hhd revision notes unit three aos 1 understanding australias health

Download HHD Revision Notes UNIT THREE AOS 1 UNDERSTANDING AUSTRALIAS HEALTH

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Measurements of health. Morbidity statistics The rate at which a particular disease or illness occurs Prevalence (how many) & Incidence (new cases) Mortality Statistics Number of deaths caused by a particular illness Burden of disease How much disease there is & how it effects people. Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) Amount of healthy life an individual is likely to lose due to disability. Life expectancy Estimate of how many years from the time of birth an individual is expected to live. Health adjusted Life Expectancy A person is expected to live in full health

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HHD Revision Notes UNIT THREE AOS 1 UNDERSTANDING AUSTRALIAS HEALTH What is health ? There are four components of health PHYSICAL How efficiently our body functions. SOCIAL How effectively we relate to others. EMOTIONAL The link between our thoughts, feelings & behaviours. SPIRITUAL How we see the bigger picture. Measurements of health. Morbidity statistics The rate at which a particular disease or illness occurs Prevalence (how many) & Incidence (new cases) Mortality Statistics Number of deaths caused by a particular illness Burden of disease How much disease there is & how it effects people. Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) Amount of healthy life an individual is likely to lose due to disability. Life expectancy Estimate of how many years from the time of birth an individual is expected to live. Health adjusted Life Expectancy A person is expected to live in full health Determinants. Biomedical influences Lifestyle & Behaviour influences Poor diet, alcohol, smoking, lack of activity, excess sun, no immunisation, unsafe sex. Knowledge, Attitudes & Beliefs Environmental influences Sanitation & water, housing, education, employment, pollution. Genetics Specific population groups. Rural & Remote. Differences can be contributed to : Lifestyle choices Greater exposure to injury Limited access to health care (specialists) Isolation & distance Lower levels of education Attitudes Economic factors Specific population groups. Indigenous. Differences can be contributed to : Lifestyle choices Poor community infrastructure & support Predisposition to disease Attitudes ( to & within community) Economic factors Poor nutrition Isolation & distance Specific population groups. Lower Socio-economic. Differences can be contributed to : Economic limitations Limited Education Poor quality of housing Lifestyle choices Poor Nutrition Limited health knowledge Specific population groups. Gender Differences can be contributed to : Genetic make-up Attitudes to health care Lifestyle choices Attitudes in general Level of risk taking behaviour Nutrients. Nutrients are required by an individual for all bodily processes to occur. They are found in foods & provide the body with energy to grow & develop, and ensure it has the ability to carry out everyday functionsMACRONUTRIENTS (Large molecules & High quantities) Carbohydrates, Protein, Fats & WaterMICRONUTRIENTS (Small in size & small quantities) Vitamins & Mineral Nutrients. Carbohydrates. FUNCTION Are the preferred energy source for the body. During digestion both starches & sugars are broken down into glucose which provides essential energy for the brain & CNS and for muscles during activities. EXAMPLES Starches (complex) are found in vegetables & grains. Sugars (simple) are found in fruit, honey & milk. OTHER INFO Glycemic index (GI) ranks foods on how they affect blood sugar levels. Fibre is a type of carbohydrate the body does not digest. Nutrients. Protein. FUNCTION Protein is necessary for the growth, repair & maintenance of body tissue. It is used to produce enzymes, hormones & antibodies which are vital for the regulation & metabolism and protection against disease. It is also a secondary source of energy. EXAMPLES Meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, milk & cheese OTHER INFO Ther are 15 different amino acids, 8 of which the body cannot produce. Complete & Incomplete proteins. Nutrients. Fats. FUNCTION Fats offer a concentrated source of energy. They provide more than twice as much energy as the same weight of carbohydrates or protein. However, fats are not the bodys preferred source of energy as they are more difficult to breakdown into a useable energy source. EXAMPLES Meats, almonds, oils, sardines, tuna OTHER INFO Saturated, monounsaturated & polyunsaturated Cholesterol is a type of fat that is an essential part of the bodys cell membranes. Nutrients. Vitamins. FUNCTION Vitamins are essential for the regulation of the bodys metabolic functions. They help the body use energy effectively. They are involved in regulating the actions of many other chemicals in the body. Each vitamin has multiple functions in the body & interacts with other nutrients to successfully carry out these functions. Nutrients. Vitamins : Water soluble FUNCTION Soluble in water Allow them to be carried around the body dissolved in blood plasma. Vitamin C & B group vitamins. EXAMPLES Vitamin C assists in the formation of