History of Art and Architecture Reviewer

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History of Art and Architecture (Reviewer) What is History?

A Branch of Knowledge Past Human Events Facts Chronological Recorded/Documented

What is Art?

Form of expression Emotion: Translated into different mediums Sound Music Movement Dance Words Literature (prose or poetry) Texture/Value/Colour/Line/Shape Design Scale/Form/Proportion Architecture

Architecture

Is an art and a science Is the profession of designing and erecting structures for the purpose of human habitation

PRINCIPLES:

Structural Functional Spatial Aesthetic

Types of Support for Roofs and Ceilings Post and Lintel Truss Arch Vault Dome Cantilevered Chronological Order Period and Styles Before written records: Archaeology science that deals with old things

Artifacts Fossils *Most of the facts are based on carbon dating, drawings and symbols Palaeolithic Period: Old Stone Age Painting: Three Sub Periods

1. 2. 3.

1. 2. 3.

Neolithic Age: (Types of houses) New Stone Age

Mud Hut with a Second Floor Mud Hut with a Rectangular Room Stone Towers Square Temples Megalithic Structures Menhirs (stone hedge, moai in Easter island) Cromlechs (Obelisks)

Bronze Age: *The architectural examples were still that of the Neolithic Period

ousterian Period Aurignacian Period Magdalenian Period

Theory of Magic Fertility Magic Death Magic Propitiation Magic

Palaeolithic Age: (Types of houses) Lean To Made of dried twigs, leaves sometimes animal skin and bone One Room House Dry wall construction Flat top construction Mud Hut Wet wall construction With a hole on top

Significant Contributions of the Bronze Age: The discovery of metals:

Copper Tin Fishing Trade and Barter: Money Jewelry Factors That Helped Shape Mesopotamian Civilization Geography:

The Tigris River The Euphrates River *Fertile Crescent / Land between two rivers Religion: Polytheism

the belief in many gods

Ur Ishtar

History: Cuneiform (First known way of writing) The Three Regions of Mesopotamia: Sumeria Assyria Babylon Sumeria: Pre-Proto Sumerian Period: Reed Houses Proto-Sumerian Period: Brick Buildings Podiums Pillared Temples Sumerian Proper: Introverted Type of Houses Ziggurat The Ziggurat of Ur Assyria: Capital city is the city of Nineveh Palaces:

Amassed and looted Sumerian temples and used their treasures for external decorations

Babylon: Provided a balance between politics and religion King Nebuchadnezzar: One of the greatest builders in history Engineering Contributions:

Straight roads Right Angles and Crossings - Intersections Architectural Contributions:

The Gate of Ishtar The Hanging Gardens of Babylon

Persia: *Persian civilization utilized Mesopotamian blueprints in their architecture Utilized for the very first time the concept of a city

Developed Persepolis: Literally the City of the Persians The second oldest city in the world, second only to Jericho in Jordan A city of scholars; mathematicians, astrologers and alchemists Factors That Helped Shape Egyptian Civilization Geography:

The Nile River Religion: Polytheism

the belief in many gods

Ra Isis History:

Hieroglyphics Geology:

Main building material was Limestone

Forms of Egyptian Architecture: Mastaba:

Funerary tombs for commoners Made of limestone mounds where jars and chests inside the mastaba contain the personal belongings of the dead person The real burial happens six feet under . Necropolis:

Literally a city of the dead A group of mastabas together in one location Pyramids

Funerary tombs for the king or the pharaoh and sometimes for the favorite queens It takes about 10-15 years to build and complete a pyramid Each limestone blocks weighs about 50 tons hauled from the quarries and laid out on the pyramid 1/50th of an inch of each other

Rock-hewn Tombs:

A series of channels and chambers that are carved out from the sides of limestone cliffs

The Egyptian Temple: Two Kinds of Temple:

Cult Temple Dedicated to the worship of an Egyptian god Mortuary Temple Dedicated to the worship of a Pharaoh as a god

Capitals:

Palmiform Lotiform Papyrus Bundle Papyriform Campaniform

Parts:

Obelisk Marks the entrance to an Egyptian temple; is a monolithic piece of stone with a pyramidal top Pylon The monumental entrance to an Egyptian temple Peristyle The open courtyard in an Egyptian temple Hypostyle The only pillared hall in an Egyptian temple; contains the shrine illuminated by clerestory windows

Sanctuary

The treasury of an Egyptian temple; where sacred objects are stored and kept

The Egyptian Sphynx:

Grotesque Egyptian sculpture with the head of a man and the body of a lion *Grotesque fusion of human and animal characteristics **The head is believed to be that of the Pharaoh Chephren ***Supposedly guards the entrance to the Pyramids of Giza and protects its secrets. Functions of Egyptian Art: Decoration Veneration Documentation The Law of Frontality:

