History, Art and Architecture under British Rule.
Post on 20-Feb-2017
Changes In Art And Architecture Social Science Power Point Presentation
1.Changes in Indian Art:- 4.Architecture:- a.Pahari School a. Architectural Splendours of Colonial Cities-b.Tanjavur School Mumbai, Madrasc.Emergence Of National Art Style
2.Changes in Performance Arts:-a.Musicb.Dance
3.Developments in Literature:-a.New trends in Literatureb.Developments in vernacular literaturec.Printing Pressd.Rise of Vernacular Press
Changes in Indian ArtFollowing the collapse of the Mughals, the painters of the period sought the protection and patronage of the secluded Himalayan hill states.Some of them drifted south and this exodus eventually led to the establishment of local and regional schools of painting. Different schools of Indian art emerged during this time.The features of the Pahari School included:. Rich harmony of colour. Details of peoples everyday life, their religious. Some of them are based on Indian melodies known as the Ragamala Pahari School
Tanjavur SchoolAnother regional style developed at Tanjavur in south India. Many rulers, during those days, decorated the interiors of their palaces with murals and these covered themes from the Puranas.Emergence of national art styleBy the end of the eighteenth century, Indian art got influenced by the new styles introduced by the British. However, there was certainly a reaction against the staleness and degeneration of the Indian art tradition.Abanindranath Tagore was one among them who consciously tried to recreate a national art style. He and a few others tried to revive the classical Indian tradition of painting. The school of painting that developed as a result came to be known as Bengal School with centers in Calcutta and Shantiniketan.
Raja Ravi Verma of Travencore gained popularity during this period for his paintings of mythological subjects and portraits.Rabindranath Tagore was also a leading painter of the period who tried to preserve Indian tradition.Among the early twentieth century painters,Jamini Roy and Amrita Shergill are the leading names.
Changes in Performing ArtsMusic
Hindustani music: The nineteenth century saw the emergence of Madras(now Chennai) as the capital Carnatic music in the south. Hindustani music was also revived by famous musicians like Pandit Vishnu Digambar Paluskar and Chaturpandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkande.Ranbindra Sangeet: Rabindranath Tagore evolved a new style in Bengali music which came to be known as Rabindra Sangeet. It is an amalgamation of classical Hindustani music and folk music of Bengal.
Influence of western musical forms: With the establishment of British rule came western music and instruments. The Indians, while maintaining their own tradition, adopted some instruments like the violin and clarinet to suit the demands of Indian music. DanceIn the first half of the nineteenth century, Indian dance tradition was revived and redefined by the contributions of four brothers, namely Chinniah,Sivanandani,Ponniah and Vadivelu, who composed new music specificially for dance. Rabindranath Tagore played a major role in reviving Indian classical dance by inviting exponents of different classical dance forms of the Visvabharati University at Shantiniketan. By merging various forms, Tagore developed a new dance form which came to be known as Rabindranritya.
Developments in LiteratureThe language of the Mughal ruling class in eighteenth century India was Persian, which was also the official language of the court. Sanskrit and Arabic were the languages used by the Hindu and the Muslims scholars respectively.During the rign of Lord Wellesley in the early nineteenth century, Mughal tradition was Replaced by British paramountcy, and in 1835, the British adopted an Education policy which favoured English education.New trends in LiteratureMost of the literature of the earlier times drew their themes heavily from mythology or religious texts.The early works were almost invariably composed in verse.Modern nineteenth century literature was mostly written in prose style.New forms of literary writing developed such as drama, novel, short story and essay.
Developments in vernacular literatureSome of the great writers in the regional language of India were Munshi Premchand and Bharatendu Harishchandra in Hindi, Muhammmad Iqbal in urdu, Rabindranath Tagore, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee and Sarat Chandra Chatterjee in Bengali Fakir Mohan senapati in Oriya, Hemchandra Barua in Assamese. Hari Narayan Apte in Marathi, Kumaran Asan and vallathol k Rao in telegu, K Venkatappa Gowda Puttapa in Kannada and Subrahania Bharati in Tamil.4.Literature became a mirror of the society, reflected the changes that were taking place. It proved to be instrumental promoting social reforms, unholding social problems and supporting the national struggle for freedom. Several poitical leaders from different parts of the country such as Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Kasturi Raqnga Lyengar and T Prakasham emerged as Important Literary figures.
At 1824, Raja Rammohan Roy had protested against a revolution restricating the freedom of the press.The early phase of nationalist movement from 1870 to1918 focused more on the political propaganda, education, formation of nationalist ideology and mobilization of public opinion.Rise of Vernacular pressPrinting PressThe Printing Press Was Introduced in the country by the Portuguese.In 1557, the first book was published by the Jesuits of Goa. The English East India Company established a printing press only in 1684. The press was set up in Bombay.James Augustus Hickey who began publishing the first newspaper in India on 29 January 1780. The bengal Gazette.
ArchitectureThe European trading companies established their factories in various parts of India. It exposed India to new architectural styles like Graeco-Roman,Scottish,Gothic,etc.the Colonial architecture expressed itself through institutional, civic and utilitarian buildings like travelers` bungalows, post offices, railway station, churches, etc.The two areas of building activities, in hill station and in civil lines and cantonments reflect British architecture in India in its purest form.1.In hill stations, it was possible to build almost exact replicas of English houses, since the climate was similar. Piched roofs were constructed due to the necessity of draining rainwater and snow.2. The buildings in the civil lines and cantonments had flat roofs and were surrounded by dense trees. The heat of summer in the plain areas was a major factor which influenced the design and they looked like English suburbs.
Architectural Splendours of Colonial CitiesMumbaiBombay (now Mumbai) was given to king Charles II of England as dowry during his marriage to the Portuguese princess, Catherine of Braganza in 1662 in 1687, the English east India company shifted its western headquarters from Surat to Bombay. The University of Bombay was established in 1857. In the same year, universities were established in the two other Presidency towns of Calcutta and Madres. It was one of the first educational institutions to be established following the woods Despatch on education in 1854.Madras The British East India Company set up a permanent trading station on the India coastline in the form of Fort St George in Chennai. Fort St George is not a fort6 in the true sense of the term.It is rather an arbitrary area Enclosed by a massive stonewall. Historical personalities like Elihu Yale, Thomas pitt, Robert Clive and lord Cornwallis either lived in or frequented the fort in their day. The colonial legacy of Madras is apparent in the vicinity of yhe Chennai port. In the south of the port lies Fort St George. The stretch between the fort and the port is occupied mostly by the high court buildings and several clubs, some of which have existed from the British era.
National art style
Architectural Splendours of Colonial Cities
The EndGroup Names:-1)Debojit Mitra2)Avinash Kumar Singh3)Anurag Dey4)Arindom Das5)Krisanu Nath6)Krisaloy MishraPower Point Presentation Done By:-Debojit, Avinash