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  1. 1. Hellenism and ROME J. Gaarder and M. Curtis Prepared by Raizza P. Corpuz
  2. 2. Reflective Analysis: crosswise (paper) Answer the following questions, to ponder: Philosophy of life and tolerance: 1. Make a list of things we can know. Then make a list of things we can only believe. 2. Indicate some of the factors contributing to a persons philosophy of life. 3. What is meant by conscience? Do you think conscience is the same for everyone? 4. What is meant by priority of values?
  3. 3. Conscience is peoples ability to respond to right and wrong everyone is endowed with this ability, conscience is innate Socrates would have said the same. Conscience dictates can vary a lot from one person to the next.
  4. 4. Philosophy is a more important subject than English Grammar. It would therefore be a sensible priority of values to have Philosophy on the timetable and cut down a bit on English lessons ---Sophies World 106
  5. 5. Hellenism Athenian pride was humbled by defeat at Chaeronea at the hands of Greece paid the penalty for its failure to unite, and became part of the Macedonian Empire. Greece became part Philip of expanding Rome Greek influence remained strong and the empire tried to Hellenize itself through Greek books and teachers. The possibility of a universal law emerged. the welfare of the individual was no longer inextricably bound up with that of his city.
  6. 6. Hellenism This is a period, too, in which the concept of divine right, of semi-divine kings, emerges from the influence of Eastern despotic tradition the welfare of the individual was no longer inextricably bound up with that of his city. Two leading philosophies developed in this period were Epicureanism and Stoicism.
  7. 7. Historical Overview Aristotle died in the year 322 B.C. Alexander the Great was the King of Macedonia. It was Alexander who won the final, decisive victory over the Persians. This marked the beginning of a new epoch in the history of mankind. A civilization sprang up in which Greek culture and the Greek language played a leading role. This period, which lasted for about 300 years, is known as Hellenism.
  8. 8. Greek-dominated culture that prevailed in the three Hellenistic kingdoms of Macedonia, Syria, and Egypt. Before the Romans managed to conquer the Hellenistic world, Rome itself was a province of Greek culture. So Greek culture and Greek philosophy came to play an important role long after the political influence of the Greeks was a thing of the past.
  9. 9. Religion, Philosophy and Science The borders between the various countries and cultures became erased. New religious formations arose that could draw on the gods and the beliefs of many of the old nations.: This is called syncretism or the fusion of creeds. Late Antiquity was generally characterized by religious doubts, cultural dissolution, and pessimism. It was said that the world has grown old. Immortality of the soul and eternal life. Insight into the true nature of the universe could be just as important for the salvation of the soul as religious rituals.
  10. 10. Problems raised by Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. Common to them all was their desire to discover how mankind should best live and die. They were concerned with ethics. In the new civilization (Hellenism) this became the central philosophical project. The main emphasis was on finding out what true happiness was and how it could be achieved.
  11. 11. The Cynics: true happiness is not found in external advantages such as material luxury, political power, or good health Founded by Antisthenes in Athens in 400 BC, a pupil of Socrates Interested in his FRUGALITY Cynics (distrust of others motives (live in virtue in agreement with nature) self control and independence And because happiness does not consist in benefits of this kind, it is within everyones reach. Moreover, having once been attained, it can never be lost Diogenes a pupil of Antisthenes owned nothing but a cloak, a stick and a bread bag - He had everything he desired
  12. 12. Cynical and Cynicism The Cynics believed that people did not need to be concerned about their own health, even suffering and death Or even tormented by concern for other peoples woes (miseries) Cynical and Cynicism have come to mean a sneering (arrogant) disbelief in human sincerity, and they imply insensitivity to other peoples suffering.
  13. 13. The most useful learning is unlearning what is not true An investigation of the meaning of words is the beginning of an education As iron is eaten by rust, so too are those who envy eaten up by their passion
  14. 14. The STOICS: individual as a central focus, all external event were unimportant Founder: Zeno from Cyprus and joined the Cynics in Athens Stoic comes from the Greek word stoa for portico ENTRANCE, DOORWAY Stoics, believed that everyone was a part of the same common sense or logos They thought that each person was like a world in miniature, or microcosmos, which is a reflection of the macrocosmos. There exists a universal rightness, the so-called natural law. This natural law was based on timeless human and universal reason, it did not alter with time and place. The Stoics sided with Socrates against the Sophists.