In Sculpture: States that the body of a figure in the round (free standing sculpture) must not be twisted in any way Kinds of Egyptian Sculpture:

Incised Carving Bas-Relief/Embossed

The Law of Frontality:

In Painting: States that even if the picture or the image is seen in profile; the eyes, the shoulders and the torso are always seen in frontal position Social Hierarchy in Egyptian Painting

MALESREDLARGE SCALE WOMEN YELLOWMEDIUM SCALE SLAVESBLACKSMALLEST SCALE PHARAOH/GODBLUELARGEST SCALE *scarab beetle- symbolizes rebirth **Egyptian ankh- symbolizes immortality Aegean Civilization Architectural Contributions: The Palace of Knossos The Cretan Column Bun Capital The only column in architectural history that is entirely made out of wood

cedar wood

The only column in architectural history that tapers from top to bottom The Labyrinth at Crete Built by Daedalus by order of King Minos Houses the Minotaur Minoan grotesque with the body of a bull and the head of a man or vice versa Mycenaean Civilization Architectural Contributions:

The Megaron Defined as the ruling quarters of men in Trojan palaces Where heads of states meet to discuss affairs of a political nature

The Walls of Troy The most fortified means of defense in history Virtually impregnable Factors That Helped Shape Greek Civilization: Geography

Surrounded by three sides by: Aegean Sea, Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea *Because of this, the Greeks had the first armada, they became great ship builders Religion

Polytheism Zeus Aphrodite Geology

the belief in many gods

Main building material was marble

Greek Contributions: The Greek Orders of Architecture: An order is a systematic and organized way of identifying and classifying temples and other buildings through the sum of their parts The Three Requisites to an Order: Horizontal Entablature Upright Column Base The Three Orders: Doric Ionic Corinthian

The Propylaea: The monumental entrance to the city of Acropolis Acropolis a city on a hill, a high city, a fortress The Agora: An open space that is multi-functional Public speaking Religious processions Extension of the market place Stoa A colonnaded porch divided into several stalls or shops Colonnade A series of columns The Greek Temple:

The Parthenon Doric Order Raised on level ground Dedicated to the Greek Goddess of Wisdom Athena Contained a collection of marble sculptures by the Greek sculptor Phidias

The Elgin Marbles

The Erectheion Ionic Order Raised on three different levels Dedicated to Athena and the Greek God of the Sea Poseidon Contained the porch of the caryatids female sculptures used as columns Glossary of Greek Sculptural Forms

Telamones: General term to denote human figures used as columns Caryatids: Female Sculptures used as columns Atlantes: Male sculptures used as columns Canephora: Female sculptures carrying a basket on their heads used as columns Busts: Human sculptures carved from the chest up Term/Torso: Human Sculptures carved from the waist up

The Greek Theater:

Built in homage to Apollo, the Greek God of the Arts and the muses Usually carved out from a hillside; open air performances

the goddesses that inspire men to create works of art

Four Types:

Auditorium Greek theater with a semi-circular orchestra Odeon Greek smaller theater for more intimate gatherings like poetry readings, usually covered Stadium Oval shaped theater for foot races Hippodrome Oval shaped theater for horse and chariot racing

Other Buildings Contributed by the Greeks:

Prytaneion: Greek senate house Bouleterion: Greek council house Palestra: Academic institution that specializes in wrestling

Greek Sculpture: Archaic Sculpture:

Patterned after the Law of Frontality of Egyptian sculpture The Daedalic Stule: decrees that the body of a figure in the round must not be twisted in any way Stiff No movement The only sign of life is the archaic smile Kinds: Kouros Male form or youth Kore Female form or maiden

Classic Sculpture:

Typified by the S curve Produced when the weight of the body rests only on one leg There is implied movement There is more space between the legs and more space between the arms and the torso

Greek Pottery:

Red Figure Ware: Red figures on black background

Black Figure Ware: Black figures on red background

White Ground Ware: Red or black figures on white background Factors That Helped Shape

The Roman Empire: Geography:

Rome started nowhere near a body of water, on the contrary they were situated on barren land; it was the quest for suitable farm land that drove them to feats of conquest Genealogy:

The Romans were descended from the Etruscans who were descended from the Barbarians Religion:

Polytheism Jupiter Venus Lifestyle:

Hedonism

the pursuit of pleasure in any form

Roman Contributions: The Roman Orders of Architecture:

Tuscan Composite

Interior Design: the principle that interior space should be just as important as exterior space Concrete: the first man-made material

The Round Arch:

Vaults Domes

Aqueducts:

Plumbing

Bridges: to link bodies of land together The Forum: Functions like the Greek agora; an open space for several functions Contains:

Triumphal Arches Pillars of Victory

The Roman Temple: Not as important as that of the Greeks The Pantheon:

