helping struggling readers a multi-sensory instructional model for students
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- Helping Struggling Readers A Multi-Sensory Instructional Model for Students
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- Reading A Complex Task Reading is the most complex neurological task a person undertakes in his lifetime. That human beings are able to read at all is a miracle. Yet, most of us are able to do it so effortlessly that we fail to realize how difficult it is. Dr. R.M.N. Crosby, MD Pediatric Neurologist and Neurosurgeon Author of Reading and the Dyslexic Child
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- Learning to Read About 70% of students will learn to read implicitly, but will still require direct instruction to read their maximum potential. 30 % of students require direct instruction with review and practice in order to be able to encode and decode words. Students who understand that words can be segmented into sounds become better readers. ALL students benefit from this direct instruction.
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- What is Phonemic Awareness ? An understanding that a single-syllable word such as cat can be segmented into individual phonemes/sounds Example: / k-a-t/. An understanding that individual segments of sound can be combined to form words Example:/br-a-k/ for brake
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- What is the Orton Gillingham Reading Instruction Model Designed by Sam Orton, a physician and pathologist and Anna Gillingham, a psychologist. Research based instructional plan Organized method of teaching the the English language through the 44 phoneme (sounds) as well as the blends, diphthongs, r-controlled vowels, and morphemes (prefixes and suffixes)
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- Systematic instruction from simple to more complex Presents skills with a multi-sensory method that engages visual, auditory and kinesthetic learners The Foundation of the Orton Gillingham Method
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- How is an Orton Gillingham lesson different? The lesson introduction begins with aThree- Part Drill which reviews all phonemic concepts that have been taught to this point. New skills are taught using multi-sensory approach Words that cannot be decoded are called Red Words and are taught in a separate segment. Comprehension skills are taught using readers that support the phonemic skills to build fluency and understanding.
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- How are new skills/phonemes introduced? Decodable words are called green words Students are introduced to a phoneme through the use of a key word or object. Example: Show an egg for /e/ sound. Students give initial sound they hear when saying name of object or word. Tongue twisters or alliteration sentences are used to emphasize phoneme.
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- The Three Part Drill The students review all sounds taught with visual clues for sounds. Kinesthetic learners benefit from use of sand trays. Blending is practiced using tapping.
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- Blending Board Used to practice sounds and blending
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- Teaching a New Phoneme Jaw and mouth placement for sound is taught. Multi-sensory object is used to introduce sound. House paper is used to teach letter formation. Screens are placed under paper to add tactile element. Dictation of words and/or sentences using pounding and finger tapping.
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- Letter Formation Paper Letter formation is taught using the clue words, attic, house, basement. p is a basement letter c is a house letter d is an attic letter Visual clues such as drum and drum stick help eliminate letter reversals
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- Dictation Paper
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- Red Words or Sight Words About 15% of the words in the English language are non-phonetic and cannot be decoded. Words are reviewed Kinesthetic/tactile division of words into parts. Words are written in red crayon Sentence dictation using words
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- Spelling Skill Assessment Focus is on skill mastery not letter memorization Often students study for weekly spelling test but do not retain or apply the knowledge in context. Spelling words are chosen based on the phonemes that have been taught. Emphasis is on the student being able to recognize the phoneme in different words and word positions.
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- Example of a spelling test If students know c, o, a, d, g, m, and l, they can spell any of the following words: cod cad dad gag cog cag am log lag mad mod cam lam lad
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- What Can Be Done at Home Talk to your child about his/her school day. Read with your child Use tapping to help decode words. Use methods that require hearing, seeing, and doing. The greater the experiences a child has, the more accomplished the student he/she becomes. Spend time going to places. Even a walk in the evening can be a learning experience. Visit the library. Expand your childs world.
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