Herbal Medicines

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<p>Herbal Medicines</p> <p>Department of Drug Technology Higher Institute of Medical Technology Dernah, LIBYA</p> <p>Fissitigma lanuginosumSource: Fissitigma lanuginosum, a climber, which grows wild in the primary rain forests. Family: Annonaceae Active constituents: Isoquinoline, Liriodenine, Discretamine and Acetogenine Therapeutic uses:</p> <p>The decoction of roots is used as a postpartum remedy and to treat stomach troubles. Pedicin from the plant inhibited tubulin assembly into microtubules. Other chalcones, fissistin, and isofissistin are cytotoxic against KB cells</p> <p>Vitex agnus-castusSource : Vitex agnus-castus Family : Verbenaceae Constituents :</p> <p>Diterpenes: rotundifuran, vitexilactone Flavonoids: Casticin, penduletin, chrysoplenol. C-glycosides, Polyphenols Essential oil</p> <p>Therapeutic uses:</p> <p>Extracts of agnus castus act at dopamine receptors and Affect prolactin release.</p> <p>Gymnopetalum cochinchinenseSource: Momordica charantia Family: Aucurbetaceae Constituents: </p> <p>Aoibaclyin and Sitosterol-3-Dglucopyranoside. As a postpartum remedy, Decoction of leaves is used as a drink to counteract the poisonous effects of the fruits. The juice squeezed from the leaves is used to soothe inflamed eyes.</p> <p>Therapeutic uses: </p> <p>Catharanthus roseusSource: Catharanthus roseus Family: Apocynaceae Constituents: </p> <p>Alkaloids Vinblastine and Vincrystine Anticancer and in the treatment of Hodgkins disease</p> <p>Therapeutic uses: </p> <p>Centrostemma coriaceuSource: Centrostemma coriaceum Family: Asclepiadaceae Constituents: </p> <p>Saponins, Tylocrebine and Congeners</p> <p>Therapeutic uses:</p> <p>Decoction of leaves is used as a drink to promote expectoration and to treat asthma.</p> <p>Aloe veraSource: Aloe vera Family: Liliaceae Constituents:</p> <p>Anthraquinone glycosides, Emodin, Aloe-emodi</p> <p>Therapeutic uses: </p> <p>Purgative and Used as Sun screen</p> <p>Cinnamomum zeylenicumSource: Cinnamomum zeylenicum Family: Lauraceae Constituents: </p> <p>Volatile oil Terpenoids TanninsIt is used as carminative</p> <p>Therapeutic uses:</p> <p>Coriandrum sativumSource: Coriandrum sativum Family: Umbelliferae Constituents:</p> <p>It contains volatile oil. Volatile oil contain mono terpenoids, Coriandrol. It is used as carminative</p> <p>Therapeutic uses:</p> <p>Foeniculum vulgarisSource: Foeniculum vulgaris Family: Umbelliferae Constituents:</p> <p>It contains volatile oil. Volatile oil contain mono terpenoids, Anethole and Fenchone It is used as carminative</p> <p>Therapeutic uses:</p> <p>Glycyrrhiza glabraSource: Dried roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra Family: Leguminoseae Constituents:</p> <p>It consists of Saponin glycosides, particularly Glycyrrhizine and glycyrrhetinic acid.</p> <p>Therapeutic uses:</p> <p>It is used in the treatment of peptic ulcer and as an Expectorant</p> <p>Rauwolfia serpentinaSource: Roots of Rauwolfia serpentina Family: Apocynaceae Constituents:</p> <p>It consists of Alkaloids, Reserpine, Deserpidine, Recinnamine and Serpentine. It is used in the treatment of Hypertension</p> <p>Therapeutic uses:</p> <p>OpiumSource: Papaver somniferum Family: Apocynaceae Constituents:</p> <p>It consists of Alkaloids, morphine, codeine, thabaine and papaverine. It is used as Narcotic analgesic.</p> <p>Therapeutic uses:</p> <p>Digitalis purpureaSource: Digitalis purpurea Family: Scrophulariaceae Constituents:</p> <p>Cardiac glycosides, Purpurea glycoside A, Purpurea glycoside B, Digitoxin, DigoxinCardiotonic.