history of radiological science

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History of Radiological Science. What is Radiation?. P ropagation of energy through matter or space in the form of Particles (e - , , proton, , neutron, etc.) or Photons (X-ray, -ray, synchrotron light, etc.) . e -. 6 MeV. h . 6 MV. Types of Radiation. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Radiation and Radioactivity

History of Radiological ScienceMarch 04, 2014

2What is Radiation?Propagation of energy through matter or space in the form of Particles (e-, , proton, , neutron, etc.) orPhotons (X-ray, -ray, synchrotron light, etc.) 6 MeVe-h6 MVTypes of RadiationRadiationIonizingNon-ionizingDirectly ionizing (charged particle)direct Coulomb interaction with orbital e- of atoms Indirectly ionizing (neutral particle)1st: release charged particle (photon > e-, e+, neutron > proton or heavier ions)2nd: direct Coulomb interaction between released charged particle and orbital e- of atoms heat, radio- or microwaves, or visible, infrared, or ultraviolet lightEnergy Absorbed into Body

Body temperature rise from 36.4 C to 36.5 C

0.1 C 4.184 J/ C/g= 418.4 J/kg 418.4 GySaunaCT ScanOne chest CT scan

30 mGy = 30 10-3 J/kg= 0.03 J/kg = 0.03 GyWhat is Radioactivity?Radiation emissions as the result of the spontaneous transmutation of one element to another (element or state)

Discovery of Radiation

On the evening of November 8, 18957Discovery of Radioactivity

February 26, 18968X-ray quickly in clinical use

A woman (50 yrs) with recurrent breast cancer18 daily 1-hour irradiationImaging: 1896 Mihajlo I. Pupin in New York CityTherapy: 1896- Emil H. Grubb in Chicago

9History of Radiation in Medicine

Radiotherapy Timeline18951965198019502000 100-400 keV X-rays Rotational Therapy Radium Brachytherapy Co-60 Teletherapy Low Energy LINAC Betatron Computer Tomography High Energy LINAC Ir-192, Cs-137 Brachytherapy Popular CT, MRI Scanners 3D RT Planning Accurate Dosimetry Computer remote afterloader PET-CT, MR-PET, Dual energy CT IMRT with MLC, Inverse Plans Image-Guided Radiotherapy Targeted therapy Proton and C-ion therapyA Bit History Roentgen (1901): Discovery of X-raysBecquerel & Curies (1903): Discovery of radioactivity William Bragg (1915): Discovery of Bragg Peak Willem Einthoven (1924): Invention of Electrocardiogram E. O. Lawrence (1939): Invention of cyclotron Hounsfield & Cormack (1979): Invention of CT Lauterbur & Mansfield (2003): Invention of MRI

12Milestones in Modern Physics & Radiological Sciences1895 X-ray Wilhelm Konard Rntgen1896 Natural radioactivity Antoine-Henri Becquerel1897 Electron Joseph John Thomson1898 Radium-226 Pierre & Marie Curie1903 Bragg peak William Henry Bragg1905 Photoelectric effect Albert Einstein1906 Characteristic x-ray Charles G. Barkla1911 Electron charge Robert Millikan1913 Model of hydrogen Neils Bohr1916 W-filament of x-ray tube William D. Coolidge1919 Proton Ernest Rutherford1922 X-ray scattering Arthur H. Compton1926 Quantum mechanics Erwin Schrodinger1931 Cyclotron Ernest O. Lawrence1932 Neutron James Chadwick1932 Positron Carl D. Anderson1934 Artificial radioactivity Irne Joliot-Curie, Frdric Joliot1940 Betatron Donald W. Kerst1942 Controlled nuclear fission Enrico Fermi1946 Nuclear magnetic resonance Felix Bloch, Edward Purcell1951 Cobalt-60 machine Harold E. Johns1968 Gamma Knife Lars Leksell1971 Computer Tomography Godfrey Hounsfield, Alan Cormack1973 Magnetic resonance imaging Paul C. Lauterbur, Peter MansfieldRadiological Sciencesis a perfect and long-standing example of translational research where basic experimental & theoretical discoveries are rapidly implemented into benefiting humanity through improving procedures in diagnosis and treatment of diseaseMedical Radiation Physics is an outstanding branch of it

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Courtesy of Prof. Chung, J. K.18 1940

Courtesy of Prof. Chung, J. K.19

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