his 101 chapter 3b the civilization of greece fall 2012
Post on 17-May-2015
Embed Size (px)
- 1. Classicism: The Greek Legacy
2. Greek Classicism Clarity Simplicity Balance Harmonious proportion 3. What is a Classic? 4. Classics Have outlived their own time and place Have become authoritative models for futuregenerations to follow Continue to provide inspiration 5. Art and Architecture 6. SculptureApollo ofTenea:560 B.C.E.PushkinMuseumKritios Boy Encyclopdia Britannica Image Quest, 480 B.C.E. Acropolis "The Apollo Of Piombino , 500 B.C.E. Bronze Museum , accessed 9 Sep 2012, http://quest.eb.com/images/126_495630 7. ArtEncyclopdia Britannica Image Quest, "Classical Black-figure Amphora,From Ialyssos, In The Archaeological Museum Of Rhodes, In Greece",accessed 9 Sep 2012,http://quest.eb.com/images/153_2366352 8. Literature and Drama Epic and lyric Greek poetry well established art forms Drama: developed in Athens when poetic odes werechanted by choruses to the god Dionysius Aeschylus: introduced a second and third characterinto the ode making it possible to present humanconversation and conflict on the stage Themes of Greek Tragedy Justice Law Conflicting demands of piety and obligation that droveheroic men and women to destruction 9. Comedy and Current Events Comedic Themes Life on the farm The good ole days Sex Nightmare of politics Strange manners of the town Aristophanes: greatest Greek comedic playwright repeatedly dragged into court to defend himself againstpoliticians he had attacked; 10. Classical Study of HistoryHerodotus Thucydides 11. Herodotus (484-425 B.C.E.) Assemble sources, test their accuracy with oneanother, write a vivid narrative of past events. Father of History The Histories : an inquiry into the origins of the Greco-Persian wars Herodotus favored Athens and had uncomplimentarythings to say about Thebes and Corinth. Agreement with many other sources although includesfanciful accounts. Priests and Kings Reputedly recited The Histories at the Olympics 12. Thucydides (460-395 B.C.E.) Student of Herodotus Wrote History of the Peloponnesian Wars Known as Father of Scientific History Reliance on sources Charted cause and effect without reference to intervention by the gods. Idea of political realism relations between competing poleis or kingdoms are based on Might rather than Right. Inquired about the positive and negative consequences of democracy. 13. Pythagoras (C. 570-495 B.C.E.) Essence of life lays in the mind Speculative life is highest good One must be purified of fleshly desires to achieve a speculative life Essence of the universe is found in the study ofabstractions NOT the physical world Established key properties of odd and even numbers Proved Pythagorean theorem 14. Sophists Wise men made their living by selling theirknowledge Protagoras, Man is the measure of all things Truth, justice, goodness are relative concepts, adaptableto the needs and interests of human beings Truth, justice and goodness are not moral absolutesestablished by the gods No one can know if the gods exist or what they wanted Particular truths valid for individual knower 15. Philosophy: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle 16. Socrates (469 399 B.C.E.) Hoplite soldier who participated in three campaignsduring the Peloponnesian War Method of instruction was conversation and askingquestions: Socratic Method Submit every presumed truth to examination of reason Socrates never wrote anything, what is known of hisphilosophy comes from Platos writings and thewritings of his other pupils 17. Socrates Philosophy Known through writings of Plato Absolute standards do exist as ideals which can bediscerned through rational examination All supposed certainties are merely unexaminedprejudices inherited from others I know nothing Investigate own assumptions and reflect on principles ofproper conduct Consider the meanings and consequences of onesactions at all times and be prepared to takeresponsibility for them 18. Plato (424/423 -348/347 B.C.E.) Student of Socrates Writings include dialogues between Socrates and hisopponents Founder of the Academy in Athens: first institution ofhigher learning in Western Civilization Taught Aristotle Platonism: physical world is merely a shadow of theideal. Justice exists in its ideal form but mens practice of justice is merely a cheap shadow copy of justice. Philosopher King: wise ruler who attempts to attain theideal in the physical world. 19. The Parable of the Cave http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UQfRdl3 GTw4&feature=player_detailpage 20. The Republic The quest for justice What is the nature of a just society? Idealism Reality lies in the realm of unchanging forms rather thansensory objects Psyche (soul) belongs to the realm of unchanging forms Soma (body) belongs to the sensory (material realm) Purpose of philosophy: to educate the psyche and free it fromits material prison to regain perfect awareness 21. Platos Just Society No private property Minimal family life Education for both men and women Each persons abilities determine his/her place in thecommunity Government by enlightened guardians: philosopher-kings Most intellectually capable Carry the welfare of the whole commonwealth 22. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.) Empirical method Dependent on direct experience Male generatorfemale receptacle Male: life giving form Female: chaotic matter Women are imperfect and incomplete versions of men Logic The syllogism 23. What type of government is best ? Plato: Republic ruled by philosopher-kings Aristotle Governments must function in the interest of the state NOT the people Democracy puts too much power in the hands of poor people Demagogues can persuade masses to pass less-than worthy laws Humans can reach full potential only within the framework of the state Best government is constitutional government ruled by middle-class 24. Ethics Examines human values Happiness is the only human value which is a finalgoal Virtue exists in how well one performs its function Virtue= how well a human exercises the function ofreason. The Golden Mean= the middle ground between 2extremes of behavior. 25. The Greeks and Western Civilization Similarities between important concepts of human society in the civilization of ancient Greece and present day western societies Concern for the most just form of government The idea that at least some citizens should have a voicein government The notion that the fullest development of ones ownpotential should be the aim of existence Every free man is the sculptor of his own monument Notion of uniqueness of being Greek 26. Stark Differences between AncientGreek Society and the Present Place of women Place of children and slaves Notion of Mentoring Rights of Free Men The practice rather than the ideal of democracy Small group of males in control. Exploitation of other city-statesno compromise only competition.