</p> <p>Therapeutic uses:</p> <p>Senna leavesSource: Cassia angustifolia and Cassia acutifolia Family: Leguminoseae Constituents:</p> <p>It contains Anthraquinone glycosides, Sennoside A, Sennoside B, Sennoside C and Sennoside D.It is used as purgative</p> <p>Therapeutic uses:</p> <p>Name :TANACETUM PARTHENIUM Family :Asteraceae Aster family Constituents: sesquiterpene lactones (including parthenolide and santamarine) , volatile oil, tannins Properties: Analgesic, Antiinflammatory, COX-2 Inhibitor, Circulation, Insect repellents</p> <p>Uses: Allergies/hay Fever , Gout , Insect Repellent , Lupus , Migraine Headache , Parasites/Worms ,Rheumatoid ArthritisSide Effects: Avoid feverfew if you are allergic to plants in the ragweed family. The fresh leaves can cause mouth ulcers, discontinue use if this occurs . Not to be used while pregnant.</p> <p>DOSE : 6.25 mg per day</p> <p>-</p> <p>Part used : Arial parts</p> <p>- Name</p> <p>:Chamomile , Camomile, Chamomilla-</p> <p>- Family : ASTERACEAE or COMPOSITAE</p> <p>Sunflower family - Constituents: volatile oil, fatty acids, cyanogenic glycosides, salicylate derivatives, polysa , coumarins (including umbel-liferone) , flavonoids - Properties: Anti-inflammatory , Antispasmodic, Digestive , Diuretic , Antiviral , Analgesic , Vasoconstrictor</p> <p>- Uses: Toothache/Earache , Female Tonics, Stress , Depression , Anxiety/Panic , Abscess/Boil- Side Effects: Chamomile is one of the safest herbs but some animals</p> <p>(and people) are allergic to this and any member of the ragweed family - DOSE : free dose - Part used : Flowers</p> <p>- Name : Ephedra - Family : Ephedra sinica Stapf (Ephedraceae) - Constituents: Alkaloids , Volatile oil , Other constituents Tannins (catechin, Gallic acid), ephedrans (glycans) and acids (citric, malic, oxalic). Flavonoids A flavonoflavonol (ephedrannin A) - Properties: stimulating the central nervous system (CNS), sympathomimetic agents - Uses : immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, CNS stimulatory and antimicrobial effects, smooth muscle relaxant, cardiovascular, - Side Effects: tachycardia, anxiety, restlessness and insomnia. - DOSE : 1530 mg alkaloids (maximum daily dose 300 mg), calculated as ephedrine</p> <p>- Part used : Aerial parts</p> <p>- Name : Ginkgo</p> <p>- Family : Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) - Constituents: Amino acids Cyanogenetic glycosides Ginkgolic acids, Alkaloids Ginkgotoxin (4-O-methylpyridoxine), Proanthocyanidins, Flavonoids Dimeric flavones - Properties : Effects on behaviour, learning and memory, Cardiovascular and haemorheological activities , Antioxidant activity .</p> <p>- Side Effects: fatigue , fever , sweating increased , flushing , visionAbnormal , hypertension - Part used : Leaf</p> <p>- DOSE : 120160 mg dry</p> <p>- Name :Bloodroot (Sanguinaria Canadensis).</p> <p>- Family : Sanguinaria Canadensis- Constituents: Alkaloids Isoquinoline type,</p> <p>Sanguinarine , Resin, starch, organic acids(citric, malic) , coptisine and homochelidonine.- Properties : antimicrobial activity ,</p> <p>anti-inflammatory activity . - Uses :expectorant, spasmolytic , antiseptic, cardioactive , asthma, laryngitis, pharyngitis. - DOSE :0.060.5 g three times daily . - Part used :Rhizome</p> <p>- Side Effects: diarrhea, Hepatotoxicity , acute dermal toxicity.</p> <p>- Name : Evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) - Family : Oenothera biennis</p> <p>oils ; cis-Linoleic acid , cisgammalinolenic Acid oleic acid , palmitic acid , stearic acid .- Constituents: Fixed</p> <p>- Properties : anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory and vasodilators properties, sedative and astringent properties - Uses : asthmatic coughs, gastrointestinal disorders, whooping cough and as a sedative painkiller. - Side Effects: Mild gastrointestinal effects, indigestion,</p> <p>nausea and softening of stools and headache have occasionally occurred.