hofstede’s individualism vs collectivism
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According to Hofstede's Cultural Taxonomy, differences in cultural lifestyle can be explained by:ndividualism and collectivismPower distanceUncertainty avoidanceMasculinityTime orientationDimensions of cultureDefinitions IndividuaIism: People look after themselves and their immediate blood relations only. -Loosely knit social framework CoIIectivism: A tight social Iramework in which people expect others in groups oI which they are a part to look aIter them and protect them-Tightly knit social framework IndividuaIism-CoIIectivismndividualism= " High value on autonomy -Self is most important Freedom ndividual achievement Privacy Personal goals More direct language View conflict as positive and tend confront it head onCollectivism= "We High value on group-Other is more important nterdependent with others Loyalty Family relations Social harmony Less direct language View conflict negatively and avoid itDetermining Factors Power Distance Economical developmentSome of ndividualistic Cultures Australia Canada England reland New Zeeland South Africa U.S.A.On the other hand Latin American, Sub-Saharan African, Middle East and Asian societies tend to be more collectivistic. Why is this concept important for work environment?Wompetition vs. harmonyWotivationW#ewardAs a result Members of collectivistic cultures have a clear demarcation between in-group and out-group members while those of individualistic cultures do not have such a clear demarcation between the two. n resolving conflicts, members of individualistic cultures are encouraged to speak out while those of collectivistic cultures use avoidance, the third party intermediaries, and face-saving strategies.How rliabl is Hofstd's Individualism vs. Collctivism dimnsion? gnores differences within clusters Culture is not static- t evolves over time#eferences ustig, M. W., Koester, J. (2006).Cultural patterns and communication: Taxonomies.n M.W. Lusting & J. KoesterIntercultural competence: Interpersonal communication across cultures, (pp. 116-124).Boston: Pearson Education. iII, CharIes W.. (2011).nternational Business: Differences in Culture. n Hill Charles W.L. Competing in the global marketplace, (pp. 120-135). New York: McGraw-Hill rwin.