honors biology macromolecules

Download Honors Biology Macromolecules

Post on 11-May-2015

2.150 views

Category:

Education

1 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • 1.The Chemistry of Life What are livingcreatures made of? Why do we haveto eat?

2.

  • 96% of living organisms is made of:
    • carbon (C)
    • oxygen (O)
    • hydrogen (H)
    • nitrogen (N)

Elements of Life 3. Molecules of Life

  • Put C, H, O, N together in differentways to build living organisms
  • What are bodies made of?
    • carbohydrates
      • sugars & starches
    • proteins
    • fats(lipids)
    • nucleic acids
      • DNA, RNA

4. Why do we eat?

  • We eat to take in more of these chemicals
    • Food for building materials
      • to make more of us (cells)
      • for growth
      • for repair
    • Food to make energy
      • calories
      • to make ATP

ATP 5. What do we need to eat?

  • Foods to give you morebuilding blocks&more energy
      • for building & running bodies
    • carbohydrates
    • proteins
    • fats
    • nucleic acids
    • vitamins
    • minerals, salts
    • water

6.

  • Water
    • 65% of your body is H 2 O
    • water isinorganic
      • doesnt containcarbon
  • Rest of you is made ofcarbonmolecules
    • organicmolecules
      • carbohydrates
      • proteins
      • fats
      • nucleic acids

Dont forgetwater 7. How do we make these molecules?

  • We build them!

2006-2007 8. Building large molecules of life

  • Chain together smaller molecules
    • building block molecules =monomers
  • Big molecules built from little molecules
    • polymers

9.

  • Small molecules =building blocks
  • Bond them together = polymers

Building large organic molecules 10. Building important polymers sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugarnucleotide nucleotide nucleotide nucleotide Carbohydrates = built fromsugars Proteins = built fromamino acids Nucleic acids (DNA) = built fromnucleotides amino acid amino acid amino acid amino acid amino acid amino acid 11. How to build large molecules

  • Synthesis
    • building bigger molecules from smaller molecules
    • building cells & bodies
      • repair
      • growth
      • reproduction

+ ATP 12. How to build a polymer

  • Synthesis
    • joins monomers by taking H 2 O out
      • one monomer donates OH
      • other monomer donates H +
      • together these form H 2 O
    • requiresenergy&enzymes

Dehydration synthesis Condensation reaction H 2 O HO HO HH H HO enzyme 13. How to take large molecules apart

  • Digestion
    • taking big molecules apart
    • getting raw materials
      • for synthesis & growth
    • making energy (ATP)
      • for synthesis, growth & everyday functions

+ ATP 14. How to break down a polymer

  • Digestion
    • useH 2 Oto breakdown polymers
      • reverse of dehydration synthesis
      • break off one monomer at a time
      • H 2 O is split into H +and OH
        • H +& OH attach to ends
    • requiresenzymes
    • releases energy

Hydrolysis Digestion H 2 O HO H HO H HO H enzyme 15. Example of digestion

  • Starch is digested to glucose

starch glucose ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP 16. Example of synthesis

  • amino acids = building block
  • protein = polymer

amino acids protein

  • Proteins are synthesized by bonding amino acids

17. Carbohydrates 18. Carbohydrates: Energy molecules OH OH H H HO CH 2 OH H H H OH O 19. Carbohydrates

  • Building block molecules =

sugar - sugar - sugar - sugar - sugar sugars sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar 20. Carbohydrates

  • Function:
    • quick energy
    • energy storage
    • structure
      • cell wall in plants
  • Examples
    • sugars
    • starches
    • cellulose (cell wall)

glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 starch sucrose 21. Sugars = building blocks

  • Names for sugars usually end in
    • glucose
    • fructose
    • sucrose
    • maltose

- ose OH OH H H HO CH 2 OH H H H OH O glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 sucrose fructose maltose 22. Building carbohydrates

  • Synthesis

| glucose | glucose 1 sugar = monosaccharide 2 sugars = disaccharide | maltose mono = one saccharide = sugar di = two 23. Building carbohydrates

  • Synthesis

| fructose | glucose 1 sugar = monosaccharide | sucrose (table sugar) 2 sugars = disaccharide How sweet it is! 24. BIG carbohydrates

  • Polysaccharides
    • large carbohydrates
      • starch
        • energy storage in plants
          • potatoes
      • glycogen
        • energy storage in animals
          • in liver & muscles
      • cellulose
        • structure in plants
          • cell walls
      • chitin
        • structure in arthropods & fungi
          • exoskeleton

poly = many 25. Building BIG carbohydrates glucose + glucose + glucose = starch (plant) glycogen (animal) energy storage polysaccharide 26. Digesting starch vs. cellulose starch easy to digest cellulose hard to digest enzyme enzyme 27. Cellulose

  • Cell walls in plants
    • herbivores can digest cellulose well
    • mostcarnivores cannot digest cellulose
      • thats why theyeat meat to get their energy& nutrients
      • cellulose = roughage
        • stays undigested
        • keeps materialmoving in yourintestines

28. Proteins 29. Proteins: Multipurpose molecules 30. Proteins

  • Examples
    • muscle
    • skin, hair, fingernails, claws
      • collagen, keratin
    • pepsin
      • digestive enzymein stomach
    • insulin
      • hormone that controls blood sugar levels

collagen (skin) insulin pepsin 31. Proteins

  • Function: