hfc n test equip for hfc
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- 1. Broadband System - N Satellites are spaced every2nd degrees above earth"C" BandToward satellite 6.0 GHz "L" BandToward earth 4.0 GHz Toward satellite 14.0 GHz Toward earth 12.0 GHzTVTRANSMITTER Headend Cable area 1Test Equipments Required for a HFC System.
2. RF test equipment can be divided in two sections. Single equipment capable of reading the strength of aTelevision Channels. Multi function meter, capable of reading; TV channel signal strength Digital signal (Power meter) Multi channel reading (Slope or Tilt) Spectral view of all the channels carried by an HFC system C/N measurement. Distortion measuring (C-N, CTB and CSO) Frequency Response (Peak & Valley response) QAM reading (BER, MER and FEC) Return alignment tool. (Response and Ingress) Ingress reading (Leakage) 2 3. Filed Strength Meter capable of reading Television Channels.This equipment read the level of a single TV channel or a singleFM music channel. These level can be read as TV channel orFrequency. They also give you the difference in level betweenthe Video and Audio of TV channel. They can usually read signalfrom: 5 to 870 MHz. 3 4. Field Strength Meter Video 300 to 400 KHzMost FSM read between 300 to 400 KHz of band6.0 MHz Audio width.0300 to 400 KHz -10 How it is display on the -20Field Strength Meter -30dB -40 -50 -60 -703.59 MHz4.5 MHz4 5. Multi Function FSMMulti function meter can be classified in two types;Meter for customer installationMeter for complete system verification.Installation FSM Multifunction HFC Analyzer5 6. Multi Function FSM Installation FSM6 7. Installation FSMThe Model One from Trilithic is an installation meter that canperform the following functions.Single channel Single channelDigital signal reading Spectral View Strength 7 8. Installation FSMThe Model One from Trilithic is an installation meter that canperform the following functions.Favourites channels AC DC Tilt View View Reading 8 9. Installation FSMBelow are examples of a signal been read by the Model One F.S.M. Analog TV channel QAM TV channel 9 10. Multifunction HFC Analyzer 860 DSPi 10 11. Meter for complete system verification.BLOCK DIAGRAMRFINPUTRF FRONT ENDDISPLAYMULTI-BW I.F. HIGH-SPEEDDISPLAY DRIVER 12-BIT DIGITIZERDIRECT DIGITALPOWER - PC andSYNTHESIZERDSP PROCESSORSKEYPAD ETHERNET / RS-232C COMMUNICATIONS11 12. Meter for complete system verification. Standard functions.Single Channel Measurement- NTSC or PAL video, audio, SAP.- Audio demodulation.- Hum (50/60Hz, 100/120Hz, 1KHz L.P.)- C/N on active channel channels.- CTB, CSO.- Depth of Modulation.- QAM Haystack with power.- Toggle to 1-chan. spectrum mode.12 13. Meter for complete system verification.-Full Plan Measurement.- Level, CTB, CSO, Hum and C/N ondesignated channels - all if possible-Tilt / 8 Channel Plan- Auto Gain and Tilt calculation- FCC Test- Drop, Block and Tap---13 14. Meter for complete system verification.- QAM, QPSK- Constellation, MER,pre and post BER, C/(N+I)?- Spectrum under active signal14 15. Meter for complete system verification.QAM-DOCSIS channel, measuring; Level, MER and BER.64 QAM DOCSIS signal. 256 QAM DOCSIS signal. 15 16. Meter for complete system verification. RSVP Up to 8 frequencies SSR New combined displays Ingress comparison: SST vs. current location16 17. Meter for complete system verification.Spectrum Analyzer Option: Span 0, 100 KHz to 860 MHz Resolution Bandwidth 10 KHzto 3 MHz in 1,3 format Video Bandwidth 100 Hz to3 MHz in 1,3 format Spur free Display Range 60 dB Noise floor -50 dBmV in 10 KHz resolution Display smoothed to approximatean analog analyzer17 18. Meter for complete system verification.4 8 d B m V4 74 64 54 44 34 24 14 03 93 83 75-40 MHz18 19. Meter for complete system verification. Spectrum Analyzer Measurement.4 8 d B m V4 74 64 54 44 34 24 14 03 93 83 75-40 MHz19 20. Meter for complete system verification.4 8 d B m V4 74 64 54 44 34 24 14 03 93 83 75-40 MHz20 21. Fiber Optic TestEquipments 21 22. HFC SystemSince a HFC system requires two types of communications, one typebeen fiber optic and the other one been coaxial cable, two type of testequipments are require to test both sections of a system.Test equipment for coaxial cable distribution.Test equipment for fiber optic communication. 22 23. Test equipments for fiber optic communicationTest equipments required for the fiber optic section are the following;Power meter.Light Source.OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer).OSA (Optical Spectrum Analyser).Talk Set.Visual Fault LocatorOptical Fiber Identifier.Optical Scope.PMD Analyzer. 23 24. Power meter.Power meter are required to measure the power output of theoptic transmitting equipment, the input of the receiving equipmentand the actual loss of a fiber optic link.GN-6025Freq.: 800 to 1700 nm.+5 to 70 dBmGN-6025C *Freq.: 800 to 1700 nm.