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  • Dch bi Summer RAin 2

    101 IU TI HC C T TRNG KIN TRC Matthew Frederick

    Gi ti Sorche, v cun sch ny v nhiu hn th.

  • Dch bi Summer RAin 3

    LI NGI DCH

    C l chng ta nhng kin trc s tng lai u bit lnh vc ny khc nghit, gian kh, ngho v cn am m nhiu n th no. Trong khi , tht d dng thy nhng g chng ta ang hc qua : chng trnh ging dy kh khan, thiu thc hnh cho mt nghnh c th nh th, gio vin thiu nhit huyt hoc nu c cng khng th lm g hn l thy c tr chp N khng hng n s kch thch tr tng tng, cch lm ch t duy thit k v mang nhng tng sng to vo thc t. Nhng iu ny c th gy tm l bt mn hoc chn nn,bung xui cho nhng hc sinh cp 4 trng Kin trc.

    Nhng c mt cu ni rt hay rng :" Nu bn khng thch con ng m bn ang [phi] i, hy to ra mt con ng mi." Nu bn khng c dy d theo cch m bn ngh bn ng c hng (v n hp l) th hy t tm cch gio dc mnh vy. y l mt quyn sch b ch m ti mun chia s n vi cc bn.

    Mc d c xut bn nm 2007, mt s iu trong cun sch khin ti cm thy nh n ra i t nhng nm u ca th k XX. Tuy vy, nhng li khuyn hu ch th khng bao gi l c c. Mong cc bn c th tm thy nhng iu th v qua nhng thng ip ca tc gi.

    V vn phong ca bn gc sc tch, c ng trong mt n lc trnh by nhiu khi nim mi v tru tng, i ch c th gy kh hiu, ti ngha, ti mn php din gii theo cch hiu ca mnh ,thm nhng v d minh ha khi cn thit, mong mun lm r thm ca tc gi. Do thi gian v trnh c hn, khng th trnh khi nhng sai st, mong bn c lng th v ng gp kin ni dung cun sch c hon thin hn .

    Ngi dch Summer Rain.

    N

    g

    i

    d

    c

    h

  • LI TC GI

    Nhng iu chc chn cho sinh vin kin trc l rt t i. Ging dy kin trc l qu trnh rc ri v phc tp, lin quan n nhng gi dy lu di, vn bn dy c, v c s hng dn tr tr. Nu bi hc kin trc c hp dn i chng na, chng cng ngp trong rt nhiu ngoi l v phn i n mc sinh vin kin trc t hi liu c iu g l chc chn trong vic hc kin trc hay khng.

    S mp m trong nhng hng dn kin trc l cn thit. Kin trc, trn tt c, l mt lnh vc sng to, v th nhng kh khn c th hiu c cho ngi hng dn thit k khi c th ha cc bi ging l trnh p t nhng gii hn khng cn thit cho qu trnh sng to. Kt qu s ci m ny cung cp cho sinh vin thm nhiu hp dn trn con ng sng to mi, nhng thng km theo cm gic rng kin trc c xy dng trn nn ct yu hn l trn mt nn t chc chn. Quyn sch ny hng ti mc ch xc lp cc nn tng cho cc xng kin trc bng cch cung cp tp hp cc iu m qu trnh thit k c th tri qua. Nhng bi hc tip theo

    v thit k, bn v, qu trnh sng to, v thuyt trnh ban u vi ti nh nhng tia sng m o xuyn qua mn sng m hc vn ca ti. Nhng qua nm thng m ti tri qua l ngi thc hnh v nh gio dc, chng tr nn sng sa v r rng, chc chn hn.V nhng cu hi m chng gii quyt vn l nhng cu hi trung tm ca nn gio dc kin trc : hc tr ca ti vn ht ln ny n ln khc t cc cu hi v nhng nhm ln ca trng kin trc l ph bin. Ti mong bn t cun sch ny trn mt bn khi bn lm vic xng thit k, b ti c khi di chuyn trn cc phng tin giao thng cng cng, v kim tra ngu nhin khi bt tay vo gii quyt cc vn kin trc. D bn lm g vi nhng bi hc sau y, hy cm kch v ti khng th bn bn li ch ra v s cc ngoi l v cnh bo cho mi bi hc .