Built as a temple to honor the 12 major Olympians Built by order of Agrippa The Pantheon s Characteristics:

Dome the first dome ever built and also the world s most perfect dome; not only is it a perfect circle in plan but also in section and elevation Impressive colonnade Coffers- coffered ceiling balances evenly the weight of the dome Oculus admits light into the temple

The Roman Theater:

Built on level ground Is not as popular as the Greek theater Kinds of Roman Theaters:

Arena/Amphitheater: Usually not carved out from the ground but a built-up structure made up of several levels Example: The Colosseum or The Flavian Amphitheater

Circus: Patterned after the Greek hippodrome; is for horse or chariot racing Example: The Circus Maximus The Thermae: Roman style

The thermae is the Roman Bath Are social spaces; for banquets and other social functions Predominantly used by the men Parts:

Frigidarium: A room with a pool containing cold water Tepidarium: A room with a pool containing warm or tepid water Caldarium: A room with a pool containing hot water Laconicum/Sudatorium: A dry sweating room Unctuaria: A room for oiling and shampooing the hair Apodyteria: Dressing rooms

Palestra: Gymnasium Example: The Thermae of Caracalla

The Roman House: Classification of Roman houses:

Atrium: A Roman house in the city; usually owned by the rich citizens of Rome Insula: Tenement housing in the city; housing for the poor; rises four to six stories Domus: An atrium in the city Villa: An atrium in the country

Roman Painting:

Trompe l oeil Usually painted on Roman walls in three dimensional forms Literally to deceive the eye An optical illusion

Mosaic Makes use of small tiles that fuse together in the viewers eye

Tesserae The small tiles that make up mosaic painting

Fresco Painting on wet plaster Done section by section of Roman walls *additional notes: Chryselephantine- Statue made out of ivory and gold Ranceaux- Roman Meander band has the design of plant and vines (done vertically) Arabesque- Roman Meander band same as the ranceaux, done horizontally Griffin- Roman Grotesque figure, has a body of a lion, wings of an eagle, and head of a ram. Factors That Helped Shape The Early Christian Empire:

The Fall of Rome The Death of Marcus Aurelius The Burning of Rome Neropolis The Eradication of the Christians (the early Christians lived under the catacombs, they do their fellowship inside the catacombs

*catacombs- sewers

The Establishment of Constantinople as the capital of the Early Christian Empire The Holy Roman Empire was established in Constantinople/Asia Minor (present day: Istanbul Turkey) *note The Christians used the symbol of a fish in their worship The church became their worship place Byzantine Contributions:

Pendentives- Supports a dome (4 pendentives) Squinch Arches- Supports a dome (4 squinches) A series of Corbel type arches

Concrete + Brick + Rubble

Capitals:

Bird and Basket Wind Blown Acanthus Cubical/Geometric Double Capital Twin Capital

The Church:

Greek Cross Plan: The Hagia Sophia: The Church of the Holy Wisdom Built by order of Emperor Justinian and Empress Theodora Architects: Anthemus of Thralles Isidore of Milletus

Latin Cross Plan Basilica Baptistry:

A circular or octagonal building that is separate from the main church for the sole purpose of performing baptisms Mausoleum:

Contains the repository of a dead Christian

Sanctuary:

Contains the relic of a Saint or Martyr of the church

Iconography: Any art form; be it painting or sculpture, that depicts or portrays anything religious or Christian in nature, that is Mary, Christ, the Apostles, angels, etc.

the Virgin

Ivory

became a popular sculpture medium

Iconoclastic Age: Period in Byzantine history when Emperor Leo III decreed that all icons be destroyed and burned Factors That Helped Shape The Romanesque Period

The Conflict Between the Church and the State The Granting of Fiefs Land Titles

Romanesque Contributions: The Round Arch: The Tympanum: Vaults: The Barrel Vault The Groin Vault The Ribbed Vault Quadripartite A vault with four compartments Sexpartite A vault with six compartments Gutters that ended in Downspouts and Gargoyles The Chevron Meander Band Exposed Nail heads Capitals: Cushion Capital Scalloped Capital The Romanesque Cathedral The Romanesque Monastery:

Cloister Open courtyard Church Infirmary- Hospital/Clinic Library Dormitory Almonry Treasurer s house Abbot s Lodging Head monk s area Castles Fortresses

Factors That Helped Shape the Gothic Period

The Black Plague Bubonic Plague caused by rats and lice People were basically un-enlightened; literally they were in the dark

The inquisition

Gothic Contributions:

The Pointed Arch Spires Can be found on the top of the castle Pinnacles Can be found on the flying buttress Flying Buttresses Stained Glass Rose Windows Tracery Patterns Trefoil Quatrefoil Cinquefoil Multifoil Piers: Cluster of columns

Fan Vaults- Lierne Ribs Capital: Fleur De Lis

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