+20 to 60 dBm* Best for HFC system.24 25. Light Source.Optical Light Source gives a calibrated light output that can be usedfor testing a fiber link, when no other light signal are available.GN-6250 *1310-1550 nm.- 8.0 dBmGN-62601550-1625 nm- 8.0 / - 5.0 dBm*Best for HFC system. 25 26. OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer)OTDR are used to check continuity and signal loss on fiber optic link.CMA-4000-MDK-18.4 Colour Matrix Display.30/28 dB 1310/1550 nm.Dual Single Opt. Module.Hard Transit Case.Network VisionNet Plus Software. 26 27. OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer)OTDR are used to check continuity and signal loss on fiber optic link.CMA-4000-DK-2-X8.4 Colour Matrix Display.36/34 dB 1310/1550 nm.Built-in-Hard drive.Built in Light Source.Dual Single Opt. Module.Hard Transit Case.Network VisionNet Plus Software. 27 28. OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer)OTDR are used to check continuity and signal loss on fiber optic link.CMA-4000-DK-3-X8.4 Colour Matrix Display.40 dB 1310/1550 nm.Built-in-Hard drive.Dual Single Opt. Module.Built in Light Source.Hard Transit Case.Network VisionNet Plus Software. 28 29. OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer)Printed view of two fiber optic links measurements.29 30. The Growing Demand for Data TransportIt is clear, as we approach the 21th century the remarkable evolution in information services in our society. This revolution in information has been promoted by; Higher number of long distance phone call Internet traffic Multimedia services Transport of medical picture at high speed Financial exchanges (Credit card, Direct payments etc.) Demand for more television signalThese are the reason, why information services need increase in capacity30 31. Capacity of a fiber optic networkSince to-day, the capacity of a fiber optic network is limitedto 10 Gbps, soon to be 40 Gbps, we must find other way toincrease the fiber optics capacityLet have a look at the possibility of augmenting the capacityof the network. 31 32. Ways of Increasing the Capacity of a Fiber Optic System. * By installing more fiber. * By augmenting the fiber optic capacity. * By using the technology of CWDM or DWDM.32 33. Installing New Fiber OpticInstalling new fiber optic can be very expensive anddifficult in areas like;Big city.Submarine cable.Underground duck been completely full.Lack of space in CO (Central Office)33 34. SONET transmission capacityOptic Mb/sTel. Conv. TV ch.DS0 0.0641 *T11.54 24*DS3 44.74672 *OC-3155.52 2,016 2OC-12 622.08 8,064 12OC-48 2,488.32 32,25648OC-96 4,976.64 77,76055OC-1929,953.28 155,520 111* Only slow scan picture.34 35. The DWDM TechnologyThe DWDM technology, consist on transmitting manyoptical waves on the same fiber optic. Dense Wave Division Multiplexing 35 36. Thirty Two Wavelengths DWDM Frequencies. 36 37. OSA (Optical Spectrum Analyser). 37 38. OSA (Optical Spectrum Analyser).OSA are used to measure Carrier to Noise, Signal amplitude, EDFAs flatness and bandwidth response and signal frequency.Model CMA4791Wavelength:1520 - 1570 nmPower Range: +20 to 60 dBmPower Range: +10 to 70 dBm opt.Channel table: 256 channels. 38 39. Talk Set.Talk set are used to communicates between the fieldtechnician and the central office people over fiber optic.Optical SpecificationsFor Full-duplexOVS-60001310 nmRange: >30 dBOVS-61001310 nmRange: >50 dBAbove on single-mode fiber. single-39 40. Visual Fault LocatorThe VFL-670 works at 670 nm withan output of 4.0 dBm. It iscapable of a distance of 2 kilometres. It give a RED visible light, wherethere is a break or a bad connected installed. The unit work for multimodeand single mode fiber optic. 40 41. Optical Fiber Connector Inspection.The FS-X00 Fiberscope is ideal for inspecting optic connector. This unitwill give a 200X or 400X view for multimode and single mode fiberconnector. You need one of the following ADAPTER: FC-APC, ST, SC-APC,or D4. 41 42. Problems with Fiber Optic Transport System. 42 43. Two majors problems with Fiber optic transport System Chromatic Dispersion. Polarization Mode Dispersion.43 44. What is Dispersion.The spreading or broadening of light pulses as they propagate through the fiber44 45. Digital Communication Bit TimesDispersionSONET SDHTransmission RateBit Time LimitOC-1OC-51.84 Mb19.29 ns2 nsOC-3OC-STM-1 STM- 155.52 Mb 6.43 ns 640 psOC-12OC-STM-4 STM- 622.08 Mb 1.61 ns 160 psOC-24OC-1244.16 Mb(1.2 Gb) 803.76 ps 80 psOC-48OC-STM-16 STM-2488.32 Mb(2.4 Gb) 401.88 ps 40 psOC-192OC-STM-64 STM-9953.28 Mb(10 Gb)100.47 ps 10 psOC-768OC-STM-256 STM-39,813.12 Mb(40 Gb) 25.12 ps2 psAbove are SONETTransmission RateBit TimeDispersion Limit45 46. Eye Diagrams - What They Are For each bit time, there are 8 possibles conditions:1 bit time 0 0 01 0 0 0 0 11 0 1 0 1 01 1 0 0 1 11 1 1 Combine (overlap) them for an eye diagram 46 47. Typical Good and Bad Eye Diagram (High Bit Error Rate)OneLevel Sample WindowZeroLevel 1 bit time OneLevel Sample WindowZeroLevel 1 bit time 47 48. What is Polarization Mode Dispersion What is Polarization Mode Dispersi