- DOSE :68 g daily (adults); 24 g daily (children);</p> <p>- Name : Ginger - Family : Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae)</p> <p>- Constituents: Carbohydrates Starch (major constituent, up to 50%), Lipids , Oleo-resin Gingerol homologues (major, about 33%) , Volatile oils 13%., vitamin A , arginine, aspartic acid, minerals. - Properties : anti-emetic, antithrombotic, antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory Properties. - Uses : prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting of various causes , vertigo and inflammatory conditions . - Side Effects: there is a lack of clinical safety and toxicity data for ginger and further investigation of these aspects is required.- DOSE :170 mg three times daily . - Part used : Rhizome</p> <p>- Name :Aconitum variegatum - Family : Ranunculaceae - Constituents: Alkaloids, including</p> <p>aconitine and traces of ephedrine .- Properties :Sedative; relieves pain</p> <p>- Uses : fever, headache , High blood pressure , Inflammation , Severe stabbing pains</p> <p>- Side Effects: Blurred vision , diarrhea, nausea , Slow heartbeat , throat closure , Weakness .</p> <p>- DOSE : 50 mg - Part used : Dried root, collected in the autumn</p> <p>- Name : Life root</p> <p>- Family : Senecio aureus L. (Asteraceae/Compositae)- Constituents: The volatile oil composition , Pyrrolizidine alkaloids .- Properties : uterine tonic, diuretic</p> <p>and mild expectorant properties.</p> <p>- Uses :not used as a food , treatment of functional amenorrhea, menopausal neurosis and leucorrhoea . - Side Effects: Life root contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The toxicity, primarily hepatic,- DOSE : 14 g as an infusion three times daily. - Part used : Herb</p> <p>- Name : Ginseng, Panax - Family : Panax quinquefolius L.</p> <p>- Constituents: Terpenoids , vitamins (B1, B2, B12, panthotenic acid, biotin), fats, minerals , Volatile oil . - Properties : Corticosteroid-like activity , Hypoglycemic activity , Cardiovascular activity , Antiviral activity . - Uses : for neurasthenia, neuralgia, insomnia, hypotonia, and specifically for depressive states associated with sexual inadequacy - Side Effects: diarrhea, hypertension, nervousness, skin eruptions and sleeplessness; other symptoms occasionally observed included amenorrhea, decreased appetite, depression, euphoria, hypotension and edema. - DOSE : 0.40.8 g root daily. Doses may be taken continuously. - Part used : Root.</p> <p>- Name : Golden seal (Hydrastis canadensis). - Family : Hydrastis canadensis - Constituents: Alkaloids Isoquinoline-type , Chlorogenic acid, carbohydrates, fatty acids , volatile oil (trace), resin, meconin (meconinic acid lactone). - Properties : Antibiotic, immunostimulant, anticonvulsant, sedative, hypotensive, uterotonic, choleretic and carminative activities . - Uses : digestive disorders, gastritis, peptic ulceration, colitis, anorexia, upper respiratory catarrh, menorrhagia, post-partum haemorrhage - Side Effects: potentially toxic and symptoms of golden seal poisoning include stomach upset, nervous symptoms and depression; large quantities may even be fatal .- DOSE : 0.51.0 g as a decoction three times daily - Part used : Rhizome, root .</p> <p>- Name : Squill (Drimia maritima).</p> <p>- Family : Drimia maritima (L.) Stearn (Asparagaceae) - Constituents: Cardiac glycosides Scillaren A and proscillaridin A (major constituents); glucoscillaren A, Flavonoids Apigenin, volatile and fixed oils. - Properties : expectorant, cathartic, emetic, cardioactive and diuretic properties . - Uses : used for chronic bronchitis, asthma with bronchitis, whooping cough, and specifically for chronic bronchitis with scanty sputum.cardiotonic constituents. is also a gastric irritant and large doses will stimulate a vomiting reflex .</p> <p>- Side Effects: Excessive use of squill is potentially toxic because of the</p> <p>- DOSE :60200 mg as an infusion three times daily.</p> <p>- Part used :Bulb (red and white varieties)</p> <p>- Name : Blue flag . - Family : Iris versicolor.</p> <p>- Properties : laxative, diuretic,</p> <p>dermatological, anti-inflammatory and antiemetic properties.