honors marine biology module 5 – marine invertebrates ii october 21, 2014
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Honors Marine BiologyModule 5 Marine Invertebrates IIOctober 21, 2014
Class ChallengeYour best impersonation
Define and give an example for the following:mutualism,
Mutualism: A relationship between two or more organisms of different species where both benefit from the association.
A bee and a flower
Commensalism: A relationship between two or more organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited.
Barnacles on the fin of a whale
Parasitism: A relationship between two or more organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed.
A tick, mosquito or a tapeworm on an animal
Homeschool Days at Mote MarineSee the October 6, 2014
post that has the schedule.
Four Major Phyla:
Phylum MolluscaAnd commonly called Mollusks, and represent the most species in the ocean than any other group.
They include clams, abalone, cone shells, squid and octopuses.
Most mollusks have a bilaterally symmetric soft body protected by a shell made of calcium carbonate.
The shell provides protection from the elements and predators and can also provide body support.
MantleThe soft body is covered by a mantle, which is a sheath of tissue surrounding the organs of a mollusk, producing the mollusks shell and preforming respiration.
FootMany mollusks use a large, muscular foot for locomotion, anchoring, or obtaining food.
They also have a series of sensory organs near their heads.
GillsAre used for exchanging gases with the surrounding water. Mollusks also have a digestive tract, and a somewhat complex nervous system.
A special organ allows these organisms to scrape food into their mouths is called a radula. It is covered with hundreds of small teeth, used for scraping food into the mouth.
Class Gastropod (Figure 5.1)The head of a gastropoda is very complex compared to that of most other mollusks.
Many of the species have eyes on the tips of their tentacles. Gastropods have several feeding strategies. Some have radula to scrape algae off rocks, like the limpet and abalones.
NudibranchHave no shells. The name nudibranch literally means naked gills. They are some of the most colorful in the ocean
On Your Own questions5.1 For each of the gastropod structures listed below, indicate the organ in the human body that would perform a similar function:RadulaGillsExcretroy organTentaclesShell
Bivalves (Figure 5.3)MusselsClamScallopOysters
Bivalves have a hinged, two-piece shell. All bivalves lack radulas and do not have a noticeable head.
Bivalves have large and elaborate gills used not only for gas exchange but also for filtering food particles from the water.They extend siphonsTo suck in and expel seawater.
Tiny cilia on the gillsBeat back and forth,Creating a current thatPulls in the water so thatPlankton and food particlesCan be trapped by the gillsAnd swept in to the mouth.
BilvalvesSome burrow into the sand with their muscular foot. Others have a strong filaments called byssal threads that attach themselves to rocks. Oysters cement themselves to hard surfaces or each other.
Experiment 5.A: Bivalve/Shell Observation ID the Shell Drawing
Killer Cone Snailhttp://youtu.be/zcBmMPJrrKk
Gastropod attacks a bivalvehttp://youtu.be/70OHQJ2SbQU
Class CephalopodaIs the most complex of the mollusks.
Cephal means headpod means foot
This is very descriptive of this head-footed group of animals. Squid, octopus, cuttlefish and nautilus.(see Figure 5.5)
CephalopodsHave complex eyes that include a retina, cornea, iris and lens.
They also have a brain that coordinates and stores information.
CephalopodsBody is protected by a muscular mantle enclosing its gills. In other mollusks, water is taken into the mantle cavity, moves over the gills, and is slowly expelled through the siphon.
Cephalopods do not have an external shell, so they can forcefully contract their mantle cavity, shooting out a jet of water, which propels them backward. In a squid or octopus, the siphon can be turned in any direction to give them the ability to move in any direction they choose.
In addition to the siphon, cephalopds have sacs from which they can release a dark fluid to confuse their enemies and allow retreat.
What was this fluid once used for?
Labs Experiment 5.B: Dissection of the Squid
Experiment 5.C: Dissection of the Clam
HomeworkModule 5 Pages 107 124Answer On Your Own Questions 5.1 to 5.6Study Guide Questions: define: a-e and 2-9.Finish Lab book Bivalves and Univalves; Squid Dissection. Quiz: know the squid dissection and be able to label its parts.Class Challenge: