himalayan rivers

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  • 1. The term drainage describes the river system of an area. TheThe term drainage describes the river system of an area. The are drained by a single river system is called aare drained by a single river system is called a Drainage Basin.Drainage Basin. Any elevated area, such as a mountain or an upland is knownAny elevated area, such as a mountain or an upland is known as aas a Water Divide.Water Divide. The drainage systems of India are mainlyThe drainage systems of India are mainly controlled by the broad relief features of the subcontinents.controlled by the broad relief features of the subcontinents. Accordingly, the IndianAccordingly, the Indian rivers are divided intorivers are divided into two parts:two parts: The Himalayan RiversThe Himalayan Rivers The Peninsular riversThe Peninsular rivers Let us discuss Himala-Let us discuss Himala- yan riversyan rivers

2. Drainage Patterns The streams within a drainage basin formcertain patterns, depending on the slopeof land, underlying rock structure as wellas the climatic conditions of the area.These aredendritic,trellis,rectangular,andradialpatterns. The dendritic patterndevelops where the river channel followsthe slope of the terrain. The stream withits tributaries resembles the branches ofa tree, thus the name dendritic. A riverjoined by its tributaries, at approximatelyright angles, develops a trellis pattern. Atrellis drainage patterndevelops wherehard and soft rocks exist parallel to eachother. A rectangular drainage patterndevelops on a strongly jointed rocky terrain. The radial pattern develops when streams flow in different directions from a central peak or dome like structure. A combination of several patterns may be found in the same drainage basin. 3. Rippling along rough surfaces and the beautiful meadows, the numerous rivers that dot Indian mainland are central to our history as well as to Indian mythology. The main rivers of the Himalayas group are the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. These rivers are both snow-fed and rain-fed and therefore they are flow through so many year. Himalayan rivers discharge about 70% of their inflow into the sea. This includes about 5% from central Indian rivers. They join the Ganga and drain into the Bay of Bengal. Let us discuss about main RIVERS OF HIMALAYAS : 4. The major Himalayan rivers are the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. These rivers are long, and are joined by many large and important tributaries. A river along with its tributaries may be called ariver system. 5. MAJOR RIVERS AND LAKES 6. It has believed by the early Tibetans that this forceful and full river that guarded the frontiers of united India rises from the lake Mansarovar in Tibet. A few expeditions later, it was discovered that the Indus actually originates a few kilometers north of lake Mansarovar and together with it arise the Brahmaputra and the river Sutlej, through Mansarovar. The four rivers that separated from this area were described as rising out of certain animals mouths, thereby ascribing the qualities to the river. The Pakshu went westward in the beginning and then came out of a horses mouth to the east to be called the Brahmaputra. The Sita went southwards in the beginning and then came out of a lions mouth to the north to be called the river Sindhu. The Ganga came out of an elephants mouth and the Karnali from a peacocks mouth. Legends Derivation Of The Name - Indus The lion river, the Indus derives its name from the Sanskrit word, Sindhu, which means a large water body, a sea or an ocean. In Greek, it is called Sinthos and in Latin, the Sindus. The name gradually came to represent the people who lived beyond it and the name Hindus was born. It took less time to derive the name - Indus gave people a lot more. 7. Legends The Ganges has many names associated with its many roles in SanskritThe Ganges has many names associated with its many roles in Sanskrit mythology. Bhagiratha himself is the source of the name Bhagirathi (ofmythology. Bhagiratha himself is the source of the name Bhagirathi (of Bhagiratha), which is its initial stream, but is also another name for theBhagiratha), which is its initial stream, but is also another name for the Hooghly. At one point, Bhagiratha went too close to the sage Jahnu'sHooghly. At one point, Bhagiratha went too close to the sage Jahnu's meditation site, and the disturbed hermit immediately gulped up all the waters.meditation site, and the disturbed hermit immediately gulped up all the waters. Eventually, after more persuasion from Bhagiratha, the sage yielded the waters,Eventually, after more persuasion from Bhagiratha, the sage yielded the waters, but Ganges retained the name "Jahnavi. Water from the Ganga has thebut Ganges retained the name "Jahnavi. Water from the Ganga has the recursive property that any water mixed with even the minutest quantity ofrecursive property that any water mixed with even the minutest quantity of Ganga water becomes Ganga water, and inherits its healing and other holyGanga water becomes Ganga water, and inherits its healing and other holy properties. Also, despite its many impurities, Ganga water does not rot or stinkproperties. Also, despite its many impurities, Ganga water does not rot or stink if stored for several days.if stored for several days. The Glacier, a vast expanse of ice five miles by fifteen, at the foothills of the Himalayas (14000 ft) in Northern Uttaranchal is the source of Bhagirathi, which joins with Alaknanda to form Ganga at the craggy canyon-carved town of Devprayag. Interestingly, the sources of Indus and the Brahmaputra are also geographically fairly close; the former goes through Himachal Pradesh and fans out through Punjab and Sindh (Pakistan) into the Arabian Sea. The latter courses for most of its tremendous length under various names through Tibet/China, never far from the Nepal or Indian borders, and The Course Of River Ganges & Its Tributries 8. then takes a sharp turn near the northeastern tip of India, gathers momentum through Assam before joining the major stream of the Ganga near Dacca in Bangladesh to become the mighty Padma, river of joy and sorrow for much of Bangladesh. From Devprayag to the Bay of Bengal and the vast Sundarbans Delta, the Ganga flows some 1,550 miles, passing and giving life to some of the most populous cities of India, including Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi, Patna, and Kolkatta. Dacca, the capital of Bangladesh is on a tributary of the Brahmaputra, just before it joins the Ganga to form Padma. A large number of tributaries join and flow from the Ganges to drain the Northern part of India and Bangladesh. 9. Legends One of the great rivers of Asia, the Brahmaputra commences its 3,000-km journey to the Bay of Bengal from the slopes of Kailash in western Tibet. As Tibet's great river, the Tsangpo, transverses east across the high-altitude Tibetan plateau north of the Great Himalayan Range, carving out myriad channels and sandbanks on its way. As it tumbles from the Himalayan heights towards the plains of the subcontinent it twists back on itself, cutting a deep and still unnavigated gorge, until finally turning south it emerges in Arunachal Pradesh as the Dihong. Just beyond Pasighat, it meets the Dibang and Lohit where it finally becomes the Brahmaputra Mythology There are many mythological stories on Brahmaputra. But the most popular and sacred one is about the river's birth in 'Klik Purna'. It describes how Parashurama, one of the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu, got rid of his sin of murdering his own mother with an axe (or Parish) by taking bath in this sacred river. On strict order from his father Jamadagni (who had suspected his wife Renuka of adultery), Parashurm had to murder his own mother by severing her head with an axe. As a result of this nefarious act, the axe got stuck to his hand and he was unable to take it off his hand. On advice from sages, he started on a pilgrimage and ultimately reached the place, which is presently known as Parashurm Kunda (about 25km north of Tezu in in Arunchal Pradesh). The story says that the mighty river was then confined to a Kind (or Kunda) or a small lake surrounded by hills. Parashurm cut down the hills on one side to release the sacred water for the benefit of the common people. By this act, Parashurms axe came out of his hand to his great relief and he knew that he had been exonerated from his sin. 10. The main water divide in Peninsular India isformed by the Western Ghats, which runs fromnorth to south close to the western coast.Mostof the major rivers of the Peninsula such asthe Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna andthe Kaveri flow eastwards and drain into theBay of Bengal. These rivers make deltas attheir mouths. There are numerous smallstreams flowing west of the Western Ghats.The Narmada and the Tapi are the only longrivers, which flow west and make esturies.Thedrainage basins of the peninsular rivers arecomparitevely small in size. 11. The Narmada rises in the Amarkantak hillsin Madhya Pradesh. It flows towards the westin a rift valley formed due to faulting. On itsway to the sea, the Narmada creates manypicturesque locations. The Marble rocks,near Jabalpur where the Narmada flowsthrough a deep gorge, and the Dhuadharfalls where the river plunges over steep rocks,are some of the notable ones. All the tributaries of the Narmada are veryshort and most of these join the main streamat right angles. The Narmada basin covers partsof Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. 12. The Tapi rises in the Satpura ranges, in the Betul district of Madhya Pradesh. It also flows in a rift valley parallel to the Narmada but it is much shorter in length. Its basin covers parts of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra. The coastal plains between western ghats and the Arabian sea are very narrow. Hence , the coastal rivers are short. The main west flowing rivers are Sabarmati, Mahi ,Bharathpuzha and Periyar. F