henry viii pages of (1491-1547) private life
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DESCRIPTIONHenry VIII Pages of (1491-1547) private life. Henry VII (1485-1509). Arthur (d. 1502). Henry VIII (1509-1547). Margaret (d. 1541). Mary (d. 1533). James V King of Scotland (d. 1542). Bloody Mary (1553-1558). Frances (d. 1559). Elizabeth I (1558-1603). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Henry VIII Pages of (1491-1547) private life
The dynasty of Tudors
Henry VII married Elizabeth of York, a member of Richard Ill's family, because he needed to protect himself from those who had the power to overthrow him.
The end of the Wars of the Roses and the marriage of Henry Tudor with Princess Elizabeth, heiress of the House of York (1485) were the events that symbolized the end of the Middle Ages in Britain.
On 14 November 1501, Arthur, who was just fifteen, married Catherine at St Paul's Cathedral in London.
Henry VIII was born in Greenwich, in 1491. He was a second son of Henry VII Tudor and Elizabeth of York.
In 1509 Henry VII died. His son Henry now became king of England and the English people appeared to be happy that they had a new king.
Henry relied heavily on Thomas Wolsey, an Ipswich butcher's son, who became Lord Chancellor in 1515, and other government ministers to run the country.
Wolsey became one of the most powerful ministers in British history (symbolised by his building of Hampton Court Palace).
Unsuccessful Anglo-Spanish campaigns against France, ending in peace with France in 1520, when he spent huge sums on displays and tournaments at the Field of the Cloth of Gold.
Henry also invested in the navy, and increased its size from 5 to 53 ships (including the Mary Rose, the remains of which lie in the Portsmouth Naval Museum).
In May 1529, Wolsey failed to gain the Pope's agreement to resolve Henry's case in England. All the efforts of Henry and his advisers came to nothing; Wolsey was dismissed and arrested, but died before he could be brought to trial.
Wolsey's eventual successor Thomas Cromwell (Henry's chief adviser from 1532 onwards) turned to Parliament, using its powers and anti-clerical attitude to decide the issue. But he was subjected to a bill of attainder and executed for treason and heresy on Tower Hill on 28 July 1540.
The result was a series of Acts cutting back papal power and influence in England and bringing about the English Reformation.
Sir Thomas More, who replaced Wolsey as Lord Chancellor, was executed for treason in 1535. Also Bishop Fisher was executed for the same reason.
The effect of the English Protestant Reformation was the Dissolution of Monasteries.
Henry's obesity hastened his death at the age of 55, which occurred on 28 January 1547 in thePalace of Whitehall, on what would have been his father's 90th birthday.
Private life of Henry
Catherine of AragonIn 1501, Catharine marriage to Arthur. After his death, in 1509 Henry VIII married Catharine and they lived together happily for about 24 years. Catharine was banished from court and died on 7 January 1536, broken-hearted but still defiant.
Although Catherine was pregnant many times, only one of her children, Princess Mary, survived. (Known as Bloody Mary)
Anne BoleynHenry tried to make Anne his mistress. She refused and demanded that the king marry her. They wed in 1533. But she was unable to give Henry the son. So she was executed on patently false charges of witchcraft, incest and adultery on 19 May 1536.
Anne Boleyn, however, produced another daughter, Princess Elizabeth, who was the most famous queen in England.
Jane SeymourJane was Henrys favorite wife. In 1537 Jane, finally bore Henry a son, who was later became Edward VI. But soon after that she died in childbed.
Anne of ClevesHenry infamously referred to his bride as a 'Flanders mare' and told courtiers and ambassadors that he could not perform his husbandly duties because of Anne's appearance.
Catherine HowardCatherine Howard was a cousin of Henry VIII's ill-fated second queen, Anne Boleyn. Unlike Anne, Catherine had betrayed the king. She was beheaded on 13 February 1542, only nineteen or twenty years old.
Katherine ParrKatharine Parr was already twice-widowed and childless when they wed in 1543; she was also in love with Thomas Seymour, the brother of Henry's third queen Jane. She was the most intellectual of Henry's wives.
Henry died in London on 28 January 1547. He made sure that his son, Edward, was a great king and hisreignwill bethe "GoldenAge" ofEngland. But Edward died of tuberculosis in 1553 aged 15.
Results of his rule are:Got rid of the Catholic Church in England and made himself the head of a new Church;Built the first modern navy;Henry's reformation had produced dangerous Protestant-Roman Catholic differences in the kingdom;The monasteries' wealth had been spent on wars and had also built up the economic strength of the aristocracy; All in all he had six wives and left three children: Mary by Catherine of Aragon, Elizabeth by Anne Boleyn and Edward by Jane Seymour.
The Tudors The Stuarts
Links1. Birkin K., "Henry VIII. English King", 2008;2. Gregory F., "The Other Boleyn Girl", 2001;3. Gregory F., "The Constant Princess", 2005;4. Gregory F., "The Boleyn Inheritance", 2006;5. Muehlbach F., "Sixth wife of King Henry VIII", 2008;6. Muehlbach L., "Henry VIII and his mistress", 2007;7. Ryzhov K., "All the monarchs of the world" - Moscow, Veche, 1999;8. Ryzhov K., "All the monarchs of the world. Western Europe" - Moscow, Veche, 1999;9. Shakespeare W., "Henry VIII", 2005;10. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VIII_of_England;11. http://brims.co.uk/tudors/wives.htm.