collagen in skin, aids in iron absorption, protects against infection (citrus fruit, broccoli) B group vitamins (thiamine, niacin, riboflavin) assist in the release of energy (Thiamine wheat & nuts, Niacin & Riboflavin liver & kidney) Nutrients. Vitamins : Fat Soluble FUNCTION Not Soluble in water They need to be stored in the body either in the liver or in fatty tissue & are transported around the body by special proteins. Vitamin A, D, E & K. EXAMPLES Vitamin A assists in the formation & maintenance of skin tissue, vision for dim light & normal growth of bones & teeth. (liver, kidney, eggs) Vitamin D assists in the formation & maintenance of bones and enhances calcium & phosphorus use. (salmon, tuna, milk) Vitamin E is an anti-oxidant that prevents damage to cell membranes & protects Vitamin A (green leafy vegetables) Nutrients. Minerals FUNCTION The human body needs at least 20 mineral to function properly. Some minerals are required in large amounts : Calcium major part of bones & teeth (dairy) Potassium & Sodium balancing ions & fluid (salt & GLV) Iron transports oxygen around the body (meat & eggs) Some minerals are needed in smaller or trace amounts. These include magnesium, zinc, iodine & copper. These help functions in the body such as production of enzymes & hormones. Nutrients. Water. FUNCTION It is used to maintain the health of every living cell in the body by giving strength and structure to the cells & tissues. It creates the aqueous environment necessary for all chemical processes within the living cells. These processes result in energy production & growth. It plays an important role in digestion & absorption as well as circulation. It is essential in the regulation of body temperature, lubrication of joints & the movement of waste material. It is the carrier of nutrients through the body. RDIs Recommended Dietary intake Refer to the amount of essential nutrients (vitamins, mineral, energy & protein) that are considered adequate to meet the nutritional requirements of healthy people. Limitations Individuals have varying nutrient requirements. For healthy people only Do not account for interactions between nutrients Do not. Allow for adaptation to high or low intakes eg iron BMI Body Mass Index This is used as an estimate of the amount of an individuals body fat. It is a formula to assess body weight in relation to height. BMI=weight (kg)/ height (cm) Limitations Must take in consideration age & sex Not used for children as growth occurrence is at irregular intervals. Importance of nutrients. CVD What it is. Includes heart disease, stroke, angina. Mainly caused by a damaged blood supply to the heart, leg & brain. The most common cause is the gradual blockage of blood vessels by fatty or fibrous material. This material build up on the blood vessel walls narrows the arteries. Risk factors High consumption of saturated fats or trans fatty acids from processed foods. A high diet in sodium & low in potassium. Protective factors Intake of omega 3 (oily fish) & omega 6 fatty acids Vitamin E Folate Soluble Fibre Importance of nutrients. Colorectal Cancer What it is. Together the colon and rectum from the large intestine. They are part of the bodys digestive system that remove nutrients from food & store waste until it passes out of the body. Risk factors High fat diets (obesity) Burnt meat Protective factors Vegetables (carotene red & yellow as well as cruciferous GLV)) Legumes Legumes Vitamin E (anti-oxidants) Fibre Importance of nutrients. Obesity What it is. This is associated with heart disease, stroke, diabetes, high blood pressure etc. It is when a person consumes more kilojoules than they burn. Risk factors A high intake of high GI foods High fat intake Protective factors Low GI foods Fibre Consuming low fat foods Importance of nutrients. Diabetes (type 2) What it is. In type 2 diabetes the body may produce enough insulin but its action is blocked because of excess fat around the cells. The body compensates for the resistance to the action by producing even more insulin. Risk factors High GI foods Saturated fats can cause an increase in cholesterol Alcohol Protective factors Low GI foods Fibre Monounsaturated fats Importance of nutrients. Anaemia What it is. This refers to an inadequate level of red blood cells or an inadequate level of haemoglobin in the body. When these levels are low the result is greater difficulty transporting oxygen around the body. Causes fatigue & low blood pressure. Risk factors Low iron or folate intake Protective factors Adequate intake of iron & folate Vitamin C (as it aids in the absorption of iron into the bloodstream) Importance of nutrients. Dental Decay What it is. Destruction of the outer surface of the tooth. Risk factors Foods high in sugar & starch If the diet is low in certain nutrients gum disease Protective factors Calcium (increase saliva) Water Proteins that forms a coating on the tooth & protects it from acid attack. Found in milk, yoghurt & cheese. Importance of nutrients. Osteoporosis What it is. The term given to the progressive degeneration of the structure, density & strength of the bone. It is not just due to a lack of calcium, other factors such as the activity of Vitamin D, oestrogen, Cortisol levels and the balance between bone buil