    Matthew Frederick, Architect

    08.2007

  • Dch bi Summer RAin 5

    1. CCH V MT NG THNG.

    1. Kin Trc S s dng nhng nt v khc nhau cho cc mc ch khc nhau, nhng loi nt mang tnh kin trc nht l loi nt c nhn mnh u v cui. Vic ny gn kt ng thng vo mt giy v lm cho bn v chc chn v mnh m. Nu nt bt ca bn m dn v cui nt, bn v trng s yu ui v m h. tp nhng nt bt cng cp, hy thc hnh v nt m nh u v cui mi nt v.

    2. Hy v cc ng thng giao nhau mt cht. Vic ny gi cho cc gc khi b bo trn.

    3. Khi v phc, ng vch vch tng nt nh, ng lm bn v trng khng r rng bi nhng nt ngn, chng cho ln nhau. Thay vo , di chuyn bt ch t u ti cui mt cch c kim sot. Bn s thy hu ch khi v mt nt dng hnh m trc khi v nt chnh. Khng cn xa nt dng hnh sau khi bn v hon thnh, v chng s to tnh cch v cuc sng cho bn v.

  • Dch bi Summer RAin 6

    2.

    Mt hnh l mt thnh t hay mt dng c v trn giy, vi hay nn khc. Nn l khng gian ca t giy.

    Mt hnh FIGURE cng c gi l : Object

    Form

    Element

    Positive shape

    Mt nn GROUND cng c gi l : Space

    Resident space

    White space

    Field

  • Dch bi Summer RAin 7

    3.

    NGUYN L HNH NN pht biu rng :

    Mt khng gian c to nn t vic sp t cc hnh th cn c cn nhc mt cch cn thn nh chnh bn thn cc hnh th .

    Khng gian c to ra bi sp t cc hnh th nu c hnh dng c th th gi l POSITIVE SPACE Khng gian hin. Nu khng c hnh dng c th th gi l NEGATIVE SPACE khng gian n.

  • Dch bi Summer RAin 8

    4.

    Khi nhng yu t hoc khng gian khng r rng,

    nhng tuy vy li hin nhin ( l thy c ) ngha l chng ta c th nhn thy chng cho d chng ta khng nhn thy chng thc s c gi l IMPLIED ng , hm , m ch.

    Hin nhin l thy c ch?(minh ha ND)

  • Dch bi Summer RAin 9

    5.

    NGUYN L C RNG l s phn nh ba chiu ca nguyn l Hnh Nn.

    Mt th tch khng gian nh hnh hoc c to bi s sp t cc vt th c, cng quan trng nh, hay cn quan trng hn, chnh bn thn cc vt th .

    Mt khng gian ba chiu c coi l Khng gian hin Positive space nu n c cnh xc nh, s cm nhn v ranh gii hoc mt li ra vo gia trong v ngoi. Mt khng gian c th c xc nh bi : im, ng, mt phng, khi tch c, cy, cnh cng trnh, ct, tng, nn t dc.....

  • Dch bi Summer RAin 10

    6.

    Mt sn trong thng l khng gian a thch trong k tc cho giao tip x hi v i do.

    Chng ta di chuyn qua khng gian n Negative Space v c tr trong khng gian hin Positive Space.

    Hnh dng v cht lng ca khng gian kin trc tc ng mnh m ln tri nghim v cch c x ca con ngi.

    Positive Space khng gian hin hu nh c tt c mi ngi a thch nn n, lu li v thc hin cc tng tc x hi.

    Negative Space khng gian n li c xu hng khuyn khch con ngi chuyn ng hn l lu li trong .

  • Dch bi Summer RAin 11

    7.

    Nhng ta nh ngoi l vt th t do trong khng gian. Nhng ta nh th thng hnh dng ha khng gian.

    Khi thit k nhng cng trnh hin nay, chng ta thng n lc tp trung vo hnh dng ca chng, cn nhng khng gian ngoi tri thng l nhng khng gian ngu nhin c li. Nhng khng gian ngoi tri ny, nh thng thy vng ph cn, l khng gian n Negative space bi nhng ta nh khng c sp xp nh dng cc khng gian vo gia chng.

    Cng trnh th Trung c, thng c thit k theo hng ngc li: hnh dng nh c t th hai sau hnh dng ca khng gian cng cng, mt vi ta nh cn gn nh v nh hnh, nhng qung trng, sn trong hay cc khng gian cng cng c kt ni s to ra cc khng gian hin Positive space, khin con ngi c cm gic mun lu li v s dng cc khng gian chung ny.

