pinto Horse Association) </li></ul><ul><li>All Paints are Pintos but not all Pintos are Paints </li></ul><ul><li>The APHA (American Paint Horse Association) was founded in 1963 with influential sires including Sheik and Sun Cloud, as well as Yellow Mount </li></ul><p>51. Paint/Pinto </p> <ul><li>The two primary coat patterns are tobiano (white crosses back) and overo (white may not cross back) </li></ul><p>52. Paint/Pinto </p> <ul><li>When competing in a knowledge contest, it is usually wise to identify a picture of a Paint or Pinto as a Pinto; the 4-H rules state that you cannot guess the bloodlines of the horse by a photograph </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Logic fails here, since this is what you ARE being asked to do in this part of the competition when shown photos of other breeds; grit your teeth and play along </li></ul></li></ul><p>53. Palomino </p> <ul><li>Originated in United States </li></ul><ul><li>A color breed, since not true breeding </li></ul><ul><li>Palomino is not true breeding because a palomino must be heterozygous for the dilution gene Cr, if it is homozygous, pigment will be restricted too greatly, resulting in a cremello </li></ul><p>54. Palomino </p> <ul><li>Must be three shades lighter or darker than a newly minted gold coin </li></ul><ul><li>Not registerable if of cremello or pinto ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>Often double registered Quarter Horse </li></ul><p>55. Palomino </p> <ul><li>Registered with the PHA (Palomino Horse Association) or the PHBA (Palomino Horse Breeders Association) </li></ul><p>56. Paso Fino </p> <ul><li>The Paso Fino originated in Puerto Rico, from Spanish Andalusians </li></ul><ul><li>The Paso Fino displays three natural, lateral, four beat gaits, known as the Paso Fino, Paso Corto, and Paso Largo </li></ul><p>57. Paso Fino </p> <ul><li>The Paso is a small, quiet, horse that is often rather shy </li></ul><p>58. Peruvian Paso </p> <ul><li>The Peruvian Paso originated in South America </li></ul><ul><li>The Peruvian Paso performs the same gaits as the Paso Fino, but while the Paso Fino moves straight, the Peruvian Paso is noted for termino, the outward movement of the foreleg, during the gaits </li></ul><p>59. Quarter Horse </p> <ul><li>Originated in the United States, in Virginia, during colonial times </li></ul><ul><li>Was used in Quarter Pathing, or racing over a quarter mile on a narrow path in the woods, usually two horses at a time </li></ul><p>60. Quarter Horse </p> <ul><li>Later used as a stock horse out west </li></ul><ul><li>Famous early Quarter Horses include Steeldust, Peter McCue, and Old Shiloh </li></ul><ul><li>The first registered Quarter Horse was Wimpy P-1 </li></ul><p>61. Quarter Horse </p> <ul><li>Stock type build, any solid color or dilution, but no white is allowed above the knees </li></ul><ul><li>Used for racing, cutting, showing, rodeo, pleasure, versatility </li></ul><ul><li>An Appendix Quarter Horse is a Thoroughbred-Quarter Horse cross, used as a hunter </li></ul><p>62. Quarter Horse </p> <ul><li>The Thoroughbred Three Bars has greatly affected the running Quarter Horse </li></ul><ul><li>Registered in Amarillo, Texas, with the AQHA (American Quarter Horse Association) </li></ul><p>63. Selle Francais </p> <ul><li>Originated in France </li></ul><ul><li>Used throughout Europe as a riding horse </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation sire: Young Rattler (f. 1811) by Rattler and out of a mare by Snap </li></ul><p>64. Standardbred </p> <ul><li>Originated in the United States, in the Northeast and later Midwest </li></ul><ul><li>Used for harness racing, at the trot and the pace </li></ul><ul><li>Has long neck, long back, athletic muscling </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation sire: Hambletonian 10, a descendant of Messenger by Sampson (by Blaze by Flying Childers by the Darley Arabian) </li></ul><p>65. Standardbred </p> <ul><li>Hambletonians most famous sons are: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Happy Medium </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Electioneer </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Dictator </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>George Wilkes </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>In order to race, a horse must qualify by trotting or pacing a mile in standard time, hence the name Standardbred </li></ul><p>66. Standardbred </p> <ul><li>The first sub-two minute mile (1:59 ) was achieved by Star Pointer, a pacer, in 1897 </li></ul><ul><li>The first sub-two minute trotter was Lou Dillon, who trotted a mile in 1:58 in 1903 </li></ul><ul><li>Nihilator holds the current world record for a mile at the pace (1:49 3/5) </li></ul><p>67. Standardbred </p> <ul><li>Mack Lobell holds the current world record for a mile at the trot (1:52 1/5) </li></ul><p>68. Swedish Warmblood </p> <ul><li>Developed in Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>King Charles X ordered the establishment of a royal stud at Flyinge in the seventeenth century </li></ul><ul><li>The Swedish Warmblood was developed from the Hanoverian, Trakehner, Thoroughbred, Andalusian, Friesian, and Arabian </li></ul><p>69. Swedish Warmblood </p> <ul><li>The first stud book opened in 1874 </li></ul><ul><li>Swedish Warmbloods took all the dressage medals at the 1912 Olympics </li></ul><ul><li>S...</li></ul>