  15. 15. Natural law governed all mankind, the legal statutes of the various states merely as incomplete imitations of the law embedded in nature itself. Stoics erased the difference between the individual and the universe, they also denied any conflict between spirit and matter. MONISM: There is only one nature, they averred (affirmed). Stoics were distinctly cosmopolitan in that they were more receptive to contemporary culture. They drew attention to human fellowship, they were preoccupied with politics.
  16. 16. Marcus Aurelius (one of the 2 Roman Stoics) Roman Emperor were active statesmen Not concerned with political or social reform Humanism, a view of life that has the individual as its central focus. Tranquility- good ordering of the mind one thing can only conduct a man, PHILOSOPHY
  17. 17. The Stoics believed that Man must therefore learn to accept his destiny, Nothing happens accidentally. Everything happens through necessity The Stoics, emphasized that all natural processes, such as sickness and death, follow the unbreakable laws of nature. One must also accept the happy events of life unperturbed, they thought. All external events were unimportant.
  18. 18. Stoic grants the highest importance of self-preservation, by believing that virtue and wisdom are the necessarily abilities to achieve satisfaction
  19. 19. Cynics and Stoics: man had to free himself from material luxuries Epicureans: the highest good is pleasure the greatest evil is pain
  20. 20. The Epicureans: to attains the highest possible sensory enjoyment Aristippus, Socrates student he believed that the aim of life : was to attain the highest possible sensory enjoyment. The highest good is pleasure, he said, the greatest evil is pain. So he wished to develop a way of life whose aim was to avoid pain in all forms.
  21. 21. Epicurus, ( 300 BC) Follower called Epicureans (garden philosophers) o believed that pleasure is the higher good Epicurus, founded a school developed the pleasure ethic of Aristippus and combined it with the atom theory of Democritus. emphasized that the pleasurable results of an action must always be weighed against its possible side effects. believed that a pleasurable result in the short term must be weighed against the possibility of a greater more lasting or more intense pleasure in the long term. We have the ability to make a pleasurable calculation. Pleasure does not necessarily mean sensual pleasure.
  22. 22. The enjoyment of life required the idea of self control temperance and serenity that desire must be curbed and serenity will help us to endure pain in order to live a good life it is not unimportant to overcome the fear of death. Democritus believed there was no life after death because when we die the soul atoms disperse in all directions. Death does not concern us because as long as we exist death is not here. And when it does come we no longer exists.
  23. 23. Epicurus sum up his liberating philosophy, the four medical herbs 1. The gods are not to be feared 2. Death is nothing to worry about 3. Good is easy to attain 4. The fearful is easy to endure Thus, man should equip himself with his own philosophic medicine containing that four ingredients. Epicureans showed little or no interest in politics in the community. Live in seclusion was the best advise.
  24. 24. EPICUREANS motto was live for the moment. Many Epicureans developed an overemphasis on self- Indulgence The word Epicurean is used in a negative sense nowadays to describe someone who lives only for pleasure.
  25. 25. Limitation of social relationships live unknown Refusal to be involved in family or political affairs, skepticism toward religion, which the Epicureans considered largely superstition. Society was not a natural phenomenon, but rather a deliberate vernation aimed at bringing order out of chaos. Pleasure was augmented by the presence of law, provision for punishment and preservation of order. Opportunity for man to make his own environment that led Marx to choose Epicurus as one of two writers on whom to do his doctoral dissertation.
  26. 26. Man, living through reason, ought to suppress emotions like fear, lust of anxiety, to reach the desired state of apathia, or inner tranquility. Self-control of the individual, it also had far-reaching social implications. Men, possessed reason, law of nature applied to all, a universal society with cosmopolitan citizenship existed. The natural law capable of being understood by man and providing a basis for