- Uses : used for skin diseases,</p> <p>biliousness with constipation and liver dysfunction, and specifically for cutaneous eruptions. - Side Effects: cause nausea and vomiting , irritant to mucous membranes , not be taken during pregnancy. - DOSE : 0.62.0 g as a decoction three times daily . - Part used : Rhizome .</p> <p>- Name : Milk Thistle . - Family : Silybum marianum .</p> <p>- Constituents: Flavolignans , Flavonoids , palmitic acid , Sterols , Mucilages, sugars , amines and saponins.- Properties : hepatoprotective, antioxidant and choleretic properties. - Uses :prophylaxis and treatment of liver damage and disease , treatment of liver, spleen and gall bladder disorders and as an antimalarial emmenagogue, and for uterine complaints. - Side Effects: severe sweating, abdominal cramping, nausea vomiting, diarrhea and weakness.</p> <p>- DOSE : 1215 g daily in divided doses .- Part used : Fruits (often referred to as 'seeds'), herb .</p> <p>- Name : Corn Silk - Family : Zea mays L. (Gramineae) . - Constituents: Amines , Fixed oils , Saponins , Tannins , pigments, resin, vitamins (C and K). - Properties : diuretic and stone-reducing properties. - Uses : cystitis, urethritis, nocturnal enuresis, prostatitis, and specifically for acute or chronic inflammation of the urinary system . - Side Effects : dermatitis and urticaria as Allergic reactions . - DOSE : 48 g as an infusion three times daily.- Part used : Stigma, style .</p> <p>- Name : Lemon Verbena - Family : Aloysia triphylla (L'Her.) Britton (Verbenaceae) - Constituents: Flavonoids , Volatile oils , - Properties : antispasmodic, antipyretic, sedative and stomachic properties.</p> <p>- Uses : treatment of asthma, cold, fever, flatulence, colic, diarrhoea an</p> <p>indigestion. - Side Effects: Terpene-rich volatile oils are generally regarded as irritant and may cause kidney irritation during excretion. - DOSE : 45 mL taken several times daily</p> <p>- Part used : Flowering top, leaf .</p> <p>- Name : Clove</p> <p>- Family : Syzygium aromaticum - Constituents : Volatile oils Clove bud oil Campesterol, carbohydrates, kaempferol, lipids, oleanolic acid, rhamnetin, sitosterol, stigmasterol and vitamins. - Properties : antihistaminic and antispasmodic properties . - Uses :carminative, anti-emetic, toothache remedy and counterirritant. - Side Effects: dermal and mucous membrane irritant; - DOSE : 120300 mg.- Part used : Clove (dried flower bud), leaf, stem</p> <p>- Name : Nettle - Family : Urtica dioica L . - Constituents: Acids, Amines , Flavonoids , Inorganics , Lignans , bsitosterol and tannin</p> <p>- Properties : antihaemorrhagic</p> <p>and hypoglycemic properties.</p> <p>- Uses : supportive therapy for rheumatic</p> <p>ailments and as irrigation therapy for inflammatory disease of the lower urinary tract and prevention of kidney gravel; internal and external use for rheumatic ailments. - Side Effects: gastric irritation, a burning sensation of the skin, oedema and oliguria. - DOSE : 24 g as an infusion three times daily - Part used :Herb</p> <p>- Name : Uva-Ursi</p> <p>- Family :Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.- Constituents: Flavonoids , Iridoids , Quinones , Tannins , Terpenoids , volatile oil (trace) and wax. - Properties : diuretic, urinary and antiseptic, astringent properties . - Uses : used for cystitis, Urethritis , dysuria, pyelitis, lithuria, and specifically for acute catarrhal cystitis with dysuria and highly acidic urine.- Side Effects: caused</p> <p>tinnitus, nausea and vomiting, sense of suffocation, shortness of breath, cyanosis, convulsions, delirium and collapse . - DOSE :1.54.0 g as an infusion three times daily</p> <p>- Part used : Leaf</p> <p>- Name : Tansy- Family : Tanacetum vulgare L.</p> <p>- Constituents: Steroids , Terpenoids , Volatile oils , Gum, mucilage, resin and tannins.- Properties : anthelmintic,</p> <p>- Part used :Herb</p> <p>carminative and antispasmodic properties and to act as a...</p>