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Grigoryeva M. Homonyms Lecture # 8. Homonymy. Definition of Homonymy Diachronic Study of Homonymy and Sources of Homonyms Homonyms treated synchronically Classification of homonyms. Definition of Homonymy. Greek homonymous – homos “the same” onoma “name” - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • HomonymsLecture # 8Grigoryeva M.

  • Homonymy

    Definition of Homonymy

    Diachronic Study of Homonymy and Sources of Homonyms

    Homonyms treated synchronically

    Classification of homonyms

  • Definition of HomonymyGreek homonymous homos the same onoma name

    Two or more words identical in sound form and spelling,or in one of these aspects, but different in meaning,distribution and (in many cases) in origin

  • Classification of homonymsby Walter Skeat

    identical in sound form and spelling but different in meaning Perfect homonyms

    BallAny spherical bodyA large dancing party

  • identical in sound form but different in spelling and meaningHomophones

    PiecePart separated from smth

    PeaceA situation without war conflicts

  • words different in sound-form and inmeaning but identical in spellingHomographs

    Lead [li:d]The first position at a particular time during competition

    Lead [led]A soft heavy grey metal

  • Classification of homonymsby A.I. Smirnitskyfull homonyms

    partial homonyms

  • Full homonyms

    words which represent the same category of parts of speech and have the same paradigmhave the same spelling an pronunciation

    match, n.a game, a contest

    match, n.a short piece of wood for producing fire

  • Partial homonymsSimple lexico-grammatical

    Complex lexico-grammatical

    Partial lexical

  • Partial homonyms1. simple lexico- grammatical belong to the same part of speech their paradigms haveonly one identical form it is never the same form

    to found, verb found, verb (Past Ind., Past. Part. of to find)

  • Partial homonyms2. Complex lexico-grammatical belong to different parts of speech and have one identical form in their paradigms

    rose, nounrose, verb (Pat Ind. of to rise)

    one, numeralwon, verb (Past Ind., Past Part. of to win)

  • Partial homonyms3. Partial lexical homonymsbelong to the same part of speech but identical only in corresponding forms of their paradigms

    to lie (lay, lain), verb to lie (lied, lied), verb

    to can (canned, canned) can (could)

  • Classification of homonymsby I.V. ArnoldOnly one group of homonyms- Perfect homonyms

    4 criteria for their classification:

    Lexical meaningGrammatical meaningBasic formParadigm

  • Classification of homonymsby I.V. ArnoldHomonyms identical in their grammatical meanings, basic forms and paradigms but different in lexical meaningBoard - a piece of wood \ a councilHomonyms identical in their grammatical meanings and basic forms but different in lexical meaning and paradigms To lie- lied- lied () To lie- lay- lain ()Homonyms different in in their grammatical meanings, lexical meaning and paradigms but identical in basic forms Light (lights) Light (lighter, the lightest) Homonyms different in in their grammatical meanings, lexical meaning, basic forms and paradigms (but coinciding in one of the forms of their paradigms)A bit Bit (to bite)

  • Classification of homonyms according to their meaninglexical homonyms words that differ in their lexical meaning but identical in their grammatical meaninge.g. a seal () a seal ()

  • Synonyms and antonyms are regarded as the treasure of the languages expressive resources. They are created by the vocabulary system with aparticular purpose

    Homonyms are of no interest in this respect. They are accidental creations, and thereforepurposeless.In the process of communication they lead sometimes to confusion and misunderstanding

  • Classification of homonyms according to their meaninggrammatical homonyms different word-forms of one and the same word are identicale.g. a seal seals seals seals

  • Waiter!Yes, sir!Whats this?Its bean soup, sir!Never mind what it has been. I want to know what it is now.

    Bean been (homophones)

  • Reasons for intense development of homonyms in Englishmonosyllabic character of the language

    analytic structure of English

    predominance of free forms in English

    high-developed polysemy

  • Sources of Homonyms

    Phonetic changesBorrowingConversionShorteningSplit polysemy

  • Convergent development of sound form (phonetic changes)two or more words which were pronounced differently at an earlier date may develop identical sound forms OE knight [knait] [nait] night [nait]

  • Divergent semantic development (split polysemy)different meanings of the same word move so far away from each other that they come to be regarded as two separate units (a long thing piece of wood) 1.a tablee.g. OE board (food served at the table) 2.daily meals

    ople discussing their business at the table) 3.officials who direct some activity

  • Sources of Homonymyshortening

    Fan (Lat.) an implement for waving lightly to produce a cool current of air

    Fan an enthusiastic admirer of sport or celebrity shortening Fanatic

  • Sources of HomonymyborrowingsBank bank a shore a native word

    bank a financial institution an Italian borrowing

  • Sources of Homonymysound-imitation

    mew

    the sound a cat makesa sea gullsmall terraced houses in London

  • Synchronic Approach to Homonymythe criteria distinguishing homonymy from polysemythe formulation of rules for recognizing different meanings of homonyms in terms of their distribution

  • Homonymy and PolysemySemantic criterion of related and unrelated meanings connections between the various meaningsare apprehended by speakers or notapprehended

  • Homonymy and Polysemyradiation - primary meaning stands in the center, secondary meanings proceed out of it like rays

    polysemy

  • Homonymy and Polysemyconcatenation secondary meanings develop like a chain. It is difficult to trace some meanings to the primary one.

    homonymy

  • Distribution Criterionhomonyms differ in their syntactic function

    e.g. I think that this that is a conjunction but that that that that man used was a pronoun.

  • Classification of homonyms according to their meaninglexical homonyms words that differ in their lexical meaning but identical in their grammatical meaning

    a seal () a seal ()

  • Classification of homonyms according to their meaninggrammatical homonyms different word-forms of one and the same word are identical

    a seal seals seals seals

  • PRACTICE1.Define the given words intoHomonyms properHomophonesHomographs

    2.Give meanings of these words

    Made (A) - maid (N), row (N) row (N), seal (N) - seal (N), band (N) band (N), desert (V) desert (N)

  • Made (A) - maid (N)Past make A female servant HOMOPHONES row (N) row (N)People in a line A quarrel HOMOGRAPHSseal (N) - seal (N)A sea animal The official mark HOMONYMS desert (V) desert (N) To leave empty A sandy land HOMOGRAPHShare (N) hair (N)An animal Strands growing from the skin HOMOPHONES

  • PRACTICEFill in the blanks choosing the right word.Translate your sentences

    No (sweet \ suite) without sweat.

    All is (fare \ fair) in love and war.

    Out of (site \ sight) out of mind.

    It never rains, but it (pours \ paws).

  • PracticeClassify the homonyms using Professor Smirnitskys classificationHe should give a ball in your honor.He is playing with a ball.Full homonyms

    Whats happened with your left ear? He s left us.Complex lexico-grammatical partial

    Turn off the light! He is wearing light summer trousers.Complex lexico-grammatical

    He couldnt bear the pain.- catch the bear before you sell the skin.Complex lexico-grammatical partial

    To can means to make preservation. Birds can fly Lexical partial

  • PracticeFind the homophones to the following words, give the spelling (if they are different) and explain the difference in meaningsDyeTaleWeekSunMeetWriteHare