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Herbal Medicines

Department of Drug Technology Higher Institute of Medical Technology Dernah, LIBYA

Fissitigma lanuginosumSource: Fissitigma lanuginosum, a climber, which grows wild in the primary rain forests. Family: Annonaceae Active constituents: Isoquinoline, Liriodenine, Discretamine and Acetogenine Therapeutic uses:

The decoction of roots is used as a postpartum remedy and to treat stomach troubles. Pedicin from the plant inhibited tubulin assembly into microtubules. Other chalcones, fissistin, and isofissistin are cytotoxic against KB cells

Vitex agnus-castusSource : Vitex agnus-castus Family : Verbenaceae Constituents :

Diterpenes: rotundifuran, vitexilactone Flavonoids: Casticin, penduletin, chrysoplenol. C-glycosides, Polyphenols Essential oil

Therapeutic uses:

Extracts of agnus castus act at dopamine receptors and Affect prolactin release.

Gymnopetalum cochinchinenseSource: Momordica charantia Family: Aucurbetaceae Constituents:

Aoibaclyin and Sitosterol-3-Dglucopyranoside. As a postpartum remedy, Decoction of leaves is used as a drink to counteract the poisonous effects of the fruits. The juice squeezed from the leaves is used to soothe inflamed eyes.

Therapeutic uses:

Catharanthus roseusSource: Catharanthus roseus Family: Apocynaceae Constituents:

Alkaloids Vinblastine and Vincrystine Anticancer and in the treatment of Hodgkins disease

Therapeutic uses:

Centrostemma coriaceuSource: Centrostemma coriaceum Family: Asclepiadaceae Constituents:

Saponins, Tylocrebine and Congeners

Therapeutic uses:

Decoction of leaves is used as a drink to promote expectoration and to treat asthma.

Aloe veraSource: Aloe vera Family: Liliaceae Constituents:

Anthraquinone glycosides, Emodin, Aloe-emodi

Therapeutic uses:

Purgative and Used as Sun screen

Cinnamomum zeylenicumSource: Cinnamomum zeylenicum Family: Lauraceae Constituents:

Volatile oil Terpenoids TanninsIt is used as carminative

Therapeutic uses:

Coriandrum sativumSource: Coriandrum sativum Family: Umbelliferae Constituents:

It contains volatile oil. Volatile oil contain mono terpenoids, Coriandrol. It is used as carminative

Therapeutic uses:

Foeniculum vulgarisSource: Foeniculum vulgaris Family: Umbelliferae Constituents:

It contains volatile oil. Volatile oil contain mono terpenoids, Anethole and Fenchone It is used as carminative

Therapeutic uses:

Glycyrrhiza glabraSource: Dried roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra Family: Leguminoseae Constituents:

It consists of Saponin glycosides, particularly Glycyrrhizine and glycyrrhetinic acid.

Therapeutic uses:

It is used in the treatment of peptic ulcer and as an Expectorant

Rauwolfia serpentinaSource: Roots of Rauwolfia serpentina Family: Apocynaceae Constituents:

It consists of Alkaloids, Reserpine, Deserpidine, Recinnamine and Serpentine. It is used in the treatment of Hypertension

Therapeutic uses:

OpiumSource: Papaver somniferum Family: Apocynaceae Constituents:

It consists of Alkaloids, morphine, codeine, thabaine and papaverine. It is used as Narcotic analgesic.

Therapeutic uses:

Digitalis purpureaSource: Digitalis purpurea Family: Scrophulariaceae Constituents:

Cardiac glycosides, Purpurea glycoside A, Purpurea glycoside B, Digitoxin, DigoxinCardiotonic.

Therapeutic uses:

Senna leavesSource: Cassia angustifolia and Cassia acutifolia Family: Leguminoseae Constituents:

It contains Anthraquinone glycosides, Sennoside A, Sennoside B, Sennoside C and Sennoside D.It is used as purgative

Therapeutic uses:

Name :TANACETUM PARTHENIUM Family :Asteraceae Aster family Constituents: sesquiterpene lactones (including parthenolide and santamarine) , volatile oil, tannins Properties: Analgesic, Antiinflammatory, COX-2 Inhibitor, Circulation, Insect repellents

Uses: Allergies/hay Fever , Gout , Insect Repellent , Lupus , Migraine Headache , Parasites/Worms ,Rheumatoid ArthritisSide Effects: Avoid feverfew if you are allergic to plants in the ragweed family. The fresh leaves can cause mouth ulcers, discontinue use if this occurs . Not to be used while pregnant.