  • Dch bi Summer RAin 12

    8.

    " KIN TRC L QU TRNH SNG TO KHNG GIAN MT CCH C SUY NGH !"

    _ LOUIS KAHN_

    9. TINH THN CA NI CHN.

    "Genius loci" c ngha en l thin ti ca ni chn, dng din t mt ni chn m gy n tng su sc v cht lng kin trc v tri nghim n mang li.

  • Dch bi Summer RAin 13

    10.

    TRI NGHIM V KHNG GIAN KIN TRC CHU TC NG MNH M BI CCH CHNG TA DI CHUYN TRONG .

    1. Mt khng gian cao, sng sa s cao v sng hn nu n tng phn vi mt khng gian trn thp v nh sng yu cnh n.

    2. Mt khng gian tn gio hay tng nim s cm thy n tng hn khi t cui mt chui khng gian nh hn trc .

    3. Mt cn phng vi ca s hng Nam s cho tri nghim mnh m khi ta i xuyn sut qua mt dy khng gian hng Bc trc khi n .

  • Dch bi Summer RAin 14

    11.

    CHE GIU V GI M.

    Lm giu c thm nhng xc cm cho chuyn hnh trnh xuyn qua mi trng xy dng.

    Khi chng ta di chuyn qua cng trnh, th trn, thnh ph, chng ta lin kt vi nhng du hiu th gic xung quanh v nhu cu nh hng v c s mong i. S hp dn v phong ph ca tri nghim ny l kt qu ca nhng cch m nhng " kt ni " ny c to ra. " Che giu v gi m " c th l cng thc cho s lm giu tri nghim ny. Trong mt hnh trnh c thit k, hy "trnh din" cho ngi dng mt tm nhn ti ci ch ca h mt cu thang, mt li vo, mt i tng nim mt cch tc thi khi h tip cn cng trnh. M ra hng nhn v mc tiu t mt gc nhn khc hoc mt chi tit th v mi ca n. Dn ngi s dng vo nhng ng dn khng mong i to thm tnh tit hay cm gic mt mt tm thi, sau li "tng" cho h mt tri nghim th v hoc gc nhn khc.

  • Dch bi Summer RAin 15

    12.

    THIT K MT KHNG GIAN KIN TRC PHI TNG THCH VI MT CHNG TRNH, MT TRI NGHIM HOC MT NH C TH.

    ng bao gi v mt hnh ch nht hay bt k mt hnh dng ty hng no trn mt bng, ghi tn cho n, ri gn cho n ph hp vi mt mc ch s dng no y.

    Hn th, phi iu tra chi tit yu cu ca chng trnh xc nh nhng c im ca cc hot ng din ra trong . Hy hnh dung nhng tnh hung thc t hoc nhng tri nghim s xy ra trong nhng khng gian , v thit k kin trc phi tng thch v lm tng gi tr ca chng.

  • Dch bi Summer RAin 16

    13.

    PHN CHIA KHNG GIAN L T CHC V SP XP KHNG GIAN CHO PH HP VI NHU CU CNG NNG.

    B tr khng gian l mt k nng c bn ca mt Kin Trc S, nhng sp xp khng gian t c yu cu cng nng th ch mt s t Kin Trc S lm c. Mt ngi b tr khng gian Space planner s trnh by tt c vn cng nng cho va vi cng trnh trn mnh t ca n; mt Kin Trc S cn quan tm n ngha ca khu t v cng trnh. Space planner to ra mt khng gian chc nng nhm chn cho nhn vin vn phng, Kin Trc S ghi nhn nhng tnh t nhin th hin trong mi trng vn phng, ngha ca n ti ngi lao ng, v gi tr vi x hi. Space planner cung cp mt khng gian chi bng r. trnh din, th nghim sn xut linh tinh.. hay qu trnh dn dng sn khu. Kin Trc S thm nhun nhng hot ng ny vi s xc ng mnh m, s giu c, nim vui, v p v chm bim.

  • Dch bi Summer RAin 17

    14.

    KIN TRC BT U VI MT TUNG!

    Gii php thit k tt khng ch l s hp dn vt cht m cn c dn dt bi mt tng nm di n. Mt tng l mt cu trc tr tu m bi n, chng ta t chc, hiu v trao ngha cho nhng tri nghim bn ngoi v thng tin. Nu khng c t