DOSE : 6.25 mg per day


Part used : Arial parts

- Name

:Chamomile , Camomile, Chamomilla-


Sunflower family - Constituents: volatile oil, fatty acids, cyanogenic glycosides, salicylate derivatives, polysa , coumarins (including umbel-liferone) , flavonoids - Properties: Anti-inflammatory , Antispasmodic, Digestive , Diuretic , Antiviral , Analgesic , Vasoconstrictor

- Uses: Toothache/Earache , Female Tonics, Stress , Depression , Anxiety/Panic , Abscess/Boil- Side Effects: Chamomile is one of the safest herbs but some animals

(and people) are allergic to this and any member of the ragweed family - DOSE : free dose - Part used : Flowers

- Name : Ephedra - Family : Ephedra sinica Stapf (Ephedraceae) - Constituents: Alkaloids , Volatile oil , Other constituents Tannins (catechin, Gallic acid), ephedrans (glycans) and acids (citric, malic, oxalic). Flavonoids A flavonoflavonol (ephedrannin A) - Properties: stimulating the central nervous system (CNS), sympathomimetic agents - Uses : immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, CNS stimulatory and antimicrobial effects, smooth muscle relaxant, cardiovascular, - Side Effects: tachycardia, anxiety, restlessness and insomnia. - DOSE : 1530 mg alkaloids (maximum daily dose 300 mg), calculated as ephedrine

- Part used : Aerial parts

- Name : Ginkgo

- Family : Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) - Constituents: Amino acids Cyanogenetic glycosides Ginkgolic acids, Alkaloids Ginkgotoxin (4-O-methylpyridoxine), Proanthocyanidins, Flavonoids Dimeric flavones - Properties : Effects on behaviour, learning and memory, Cardiovascular and haemorheological activities , Antioxidant activity .

- Side Effects: fatigue , fever , sweating increased , flushing , visionAbnormal , hypertension - Part used : Leaf

- DOSE : 120160 mg dry

- Name :Bloodroot (Sanguinaria Canadensis).

- Family : Sanguinaria Canadensis- Constituents: Alkaloids Isoquinoline type,

Sanguinarine , Resin, starch, organic acids(citric, malic) , coptisine and homochelidonine.- Properties : antimicrobial activity ,

anti-inflammatory activity . - Uses :expectorant, spasmolytic , antiseptic, cardioactive , asthma, laryngitis, pharyngitis. - DOSE :0.060.5 g three times daily . - Part used :Rhizome

- Side Effects: diarrhea, Hepatotoxicity , acute dermal toxicity.

- Name : Evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) - Family : Oenothera biennis

oils ; cis-Linoleic acid , cisgammalinolenic Acid oleic acid , palmitic acid , stearic acid .- Constituents: Fixed

- Properties : anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory and vasodilators properties, sedative and astringent properties - Uses : asthmatic coughs, gastrointestinal disorders, whooping cough and as a sedative painkiller. - Side Effects: Mild gastrointestinal effects, indigestion,

nausea and softening of stools and headache have occasionally occurred.- DOSE :68 g daily (adults); 24 g daily (children);

- Name : Ginger - Family : Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae)

- Constituents: Carbohydrates Starch (major constituent, up to 50%), Lipids , Oleo-resin Gingerol homologues (major, about 33%) , Volatile oils 13%., vitamin A , arginine, aspartic acid, minerals. - Properties : anti-emetic, antithrombotic, antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory Properties. - Uses : prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting of various causes , vertigo and inflammatory conditions . - Side Effects: there is a lack of clinical safety and toxicity data for ginger and further investigation of these aspects is required.- DOSE :170 mg three times daily . - Part used : Rhizome

- Name :Aconitum variegatum - Family : Ranunculaceae - Constituents: Alkaloids, including

aconitine and traces of ephedrine .- Properties :Sedative; relieves pain

- Uses : fever, headache , High blood pressure , Inflammation , Severe stabbing pains

- Side Effects: Blurred vision , diarrhea, nausea , Slow heartbeat , throat closure , Weakness .

- DOSE : 50 mg - Part used : Dried root, collected in the autumn

- Name : Life root

- Family : Senecio aureus L. (Asteraceae/Compositae)- Constituents: The volatile oil composition , Pyrrolizidine alkaloids .- Properties : uterine tonic, diuretic

and mild expectorant properties.

- Uses :not used as a food , treatment of functional amenorrhea, menopausal neurosis and leucorrhoea . - Side Effects: Life root contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The toxicity, primarily hepatic,- DOSE : 14 g as an infusion three times daily. - Part used : Herb

- Name : Ginseng, Panax - Family : Panax quinquefolius L.

- Constituents: Terpenoids , vitamins (B1, B2, B12, panthotenic acid, biotin), fats, minerals , Volatile oil . - Properties : Corticosteroid-like activity , Hypoglycemic activity , Cardiovascular activity , Antiviral activity . - Uses : for neurasthenia, neuralgia, insomnia, hypotonia, and specifically for depressive states associated with sexual inadequacy - Side Effects: diarrhea, hypertension, nervousness, skin eruptions and sleeplessness; other symptoms occasionally observed included amenorrhea, decreased appetite, depression, euphoria, hypotension and edema. - DOSE : 0.40.8 g root daily. Doses may be taken continuously. - Part used : Root.

- Name : Golden seal (Hydrastis canadensis). - Family : Hydrastis canadensis - Const